Murine adipose tissue-derived stromal cell apoptosis and susceptibility to oxidative stress in vitro are regulated by genetic background.
ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are of interest for regenerative medicine as they are isolated easily and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Studies of their in vitro proliferation, survival, and differentiation are common; however, genetic effects on these phenotypes remain unknown. To test if these phenotypes are genetically regulated, ADSCs were isolated from three genetically diverse inbred mouse strains--C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (BALB), and DBA/2J (D2)--in which genetic regulation of hematopoietic stem function is well known. ADSCs from all three strains differentiated into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. ADSCs from BALB grew least well in vitro, probably due to apoptotic cell death after several days in culture. BALB ADSCs were also the most susceptible to the free radical inducers menadione and H2O2. ADSCs from the three possible F1 hybrids were employed to further define genetic regulation of ADSC phenotypes. D2, but not B6, alleles stimulated ADSC expansion in BALB cells. In contrast, B6, but not D2, alleles rescued BALB H2O2 resistance. We conclude that low oxidative stress resistance does not limit BALB ADSC growth in vitro, as these phenotypes are genetically regulated independently. In addition, ADSCs from these strains are an appropriate model system to investigate genetic regulation of ADSC apoptosis and stress resistance in future studies. Such investigations are essential to optimize cell expansion and differentiation and thus, potential for regenerative medicine.
Project description:Background:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) (ADSC-EVs) improve flap survival after ischemia–reperfusion injury. Exposure of parent ADSCs to oxidative stress has been shown to enhance this effect, but mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to determine whether angiogenesis-promoting protein and microRNA (miRNA) content is altered in EVs after preconditioning with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ADSC-EVs) and whether H2O2 ADSC-EVs can increase viability of random pattern skin flaps.Methods:EVs secreted by human ADSCs were isolated after culture in EV-depleted medium ± H2O2. Nanoparticle tracking analysis determined size and concentration of purified EVs. Mass spectrometry and small RNA next-generation sequencing were performed to compare proteomic and miRNA profiles. ADSC-EVs, H2O2 ADSC-EVs, or vehicle were injected into random pattern skin flaps of BALB/c mice (4–5 mice per group). Viable and necrotic areas were measured on day 7, and tissues underwent histologic analysis.Results:Angiogenic and antimicrobial protein content of EVs was altered with H2O2 preconditioning. Functional enrichment analysis identified constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (known to direct vascular endothelial growth factor production) as the major enriched Gene Ontology term unique to H2O2 ADSC-EVs. Two miRNAs were increased, and 12 (including 10 antiangiogenic miRNAs) were reduced in H2O2 ADSC-EVs. Enhanced viability (P < 0.05) of flaps treated with H2O2 ADSC-EVs compared with vehicle corresponded to increased capillary density in the H2O2 group (P < 0.001).Conclusion:Altered protein and miRNA content in ADSC-EVs after H2O2 pretreatment likely contributes to enhanced therapeutic effects on flap survival observed in preclinical models.
Project description:Cutaneous wound is a soft tissue injury that is difficult to heal during aging. It has been demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and its secreted exosomes exert crucial functions in cutaneous wound healing. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSC-Exos) containing MALAT1 in wound healing. ADSCs were isolated from human normal subcutaneous adipose tissues and identified by flow cytometry analysis. Exosomes were extracted from ADSC supernatants and MALAT1 expression was determined using qRT-PCR analysis. HaCaT and HDF cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for simulating the skin lesion model. Subsequently, CCK-8, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell assays were employed to validate the role of ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 in the skin lesion model. Besides, cells were transfected with sh-MALAT1 to verify the protective role of MALAT1 in wound healing. The binding relationship between MALAT1 and miR-124 were measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay. ADSC-Exos promoted cell proliferation, migration, and inhibited cell apoptosis of HaCaT and HDF cells impaired by H2O2. However, the depletion of MALAT1 in ADSC-Exos lose these protective effects on HaCaT and HDF cells. Moreover, miR-124 was identified to be a target of MALAT1. Furthermore, ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 could mediate H2O2-induced wound healing by targeting miR-124 and activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway. ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 play a positive role in cutaneous wound healing possibly via targeting miR-124 through activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which may provide novel insights into the therapeutic target for cutaneous wound healing.
Project description:Autophagy is an important protein quality control mechanism for cells under stress conditions to promote cell survival. Modulation of autophagy on biomaterial substrates is rarely reported. In this study, the autophagy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on chitosan (CS) substrates was examined. Compared to the traditional monolayer culture, ADSCs cultured on CS substrates showed spheroid formation as well as a prolonged upregulation of autophagosomal marker-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II protein expression. In addition, the green fluorescent protein tagged-LC3 (GFP-LC3) expressing ADSCs also revealed more GFP-LC3 puncta on CS substrates. The enhanced autophagy on CS substrates was associated with Ca(2+), while ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a Ca(2+) chelator, repressed the autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ADSC spheroids on CS substrates demonstrated a higher survival rate and autophagy response upon H2O2 treatment. The upstream components of autophagy signal pathway-UNC51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1), autophagy-related protein 13 (Atg13), and autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1 (Ambra1) genes were more highly expressed in ADSC spheroids before and after adding H2O2 than those in the conventional culture. EGTA also decreased the cell viability and autophagy-associated gene expression for ADSC spheroids on CS substrates after H2O2 treatment. Therefore, we suggest that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture on CS may confer ADSCs the ability to increase the autophagic flux in response to stimulations in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
Project description:Determining the neural factors contributing to compulsive behaviors such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) has become a significant focus of current preclinical research. Comparison of phenotypic differences across genetically distinct mouse strains provides one approach to identify molecular and genetic factors contributing to compulsive-like behaviors. Here we examine a rodent assay for punished ethanol self-administration in four widely used inbred strains known to differ on ethanol-related behaviors: C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), 129S1/SvImJ (S1), and BALB/cJ (BALB). Mice were trained in an operant task (FR1) to reliably lever-press for 10% ethanol using a sucrose-fading procedure. Once trained, mice received a punishment session in which lever pressing resulted in alternating ethanol reward and footshock, followed by tests to probe the effects of punishment on ethanol self-administration. Results indicated significant strain differences in training performance and punished attenuation of ethanol self-administration. S1 and BALB showed robust attenuation of ethanol self-administration after punishment, whereas behavior in B6 was attenuated only when the punishment and probe tests were conducted in the same contexts. By contrast, D2 were insensitive to punishment regardless of context, despite receiving more shocks during punishment and exhibiting normal footshock reactivity. Additionally, B6, but not D2, reduced operant self-administration when ethanol was devalued with a bitter tastant. B6 and D2 showed devaluation of sucrose self-administration, and punished suppression of sucrose seeking was context dependent in both the strains. While previous studies have demonstrated avoidance of ethanol in D2, particularly when ethanol is orally available from a bottle, current findings suggest this strain may exhibit heightened compulsive-like self-administration of ethanol, although there are credible alternative explanations for the phenotype of this strain. In sum, these findings offer a foundation for future studies examining the neural and genetic factors underlying AUDs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:Oxidative stress induces cellular damage, which accelerates aging and promotes the development of serious illnesses. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are novel cellular therapeutic tools and have been applied for tissue regeneration. However, ADSCs from aged and diseased individuals may be affected in vivo by the accumulation of free radicals, which can impair their therapeutic efficacy. Substance-P (SP) is a neuropeptide that is known to rescue stem cells from senescence and inflammatory attack, and this study explored the restorative effect of SP on ADSCs under oxidative stress. ADSCs were transiently exposed to H2O2, and then treated with SP. H2O2 treatment decreased ADSC cell viability, proliferation, and cytokine production and this activity was not recovered even after the removal of H2O2. However, the addition of SP increased cell viability and restored paracrine potential, leading to the accelerated repopulation of ADSCs injured by H2O2. Furthermore, SP was capable of activating Akt/GSK-3? signaling, which was found to be downregulated following H2O2 treatment. This might contribute to the restorative effect of SP on injured ADSCs. Collectively, SP can protect ADSCs from oxidant-induced cell damage, possibly by activating Akt/GSK-3? signaling in ADSCs. This study supports the possibility that SP can recover cell activity from oxidative stress-induced dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although it has been preclinically suggested that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy could effectively treat chronic liver diseases, the hepatic engraftment of ADSCs is still extremely low, which severely limits their long-term efficacy for chronic liver diseases. This study was designed to investigate the impact of antioxidant preconditioning on hepatic engraftment efficiency and therapeutic outcomes of ADSC transplantation in liver fibrotic mice. METHODS:Liver fibrosis model was established by using intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the male C57BL/6 mice. Subsequently, the ADSCs with or without antioxidant pretreatment (including melatonin and reduced glutathione (GSH)) were administrated into fibrotic mice via tail vein injection. Afterwards, the ADSC transplantation efficiency was analyzed by ex vivo imaging, and the liver functions were assessed by biochemical analysis and histopathological examination, respectively. Additionally, a typical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury model was applied to mimic the cell oxidative injury to further investigate the protective effects of antioxidant preconditioning on cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis of ADSCs. RESULTS:Our data showed that antioxidant preconditioning could enhance the therapeutic effects of ADSCs on liver function recovery by reducing the level of AST, ALT, and TBIL, as well as the content of hepatic hydroxyproline and fibrotic area in liver tissues. Particularly, we also found that antioxidant preconditioning could enhance hepatic engraftment efficiency of ADSCs in liver fibrosis model through inhibiting oxidative injury. CONCLUSIONS:Antioxidant preconditioning could effectively improve therapeutic effects of ADSC transplantation for liver fibrosis through enhancing intrahepatic engraftment efficiency by reducing oxidative injuries. These findings might provide a practical strategy for enhancing ADSC transplantation and therapeutic efficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. However, long-term in vitro passaging leads to stemness loss and cell senescence of ADSCs, resulting in failure of ADSC-based therapy. METHODS:In this study, ADSCs were treated with low dose of antioxidants (reduced glutathione and melatonin) with anti-aging and stem cell protection properties in the in vitro passaging, and the cell functions including stem cell senescence, cell migration, cell multidirectional differentiation potential, and ROS content were carefully analyzed. RESULTS:We found that GSH and melatonin could maintain ADSC cell functions through reducing cell senescence and promoting cell migration, as well as by preserving stemness and multidirectional differentiation potential, through inhibiting ROS generation during long-term expansion of ADSCs. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that antioxidant treatment could efficiently prevent the dysfunction and preserve cell functions of ADSCs after long-term passaging, providing a practical strategy to facilitate ADSC-based therapy.
Project description:Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro.ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay.Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05).Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs.
Project description:Objectives:Homosapien collagen beta (1-O) galactosyl transferase 2 (COLGALT2) is an important enzyme during collagen glycosylation, yet its biological functions in cancer are incompletely understood. Our previous study revealed that in the osteosarcoma microenvironment, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) demonstrate cancer-promoting effects, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of COLGALT2 in the osteosarcoma-fostering effects of ADSCs. Materials and Methods:In this study, we compared COLGALT2 expression between primary and metastatic osteosarcoma tissues and found that metastatic tissues expressed significantly higher COLGALT2 levels. Then, we isolated and identified exosomes secreted by ADSCs. Additionally, we assessed the roles of ADSC exosomes and COLGALT2 in the osteosarcoma-promoting effects of ADSCs. Results:Our results showed that ADSC exosomes could foster the invasion, migration, and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, together with increasing COLGALT2 expression. COLGALT2 inhibition in MG63 cells suppressed the ADSC exosome-mediated fostering of osteosarcoma cell invasion, migration and proliferation in vitro. Conversely, COLGALT2 overexpression promoted U-2OS cell invasion, migration and proliferation in vitro. Additionally, COLGALT2 inhibition attenuated metastasis and tumor growth, and ADSC exosomes promoted tumor progression, as demonstrated in a nude mouse model of osteosarcoma. Conclusion:According to these data, ADSC exosomes foster osteosarcoma progression by increasing COLGALT2 expression in osteosarcoma cells.