Granuloma cells in chronic inflammation express CD205 (DEC205) antigen and harbor proliferating T lymphocytes: similarity to antigen-presenting cells.
ABSTRACT: Granulomas are classified as immune or foreign body granulomas. Of these, the immune granulomas, a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation, are closely related to cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study is to characterize immune granuloma cells in 33 patients with granulomatous inflammation focusing on the expression of CD205 (DEC205), a cell surface marker of antigen presenting cells, and their spatial relationship to T cells. CD205 was frequently expressed by immune granuloma cells, in contrast to foreign body granuloma cells that lacked CD205 expression. T cells were not only distributed in a lymphocyte collar around the granuloma, but also present among the granuloma cells (termed 'intra-granuloma T cells'). Intra-granuloma T cells stained positive for Ki-67 (median positivity = 9.4%) by double immunostaining for CD3 and Ki-67. This indicated the presence of proliferative stimuli within the granuloma that could activate the intra-granuloma T cells. The labeling index of Ki-67 in intra-granuloma T cells was significantly higher than that of T cells in the lymphocyte collar (P < 0.0001) or T cells in the T cell zone (paracortex) of chronic tonsillitis or reactive lymphadenitis (P = 0.002). These data indicate a close similarity between immune granulomas and antigen presenting cells.
Project description:The hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma, an organized cellular accumulation playing a key role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These structures sequester and contain mycobacterial cells preventing active disease, while long term maintenance of granulomas leads to latent disease. Clear understanding on mechanisms involved in granuloma formation and maintenance is lacking.To monitor granuloma formation and to determine gene expression profiles induced during the granulomatous response to M. tuberculosis (H37Ra).We used a previously characterized in vitro human model. Cellular aggregation was followed daily with microscopy and Wright staining for 5 days. Granulomas were collected at 24 h, RNA extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix human microarrays.Daily microscopic examination revealed gradual formation of granulomas in response to mycobacterial infection. Granulomatous structures persisted for 96 h, and then began to disappear.Microarray analysis identified genes in the innate immune response and antigen presentation pathways activated during the in vitro granulomatous response to live mycobacterial cells, revealing very early changes in gene expression of the human granulomatous response.
Project description:Granulomas are compact structures formed in tissues by the immune system in response to aggressions. The in vitro formation of granulomas using circulating mononuclear cells is an innovative method to easily assess the immune response of patients. Monitoring the efficiency of mononuclear cells from patients to form granulomas in vitro would help improve their therapeutic management. Circulating mononuclear cells from 23 elderly patients with sepsis and 24 elderly controls patients were incubated with Sepharose beads coated with either BCG or Coxiella burnetii extracts. The formation of granulomas was measured over 9 days. Most healthy elderly patients (92%) were able to form granulomas in response to BCG and Coxiella burnetii extracts compared to only 48% of infected elderly patients. Undernutrition was significantly associated with impaired granuloma formation in healthy and infected patients. Granulomas typically comprise epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells, however, these cells were not detected in samples obtained from patients unable to form granulomas. We also found that the impairment of granuloma formation was associated with reduced production of tumor necrosis factor without overproduction of interleukin-10. Finally, all genes specifically modulated in granulomatous cells were down-modulated in patients with defective granuloma formation. TNFSF10 was the only M1 gene markedly upregulated in patients who did not form granulomas. Our study suggest that defective granuloma formation may be a measurement of altered activation of immune cells which can predispose to nosocomial infections in elderly patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The balance between human innate immune system and Candida albicans virulence signaling mechanisms ultimately dictates the outcome of fungal invasiveness and its pathology. To better understand the pathophysiology and to identify fungal virulence-associated factors in the context of persistence in humans, complex models are indispensable. Although fungal virulence factors have been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo using different immune cell subsets and cell lines, it is unclear how C. albicans survives inside complex tissue granulomas.<h4>Methodology/principal finding</h4>We developed an original model of in vitro human granuloma, reproducing the natural granulomatous response to C. albicans. Persistent granulomas were obtained when the ratio of phagocytes to fungi was high. This in vitro fungal granuloma mimics natural granulomas, with infected macrophages surrounded by helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A small proportion of granulomas exhibited C. albicans hyphae. Histological and time-lapse analysis showed that C. albicans blastoconidia were located within the granulomas before hyphae formation. Using staining techniques, fungal load calculations, as well as confocal and scanning electron microscopy, we describe the kinetics of fungal granuloma formation. We provide the first direct evidence that C. albicans are not eliminated by immunocompetent cells inside in vitro human granulomas. In fact, after an initial candicidal period, the remaining yeast proliferate and persist under very complex immune responses.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Using an original in vitro model of human fungal granuloma, we herein present the evidence that C. albicans persist and grow into immunocompetent granulomatous structures. These results will guide us towards a better understanding of fungal invasiveness and, henceforth, will also help in the development of better strategies for its control in human physiological conditions.
Project description:Granulomas are the histopathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), both in latency and active disease. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that specifically target granulomas have not been developed. Our objective is to develop a probe for imaging relevant immune cell populations infiltrating the granuloma. We report the binding specificity of Cyanine 3 (Cy3)-labeled cFLFLFK-PEG12 to human leukocytes and cellular constituents within a human in vitro granuloma model. We also report use of the probe in in vivo studies using a mouse model of lung granulomatous inflammation. We found that the probe preferentially binds human neutrophils and macrophages in human granuloma structures. Inhibition studies showed that peptide binding to human neutrophils is mediated by the receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). Imaging the distribution of intravenously administered cFLFLFK-PEG12-Cy3 in the mouse model revealed probe accumulation within granulomatous inflammatory responses in the lung. Further characterization revealed that the probe preferentially associated with neutrophils and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. As there is no current clinical diagnostic imaging tool that specifically targets granulomas, the use of this probe in the context of latent and active TB may provide a unique advantage over current clinical imaging probes. We anticipate that utilizing a FPR1-targeted radiopharmaceutical analog of cFLFLFK in preclinical imaging studies may greatly contribute to our understanding of granuloma influx patterns and the biological roles and consequences of FPR1-expressing cells in contributing to disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Schistosoma egg-induced liver granuloma is a dynamic inflammatory reaction that results from complex immune responses to the infection. However, the role of B cells in inflammatory granuloma development is not yet fully understood. We report here that B cell function is required for S. japonicum egg-induced granuloma pathology in early infection. Both OBF-1 knockout mice and microMT mice develop severely reduced hepatic granulomas at five weeks post-infection compared to their wild-type counterparts. In contrast, they display no significant difference in granuloma pathology at eight weeks post-infection. Moreover, we find that B cells and antibodies accumulate in the granulomas of wild-type mice early in the infection, indicating a contribution of the B cell response to the granulomatous inflammation. Furthermore, defects in B cell function markedly reduce liver egg burden. These results suggest an important role for B cells in early granuloma pathology. Surprisingly, we found that the S. japonicum infection destroys the structure of the lymphoid follicles. This disruptive effect is correlated with a severely impaired T cell-dependent antibody response upon challenge with ovalbumin. Thus, these findings reveal a novel aspect of the interaction between Schistosoma and the host immune system.
Project description:The European wild boar (WB) (<i>Sus scrofa</i>) population has rapidly expanded over the years, raising public health concerns over the species reservoir of several pathogens, including <i>Mycobacterium microti</i> (<i>Mm</i>), a <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex member. In this study, we aimed to investigate the <i>Mm</i> natural infection in WB in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna Italian regions by statistically evaluating the granulomatous lesions' histological features and <i>Mm</i> microbiological isolation. We analyzed 103 WB retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes (LNs) for <i>Mm</i> identified by <i>gyrB</i> PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and were retrospectively selected and histologically assessed. For each sample, Hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen stained slides were evaluated. Considered histological variables were: the number of granulomas, size and maturational stage of granulomas, granulomas completeness within the section, number of multinucleated giant macrophages (MGMs), and acid-fast (AF) bacilli per granuloma. Furthermore, <i>Mm</i> microbiological results were also considered. <i>Mm</i> microbiological isolation was negatively influenced by granulomas maturation and positively affected by AF bacilli's presence within the section. Granuloma maturation was positively influenced by granuloma size and granuloma incompleteness and negatively affected by the number of granulomas in the section and the number of MGMs within the granuloma. The results indicate that granuloma maturation should ensures an efficient containment of <i>Mm</i> infection in the WB, suggesting that the intra-species transmission of the disease might be an unlikely event.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Granulomas sit at the center of tuberculosis (TB) immunopathogenesis. Progress in biomarkers and treatment specific to the human granuloma environment is hindered by the lack of a relevant and tractable infection model that better accounts for the complexity of the host immune response as well as pathogen counterresponses that subvert host immunity in granulomas. Here we developed and characterized an in vitro granuloma model derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and autologous serum. Importantly, we interrogated this model for its ability to discriminate between host and bacterial determinants in individuals with and without latent TB infection (LTBI). By the use of this model, we provide the first evidence that granuloma formation, bacterial survival, lymphocyte proliferation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid body accumulation are significantly altered in LTBI individuals. Moreover, we show a specific transcriptional signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with survival within human granuloma structures depending on the host immune status. Our report provides fundamentally new information on how the human host immune status and bacterial transcriptional signature may dictate early granuloma formation and outcome and provides evidence for the validity of the granuloma model and its potential applications. IMPORTANCE:In 2012, approximately 1.3 million people died from tuberculosis (TB), the highest rate for any single bacterial pathogen. The long-term control of TB requires a better understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis in appropriate research models. Granulomas represent the characteristic host tissue response to TB, controlling the bacilli while concentrating the immune response to a limited area. However, complete eradication of bacteria does not occur, since M. tuberculosis has its own strategies to adapt and persist. Thus, the M. tuberculosis-containing granuloma represents a unique environment for dictating both the host immune response and the bacterial response. Here we developed and characterized an in vitro granuloma model derived from blood cells of individuals with latent TB infection that more accurately defines the human immune response and metabolic profiles of M. tuberculosis within this uniquely regulated immune environment. This model may also prove beneficial for understanding other granulomatous diseases.
Project description:Lung granulomas are associated with numerous conditions, including inflammatory disorders, exposure to environmental pollutants, and infection. Osteopontin is a chemotactic cytokine produced by macrophages, and is implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, osteopontin is up-regulated in granulomatous disease, and osteopontin null mice exhibit reduced granuloma formation. Animal models currently used to investigate chronic lung granulomatous inflammation bear a pathological resemblance, but lack the chronic nature of human granulomatous disease. Carbon nanoparticles are generated as byproducts of combustion. Interestingly, experimental exposures to carbon nanoparticles induce pulmonary granuloma-like lesions. However, the recruited cellular populations and extracellular matrix gene expression profiles within these lesions have not been explored. Because of the rapid resolution of granulomas in current animal models, the mechanisms responsible for persistence have been elusive. To overcome the limitations of previous models, we investigated whether a model using multiwall carbon nanoparticles would resemble chronic human lung granulomatous inflammation. We hypothesized that pulmonary exposure to multiwall carbon nanoparticles would induce granulomas, elicit a macrophage and T-cell response, and mimic other granulomatous disorders with an up-regulation of osteopontin. This model demonstrates: (1) granulomatous inflammation, with macrophage and T-cell infiltration; (2) resemblance to the chronicity of human granulomas, with persistence up to 90 days; and (3) a marked elevation of osteopontin, metalloproteinases, and cell adhesion molecules in granulomatous foci isolated by laser-capture microdissection and in alveolar macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage. The establishment of such a model provides an important platform for mechanistic studies on the persistence of granuloma.
Project description:Schistosome eggs provoke the formation of granulomas, organized immune aggregates, around them. For the host, the granulomatous response can be both protective and pathological. Granulomas are also postulated to facilitate egg extrusion through the gut lumen, a necessary step for parasite transmission. We used zebrafish larvae to visualize the granulomatous response to Schistosomamansoni eggs and inert egg-sized beads. Mature eggs rapidly recruit macrophages, which form granulomas within days. Beads also induce granulomas rapidly, through a foreign body response. Strikingly, immature eggs do not recruit macrophages, revealing that the eggshell is immunologically inert. Our findings suggest that the eggshell inhibits foreign body granuloma formation long enough for the miracidium to mature. Then parasite antigens secreted through the eggshell trigger granulomas that facilitate egg extrusion into the environment. In support of this model, we find that only mature S. mansoni eggs are shed into the feces of mice and humans.
Project description:The disappearance and reformation of granulomas during tuberculosis has been described using PET/CT/X-ray in both human clinical settings and animal models, but the mechanisms of granuloma reformation during active disease remains unclear. Granulomas can recruit inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs) that can regulate local T-cell responses and can carry bacteria into the lymph nodes, which is crucial for generating systemic T-cell responses against mycobacteria. Here, we report that a subset of mycobacterium-infected iDCs are associated with bacteria-specific T-cells in infected tissue, outside the granuloma, and that this results in the formation of new and/or larger multi-focal lesions. Mycobacterium-infected iDCs express less CCR7 and migrate less efficiently compared to the non-infected iDCs, which may support T-cell capture in granulomatous tissue. Capture may reduce antigen availability in the lymph node, thereby decreasing systemic priming, resulting in a possible regulatory loop between systemic T-cell responses and granuloma reformation. T-cell/infected iDCs clusters outside the granuloma can be detected during the acute and chronic phase of BCG and Mtb infection. Our studies suggest a direct role for inflammatory dendritic cells in the dissemination of granulomatous inflammation.