Structural complexity of non-acid glycosphingolipids in human embryonic stem cells grown under feeder-free conditions.
ABSTRACT: Due to their pluripotency and growth capability, there are great expectations for human embryonic stem cells, both as a resource for functional studies of early human development and as a renewable source of cells for use in regenerative medicine and transplantation. However, to bring human embryonic stem cells into clinical applications, their cell surface antigen expression and its chemical structural complexity have to be defined. In the present study, total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were isolated from two human embryonic stem cell lines (SA121 and SA181) originating from leftover in vitro fertilized human embryos, using large amounts of starting material (1 × 10(9) cells/cell line). The total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were characterized by antibody and lectin binding, mass spectrometry, and proton NMR. In addition to the globo-series and type 1 core chain glycosphingolipids previously described in human embryonic stem cells, a number of type 2 core chain glycosphingolipids (neo-lactotetraosylceramide, the H type 2 pentaosylceramide, the Le(x) pentaosylceramide, and the Le(y) hexaosylceramide) were identified as well as the blood group A type 1 hexaosylceramide. Finally, the mono-, di-, and triglycosylceramides were characterized as galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, galabiaosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and lactotriaosylceramide. Thus, the glycan diversity of human embryonic stem cells, including cell surface immune determinants, is more complex than previously appreciated.
Project description:As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Gal?3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen associated with hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and wound infections. Recognition of host cell surface carbohydrates plays a crucial role in adhesion and enables microbes to colonize different host niches. Here the potential glycosphingolipid receptors of A. baumannii were examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. Thereby a selective interaction with two non-acid glycosphingolipids of human and rabbit small intestine was found. The binding-active glycosphingolipids were isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, identified as neolactotetraosylceramide (Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) and lactotetraosylceramide (Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). Further binding assays using reference glycosphingolipids showed that A. baumannii also bound to lactotriaosylceramide (GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) demonstrating that GlcNAc was the basic element recognized. In addition, the bacteria occasionally bound to galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, isoglobotriaosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and gangliotetraosylceramide, in analogy with binding patterns that previously have been described for other bacteria classified as "lactosylceramide-binding". Finally, by isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipids from human skin, the presence of neolactotetraosylceramide was demonstrated in this A. baumannii target tissue.
Project description:Cell surface glycoconjugates are used as markers for undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Here, antibody binding and mass spectrometry characterization of acid glycosphingolipids isolated from a large number (1 × 10(9) cells) of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines allowed identification of several novel acid glycosphingolipids, like the gangliosides sialyl-lactotetraosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide, and the sulfated glycosphingolipids sulfatide, sulf-lactosylceramide, and sulf-globopentaosylceramide. A high cell surface expression of sialyl-lactotetra on hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) was demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy, whereas sulfated glycosphingolipids were only found in intracellular compartments. Immunohistochemistry showed distinct cell surface anti-sialyl-lactotetra staining on all seven hESC lines and three hiPSC lines analyzed, whereas no staining of hESC-derived hepatocyte-like or cardiomyocyte-like cells was obtained. Upon differentiation of hiPSC into hepatocyte-like cells, the sialyl-lactotetra epitope was rapidly down-regulated and not detectable after 14 days. These findings identify sialyl-lactotetra as a promising marker of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori has a number of well-characterized carbohydrate-binding adhesins (BabA, SabA, and LabA) that promote adhesion to the gastric mucosa. In contrast, information on the glycoconjugates present in the human stomach remains unavailable. Here, we used MS and binding of carbohydrate-recognizing ligands to characterize the glycosphingolipids of three human stomachs from individuals with different blood group phenotypes (O(Rh-)P, A(Rh+)P, and A(Rh+)p), focusing on compounds recognized by H. pylori We observed a high degree of structural complexity, and the composition of glycosphingolipids differed among individuals with different blood groups. The type 2 chain was the dominating core chain of the complex glycosphingolipids in the human stomach, in contrast to the complex glycosphingolipids in the human small intestine, which have mainly a type 1 core. H. pylori did not bind to the O(Rh-)P stomach glycosphingolipids, whose major complex glycosphingolipids were neolactotetraosylceramide, the Lex, Lea, and H type 2 pentaosylceramides, and the Ley hexaosylceramide. Several H. pylori-binding compounds were present among the A(Rh+)P and A(Rh+)p stomach glycosphingolipids. Ligands for BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori were the Leb hexaosylceramide, the H type 1 pentaosylceramide, and the A type 1/ALeb heptaosylceramide. Additional H. pylori-binding glycosphingolipids recognized by BabA-deficient strains were lactosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, the x2 pentaosylceramide, and neolactohexaosylceramide. Our characterization of human gastric receptors required for H. pylori adhesion provides a basis for the development of specific compounds that inhibit the binding of this bacterium to the human gastric mucosa.
Project description:Insulin stimulates glucose transport in fat and skeletal muscle cells primarily by inducing the translocation of GLUT4 (glucose transporter isoform 4) to the PM (plasma membrane) from specialized GSVs (GLUT4 storage vesicles). Glycosphingolipids are components of membrane microdomains and are involved in insulin-regulated glucose transport. Cellular glycosphingolipids decrease during adipocyte differentiation and have been suggested to be involved in adipocyte function. In the present study, we investigated the role of glycosphingolipids in regulating GLUT4 translocation. We decreased glycosphingolipids in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors and investigated the effects on GLUT4 translocation using immunocytochemistry, preparation of PM sheets, isolation of GSVs and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) of GLUT4-GFP (green fluorescent protein) in intracellular structures. Glycosphingolipids were located in endosomal vesicles in pre-adipocytes and redistributed to the PM with decreased expression at day 2 after initiation of differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, depletion of glycosphingolipids dramatically accelerated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Although insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) and Akt remained intact in glycosphingolipid-depleted cells, both in vitro budding of GLUT4 vesicles and FRAP of GLUT4-GFP on GSVs were stimulated. Glycosphingolipid depletion also enhanced the insulin-induced translocation of VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), but not the transferrin receptor or cellubrevin, indicating that the effect of glycosphingolipids was specific to VAMP2-positive GSVs. Our results strongly suggest that decreasing glycosphingolipid levels promotes the formation of GSVs and, thus, GLUT4 translocation. These studies provide a mechanistic basis for recent studies showing that inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis improves glycaemic control and enhances insulin sensitivity in animal models of Type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Glycosphingolipid expression differs between human breast cancer stem cells (CSC) and cancer non-stem cells (non-CSC). We performed studies of viability, type of cell death, cancer stem cell percent and glycosphingolipid expression on CSC and non-CSC after treatment of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells with a newly developed thienopyridine anticancer compound (3-amino-N-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-b]quinoline-2-carboxamide, 1). Compound 1 was cytotoxic for both breast cancer cell lines and the majority of cells died by treatment-induced apoptosis. The percent of cancer stem cells and number of formed mammospheres was significantly lower. Glycosphingolipids IV6Neu5Ac-nLc4Cer and GalNAc-GM1b (IV3Neu5Ac-Gg5Cer) not reported previously, were identified in both CSCs and non-CSCs. IV6Neu5Ac-nLc4Cer had increased expression in both CSCs and non-CSCs of both cell lines after the treatment with 1, while GM3 (II3Neu5Ac-LacCer) had increased expression only on both cell subpopulations in MDA-MB-231 cell line. GalNAc-GM1b, Gb4Cer (GalNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Glc?1-1Cer) and GM2 (II3Neu5Ac-GalNAc?1-4Gal?1-4Glc?1-1Cer) were increased only in CSCs of both cell lines while GD3 was decreased in CSC of MDA-MB-231 cell line. Due to its effect in reducing the percentage of cancer stem cells and number of mammospheres, and its influence upon several glycosphingolipid expressions, it can be concluded that compound 1 deserves attention as a potential new drug for triple-negative breast cancer therapy.
Project description:The glycosphingolipids of normal human lymphocytes from individual donors were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, purified T- and B-lymphocytes were examined separately. Lactosylceramide was shown to be the major neutral glycosphingolipid in human lymphocytes, and monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside and paragloboside were all detected in smaller amounts. Analysis of purified B- and T-cell fractions revealed that each of these populations contained a similar qualitative profile for neutral glycosphingolipids, but that quantitatively, B-cells contained several times more of each glycosphingolipid per cell than did T-cells.
Project description:Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway and the formation of neuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic neuroinflammation, another hallmark of the disease, is thought to play an important role in the neurodegenerative process. Glycosphingolipids are a well-defined subclass of lipids that regulate crucial aspects of the brain function and recently emerged as potent regulators of the inflammatory process. Deregulation in glycosphingolipid metabolism has been reported in Parkinson's disease. However, the interrelationship between glycosphingolipids and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease is not well known. This review provides a thorough overview of the links between glycosphingolipid metabolism and immune-mediated mechanisms involved in neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. After a brief presentation of the metabolism and function of glycosphingolipids in the brain, it summarizes the evidences supporting that glycosphingolipids (i.e. glucosylceramides or specific gangliosides) are deregulated in Parkinson's disease. Then, the implications of these deregulations for neuroinflammation, based on data from human inherited lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders and gene-engineered animal studies are outlined. Finally, the key molecular mechanisms by which glycosphingolipids could control neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease are highlighted. These include inflammasome activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered calcium homeostasis, changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of peripheral immune cells or production of autoantibodies.
Project description:For understanding of the biological function of glycoconjugates during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, Xenopus laevis is considered a very useful animal model. We have found that blood-group-active molecules characteristically were distributed in the cell-cell contact region of Xenopus blastula cells. The chemical nature of blood-group-active glycoconjugates, including glycosphingolipids, is little known. T.l.c.-immunostaining using anti-blood-group-antigen antibodies showed that many species of blood group-B-active glycosphingolipids existed in the neutral glycosphingolipid fraction extracted from Xenopus laevis eggs. Among the B-active glycosphingolipids detected, two major components with the fastest mobility on a t.l.c. plate, tentatively termed XN-1 and XN-2, were isolated, and their chemical structures were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunological anlaysis, fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Both XN-1 and XN-2 had an identical pentaoligosaccharide structure, but differed in their ceramide moiety. The chemical structure is: [table: see text]. This is a novel type of pentaglycosylceramide with blood-group B activity, in that it lacks N-acetylhexosamine in its core carbohydrate structure. In this paper, a possible involvement of the blood-group antigen in the cell-adhesion process of Xenopus embryonic cells is discussed.
Project description:Bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces is an important virulence trait of pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to the intestine is mediated by a number of antigenically distinct colonization factors (CFs). One of the most common CFs is CFA/I. This has a fimbrial structure composed of a major repeating subunit, CfaB, and a single tip subunit, CfaE. The potential carbohydrate recognition by CFA/I was investigated by binding CFA/I-fimbriated bacteria and purified CFA/I fimbriae to a large number of variant glycosphingolipids separated on thin-layer chromatograms. For both fimbriated bacteria and purified fimbriae, specific interactions could be identified with a number of nonacid glycosphingolipids. These included glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, neolactotetraosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, the H5 type 2 pentaglycosylceramide, the Lea-5 glycosphingolipid, the Lex-5 glycosphingolipid, and the Ley-6 glycosphingolipid. These glycosphingolipids were also recognized by recombinant E. coli expressing CFA/I in the absence of tip protein CfaE, as well as by purified fimbriae from the same strain. This demonstrates that the glycosphingolipid-binding capacity of CFA/I resides in the major CfaB subunit.