The JAK-STAT transcriptional regulator, STAT-5, activates the ATM DNA damage pathway to induce HPV 31 genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation.
ABSTRACT: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) must evade innate immune surveillance to establish persistent infections and to amplify viral genomes upon differentiation. Members of the JAK-STAT family are important regulators of the innate immune response and HPV proteins downregulate expression of STAT-1 to allow for stable maintenance of viral episomes. STAT-5 is another member of this pathway that modulates the inflammatory response and plays an important role in controlling cell cycle progression in response to cytokines and growth factors. Our studies show that HPV E7 activates STAT-5 phosphorylation without altering total protein levels. Inhibition of STAT-5 phosphorylation by the drug pimozide abolishes viral genome amplification and late gene expression in differentiating keratinocytes. In contrast, treatment of undifferentiated cells that stably maintain episomes has no effect on viral replication. Knockdown studies show that the STAT-5? isoform is mainly responsible for this activity and that this is mediated through the ATM DNA damage response. A downstream target of STAT-5, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) contributes to the effects on members of the ATM pathway. Overall, these findings identify an important new regulatory mechanism by which the innate immune regulator, STAT-5, promotes HPV viral replication through activation of the ATM DNA damage response.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect stratified epithelia to establish persistent infections that maintain low-copy-number episomes in infected basal cells. Amplification of viral genomes occurs upon keratinocyte differentiation, followed by virion synthesis. During persistent HPV infections, viral proteins act to evade surveillance by both innate and adaptive immune responses. One of the primary pathways regulating the innate immune response is the JAK/STAT pathway. Our studies indicate that the expression of STAT-1, but not other members of interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF-3) complex such as STAT-2 and IFN regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), is selectively suppressed by HPV proteins at the level of transcription. Both E6 and E7 oncoproteins independently suppress the expression of STAT-1, and mutational analyses indicate that the E6 targeting E6-associated protein (E6AP) is responsible for suppression. The levels of STAT-1 proteins increase upon differentiation of both normal and HPV-positive cells but are still significantly reduced in the latter cells. Transient restoration of STAT-1 levels in HPV-positive cells using recombinant retroviruses significantly impaired viral amplification upon differentiation while long-term increases abrogated maintenance of episomes. Similarly, increased levels of STAT-1 induced by gamma interferon treatment inhibited HPV genome amplification upon differentiation. Overall, our findings demonstrate that suppression of STAT-1 expression by HPV proteins is necessary for genome amplification and maintenance of episomes, suggesting an important role for this activity in viral pathogenesis.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, DNA viruses that cause around 5% of all cancers in humans, including almost all cervical cancer cases and a significant proportion of anogenital and oral cancers. The HPV oncoproteins E5, E6 and E7 manipulate cellular signalling pathways to evade the immune response and promote virus persistence. The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway has emerged as a key mediator in a wide range of important biological signalling pathways, including cell proliferation, cell survival and the immune response. While STAT1 and STAT2 primarily drive immune signalling initiated by interferons, STAT3 and STAT5 have widely been linked to the survival and proliferative potential of a number of cancers. As such, the inhibition of STAT3 and STAT5 may offer a therapeutic benefit in HPV-associated cancers. In this review, we will discuss how HPV manipulates JAK/STAT signalling to evade the immune system and promote cell proliferation, enabling viral persistence and driving cancer development. We also discuss approaches to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway and how these could potentially be used in the treatment of HPV-associated disease.
Project description:Across metazoans, innate immunity is vital in defending organisms against viral infection. In mammals, antiviral innate immunity is orchestrated by interferon signaling, activating the STAT transcription factors downstream of the JAK kinases to induce expression of antiviral effector genes. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks the interferon system, the major antiviral response so far described is RNA interference (RNAi), but whether additional gene expression responses are employed is not known. Here we show that, despite the absence of both interferon and JAK, the C. elegans STAT homolog STA-1 orchestrates antiviral immunity. Intriguingly, mutants lacking STA-1 are less permissive to antiviral infection. Using gene expression analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that, in contrast to the mammalian pathway, STA-1 acts mostly as a transcriptional repressor. Thus, STA-1 might act to suppress a constitutive antiviral response in the absence of infection. Additionally, using a reverse genetic screen, we identify the kinase SID-3 as a new component of the response to infection, which, along with STA-1, participates in the transcriptional regulatory network of the immune response. Our work uncovers novel physiological roles for two factors in viral infection: a SID protein acting independently of RNAi and a STAT protein acting in C. elegans antiviral immunity. Together, these results illustrate the complex evolutionary trajectory displayed by innate immune signaling pathways across metazoan organisms.IMPORTANCE Since innate immunity was discovered, a diversity of pathways has arisen as powerful first-line defense mechanisms to fight viral infection. RNA interference, reported mostly in invertebrates and plants, as well as the mammalian interferon response and JAK/STAT pathway are key in RNA virus innate immunity. We studied infection by the Orsay virus in Caenorhabditis elegans, where RNAi is known to be a potent antiviral defense. We show that, in addition to its RNAi pathway, C. elegans utilizes an alternative STAT pathway to control the levels of viral infection. We identify the transcription factor STA-1 and the kinase SID-3 as two components of this response. Our study defines C. elegans as a new example of the diversity of antiviral strategies.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancers. The infectious HPV life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelia, with viral genome amplification, late gene expression and virion production restricted to suprabasal cells. The E6 and E7 proteins provide an environment conducive to DNA synthesis upon differentiation, but little is known concerning the mechanisms that regulate productive viral genome amplification. Using keratinocytes that stably maintain HPV-31 episomes, and chemical inhibitors, we demonstrate that viral proteins activate the ATM DNA damage response in differentiating cells, as indicated by phosphorylation of CHK2, BRCA1 and NBS1. This activation is necessary for viral genome amplification, as well as for formation of viral replication foci. In contrast, inhibition of ATM kinase activity in undifferentiated keratinocytes had no effect on the stable maintenance of viral genomes. Previous studies have shown that HPVs induce low levels of caspase 3/7 activation upon differentiation and that this is important for cleavage of the E1 replication protein and genome amplification. Our studies demonstrate that caspase cleavage is induced upon differentiation of HPV positive cells through the action of the DNA damage protein kinase CHK2, which may be activated as a result of E7 binding to the ATM kinase. These findings identify a major regulatory mechanism responsible for productive HPV replication in differentiating cells. Our results have potential implications for the development of anti-viral therapies to treat HPV infections.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses infect stratified epithelia and link their productive life cycle to the differentiation state of the host cell. Productive viral replication or amplification is restricted to highly differentiated suprabasal cells and is dependent on the activation of the ATM DNA damage pathway. The ATM pathway has three arms that can act independently of one another. One arm is centered on p53, another on CHK2 and a third on SMC1/NBS1 proteins. A role for CHK2 in HPV genome amplification has been demonstrated but it was unclear what other factors provided important activities. The cohesin protein, SMC1, is necessary for sister chromatid association prior to mitosis. In addition the phosphorylated form of SMC1 plays a critical role together with NBS1 in the ATM DNA damage response. In normal cells, SMC1 becomes phosphorylated in response to radiation, however, in HPV positive cells our studies demonstrate that it is constitutively activated. Furthermore, pSMC1 is found localized in distinct nuclear foci in complexes with ?-H2AX, and CHK2 and bound to HPV DNA. Importantly, knockdown of SMC1 blocks differentiation-dependent genome amplification. pSMC1 forms complexes with the insulator transcription factor CTCF and our studies show that these factors bind to conserved sequence motifs in the L2 late region of HPV 31. Similar motifs are found in most HPV types. Knockdown of CTCF with shRNAs blocks genome amplification and mutation of the CTCF binding motifs in the L2 open reading frame inhibits stable maintenance of viral episomes in undifferentiated cells as well as amplification of genomes upon differentiation. These findings suggest a model in which SMC1 factors are constitutively activated in HPV positive cells and recruited to viral genomes through complex formation with CTCF to facilitate genome amplification. Our findings identify both SMC1 and CTCF as critical regulators of the differentiation-dependent life cycle of high-risk human papillomaviruses.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPV) regulate their differentiation-dependent life cycles by activating a number of cellular pathways, such as the DNA damage response, through control of post-translational protein modification. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a protein deacetylase that modulates the acetylation of a number of cellular substrates, resulting in activation of pathways controlling gene expression and DNA damage repair. Our studies indicate that SIRT1 levels are increased in cells containing episomes of high-risk HPV types through the combined action of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Knockdown of SIRT1 in these cells with shRNAs impairs viral activities including genome maintenance, amplification and late gene transcription, with minimal effects on cellular proliferation ability. Abrogation of amplification was also seen following treatment with the SIRT1 deacetylase inhibitor, EX-527. Importantly, SIRT1 binds multiple regions of the HPV genome in undifferentiated cells, but this association is lost upon of differentiation. SIRT1 regulates the acetylation of Histone H1 (Lys26) and H4 (Lys16) bound to HPV genomes and this may contribute to regulation of viral replication and gene expression. The differentiation-dependent replication of high-risk HPVs requires activation of factors in the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) pathway and SIRT1 regulates the recruitment of both NBS1 and Rad51 to the viral genomes. These observations demonstrate that SIRT1 is a critical regulator of multiple aspects of the high-risk HPV life cycle.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect keratinocytes and induce proliferative lesions. In infected cells, viral gene products alter the activities of cellular proteins, such as Rb and p53, resulting in altered cell cycle response. It is likely that HPV gene products also alter expression of cellular genes. In this study we used microarray analysis to examine the global changes in gene expression induced by high-risk HPV type 31 (HPV31). Among 7,075 known genes and ESTs (expressed sequence tags) tested, we found that 178 were upregulated and 150 were downregulated twofold or more in HPV31 cells compared to normal human keratinocytes. While no specific pattern could be deduced from the list of genes that were upregulated, downregulated genes could be classified to three groups: genes that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, genes that are specifically expressed in keratinocytes, and genes whose expression is increased in response to interferon stimulation. The basal level of expression of several interferon-responsive genes was found to be downregulated in HPV31 cells by both microarray analysis and Northern blot analysis in different HPV31 cell lines. When cells were treated with alpha or gamma interferon, expression of interferon-inducible genes was impaired. At high doses of interferon, the effects were less pronounced. Among the genes repressed by HPV31 was the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat-1), which plays a major role in mediating the interferon response. Suppression of Stat-1 expression may contribute to a suppressed response to interferon as well as immune evasion.
Project description:Wild Chinese horseshoe bats have been proven to be natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. However, the molecular characterization of key proteins in bats still needs to be explored further. In this study, we used cloning and bioinformatics to analyze the sequence of RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-? in the immortalized cell lines from Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus sinicus. Then, we treated different bat cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and splenocytes with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to assess and compare antiviral immune responses between bats and mice. Our results demonstrated that bat RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-? showed close homology with human, mouse, pig and rhesus monkey. RIG-I and STAT-1 were both highly expressed in bat spleen. Furthermore, IFN-? was induced by polyI:C and VSV in both bat and mouse cells. These findings have provided new insight into the potential characteristics of the bat innate immune system against viral infection.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is used by the intrinsic antiviral immune response to restrict viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Despite characterization of the host factors that rely on SUMOylation to exert their antiviral effects, the enzymes that mediate these SUMOylation events remain to be defined. We show that unconjugated SUMO levels are largely maintained throughout infection regardless of the presence of ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, in the absence of ICP0, high-molecular-weight SUMO-conjugated proteins do not accumulate if HSV-1 DNA does not replicate. These data highlight the continued importance for SUMO signaling throughout infection. We show that the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is upregulated during HSV-1 infection and localizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA. PIAS4 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry through SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent mechanisms that are destabilized by ICP0. In contrast, PIAS4 accumulates in replication compartments through SIM-independent mechanisms irrespective of ICP0 expression. Depletion of PIAS4 enhances the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, which is susceptible to restriction by the intrinsic antiviral immune response. The mechanisms of PIAS4-mediated restriction are synergistic with the restriction mechanisms of a characterized intrinsic antiviral factor, promyelocytic leukemia protein, and are antagonized by ICP0. We provide the first evidence that PIAS4 is an intrinsic antiviral factor. This novel role for PIAS4 in intrinsic antiviral immunity contrasts with the known roles of PIAS proteins as suppressors of innate immunity.Posttranslational modifications with small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins regulate multiple aspects of host immunity and viral replication. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of SUMO ligases is predominantly associated with the suppression of innate immune signaling. We now identify a unique and contrasting role for PIAS proteins as positive regulators of the intrinsic antiviral immune response to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. We show that PIAS4 relocalizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA throughout infection. Depletion of PIAS4, either alone or in combination with the intrinsic antiviral factor promyelocytic leukemia protein, significantly impairs the intrinsic antiviral immune response to HSV-1 infection. Our data reveal a novel and dynamic role for PIAS4 in the cellular-mediated restriction of herpesviruses and establish a new functional role for the PIAS family of SUMO ligases in the intrinsic antiviral immune response to DNA virus infection.
Project description:Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) alters the microenvironment of keratinocytes as a mechanism to evade the immune system. A-to-I editing by ADAR1 has been reported to regulate innate immunity in response to viral infections. Here, we evaluated the role of ADAR1 in HPV infection in vitro and in vivo. Innate immune activation was characterized in human keratinocyte cell lines constitutively infected or not with HPV. ADAR1 knockdown induced an innate immune response through enhanced expression of RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) signaling cascade, over-production of type-I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. ADAR1 knockdown enhanced expression of HPV proteins, a process dependent on innate immune function as no A-to-I editing could be identified in HPV transcripts. A genetic association study was performed in a cohort of HPV/HIV infected individuals followed for a median of 6 years (range 0.1-24). We identified the low frequency haplotype AACCAT significantly associated with recurrent HPV dysplasia, suggesting a role of ADAR1 in the outcome of HPV infection in HIV+ individuals. In summary, our results suggest that ADAR1-mediated innate immune activation may influence HPV disease outcome, therefore indicating that modification of innate immune effectors regulated by ADAR1 could be a therapeutic strategy against HPV infection.