Nod2-induced autocrine interleukin-1 alters signaling by ERK and p38 to differentially regulate secretion of inflammatory cytokines.
ABSTRACT: Stimulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (Nod)2 and other pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in human monocyte-derived macrophages induces interleukin (IL)-1, which increases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and cytokine secretion. Activation of MAPK by PRR has varied effects on inflammatory cytokine secretion. We investigated whether different levels of autocrine IL-1 mediate these varied effects.Macrophage responses to PRR ligands were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. We overexpressed or reduced MAPK levels (using small inhibitory RNA).Nod2 and other PRR activated signaling via extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 that inhibited inflammatory cytokine production by human monocyte-derived macrophages; autocrine IL-1 production prevented this inhibition. ERK and p38 inhibited inflammatory cytokine production by human macrophages that produce low levels of IL-1 (such as M2, endotoxin-tolerant, and intestinal macrophages); adding exogenous IL-1 caused ERK and p38 to stimulate production of inflammatory cytokines in these cells. In mouse macrophages, which do not produce IL-1 in response to PRR stimulation alone, addition of exogenous IL-1 reversed the ERK-mediated inhibition of IL-12p40. Increasing activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in Nod2-stimulated human monocyte-derived macrophages, in the absence of autocrine IL-1 signaling, caused ERK and p38 to stimulate inflammatory cytokines secretion. Importantly, infection of human intestinal macrophages with pathogens that induce IL-1 production reversed the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by ERK and p38.In response to PRR stimulation of macrophages, the level of MAPK signaling is regulated by autocrine IL-1 and determines whether production of inflammatory cytokines is inhibited or stimulated. This mechanism could account for reported differences in MAPK regulation of inflammatory cytokines and propagate the inflammatory response to pathogens.
Project description:Inflammatory diseases are characterized by dysregulated cytokine production. Altered functions for most risk loci, including the inflammatory bowel disease and leprosy-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) region, are unclear. Regulation of pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR)-induced signaling and cytokines is crucial for immune homeostasis; TNFSF15:death receptor 3 (DR3) contributions to PRR responses have not been described. We found that human macrophages expressed DR3 and that TNFSF15:DR3 interactions were critical for amplifying PRR-initiated MAPK/NF-?B/PI3K signaling and cytokine secretion in macrophages. Mechanisms mediating TNFSF15:DR3 contributions to PRR outcomes included TACE-induced TNFSF15 cleavage to soluble TNFSF15; soluble TNFSF15 then led to TRADD/FADD/MALT-1- and caspase-8-mediated autocrine IL-1 secretion. Notably, TNFSF15 treatment also induced cytokine secretion through a caspase-8-dependent pathway in intestinal myeloid cells. Importantly, rs6478108 A disease risk-carrier macrophages demonstrated increased TNFSF15 expression and PRR-induced signaling and cytokines. Taken together, TNFSF15:DR3 interactions amplify PRR-induced signaling and cytokines, and the rs6478108 TNFSF15 disease-risk polymorphism results in a gain of function.
Project description:Fine-tuning of cytokine-inducing pathways is essential for immune homeostasis. Consistently, a dysregulated increase or decrease in pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-induced signaling and cytokine secretion can lead to inflammatory bowel disease. Multiple gene loci are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but their functional effects are largely unknown. One such region in chromosome 2q12 (rs917997), also associated with other immune-mediated diseases, encompasses IL18RAP. We found that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from rs917997 AA risk carriers secrete significantly less cytokines than G carriers upon stimulation of multiple PRRs, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2). We identified that IL-18 signaling through IL-18RAP was critical in amplifying PRR-induced cytokine secretion in MDMs. IL-18RAP responded to NOD2-initiated early, caspase-1-dependent autocrine IL-18, which dramatically enhanced MAPK, NF-?B, PI3K, and calcium signaling. Reconstituting MAPK activation was sufficient to rescue decreased cytokines in NOD2-stimulated IL-18RAP-deficient MDMs. Relative to GG carriers, MDM from rs917997 AA carriers had decreased expression of cell-surface IL-18RAP protein, as well as of IL-18R1 and IL-1R1, genes also located in the IL18RAP region. Accordingly, these risk-carrier MDMs show diminished PRR-, IL-18-, and IL-1-induced MAPK and NF-?B signaling. Taken together, our results demonstrate clear functional consequences of the rs917997 risk polymorphism; this polymorphism leads to a loss-of-function through decreased IL-18RAP, IL-18R1, and IL-1R1 protein expression, which impairs autocrine IL-18 and IL-1 signaling, thereby leading to decreased cytokine secretion in MDMs upon stimulation of a broad range of PRRs.
Project description:p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) stabilises pro-inflammatory mediator mRNAs by inhibiting AU-rich element (ARE)-mediated decay. We show that in bone-marrow derived murine macrophages tristetraprolin (TTP) is necessary for the p38 MAPK-sensitive decay of several pro-inflammatory mRNAs, including cyclooxygenase-2 and the novel targets interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1alpha. TTP(-/-) macrophages also strongly overexpress IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine that constrains the production of the IL-6 despite its disregulation at the post-transcriptional level. TTP directly controls IL-10 mRNA stability, which is increased and insensitive to inhibition of p38 MAPK in TTP(-/-) macrophages. Furthermore, TTP enhances deadenylation of an IL-10 3'-untranslated region RNA in vitro.
Project description:Elucidating factors regulating Crohn's disease-associated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) responses is critical to understanding the mechanisms of intestinal immune homeostasis. Stimulation of primary monocyte-derived macrophages by muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a component of bacterial peptidoglycan and specific Nod2 ligand, produces cytokines, including IL-1?. We found that IL-1? blockade profoundly inhibits MDP-induced cytokine production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, demonstrating a key role for IL-1? autocrine secretion in Nod2-mediated responses. Importantly, although MAPK activation has previously been attributed directly to Nod2 signaling, we determined that the IL-1? autocrine loop is responsible for the majority of MDP-induced MAPK activation. Because the critical effects of IL-1? autocrine secretion on MAPK activation are observed as early as 10 min after Nod2 stimulation, we hypothesized that secretion of IL-1? from preexisting intracellular pro-IL-1? stores is necessary for optimal MDP-mediated cytokine induction. Consistently, we detected IL-1? secretion within 10 min of MDP treatment. Moreover, caspase-1 inhibition significantly attenuates MDP-mediated early MAPK activation. Importantly, selective JNK/p38 activation is sufficient to rescue the decreased cytokine secretion during Nod2 stimulation in the absence of autocrine IL-1?. Finally, we found that the IL-1? autocrine loop significantly enhances responses by a broad range of pattern recognition receptors. Taken together, MDP stimulation activates Nod2 to process and release preexisting pro-IL-1? stores in a caspase-1-dependent fashion; this secreted IL-1?, in turn, contributes to the majority of MDP-initiated MAPK activation and leads to subsequent cytokine secretion. Our findings clarify mechanisms of IL-1? contributions to Nod2 responses and elucidate the dominant role of IL-1? in MDP-initiated MAPK and cytokine secretion.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated host:microbial interactions and cytokine production. Host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical in regulating these interactions. Multiple genetic loci are associated with IBD, but altered functions for most, including in the rs713875 MTMR3/HORMAD2/LIF/OSM region, are unknown. We identified a previously undefined role for myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) in amplifying PRR-induced cytokine secretion in human macrophages and defined MTMR3-initiated mechanisms contributing to this amplification. MTMR3 decreased PRR-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and autophagy levels, thereby increasing PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, autocrine IL-1? secretion, NF?B signaling, and, ultimately, overall cytokine secretion. This MTMR3-mediated regulation required the N-terminal pleckstrin homology-GRAM domain and Cys413 within the phosphatase domain of MTMR3. In MTMR3-deficient macrophages, reducing the enhanced autophagy or restoring NF?B signaling rescued PRR-induced cytokines. Macrophages from rs713875 CC IBD risk carriers demonstrated increased MTMR3 expression and, in turn, decreased PRR-induced PtdIns3P and autophagy and increased PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, signaling, and cytokine secretion. Thus, the rs713875 IBD risk polymorphism increases MTMR3 expression, which modulates PRR-induced outcomes, ultimately leading to enhanced PRR-induced cytokines.
Project description:IBD is characterised by dysregulated intestinal immune homeostasis and cytokine secretion. In the intestine, properly regulating pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated signalling and cytokines is crucial given the ongoing host-microbial interactions. TPL2 (MAP3K8, COT) contributes to PRR-initiated pathways, yet the mechanisms for TPL2 signalling contributions in primary human myeloid cells are incompletely understood and its role in intestinal myeloid cells is poorly defined. Furthermore, functional consequences for the IBD-risk locus rs1042058 in TPL2 are unknown.We analysed protein, cytokine and RNA expression, and signalling in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) through western blot, ELISA, real-time PCR and flow cytometry.PRR-induced cytokine secretion was increased in MDMs from rs1042058 TPL2 GG risk individuals. TPL2 activation by the Crohn's disease-associated PRR nucleotide-oligomerisation domain (NOD)2 required PKC, and IKK?, IKK? and IKK? signalling. TPL2, in turn, significantly enhanced NOD2-induced ERK, JNK and NF?B signalling. We found that another major mechanism for the TPL2 contribution to NOD2 signalling was through ERK-dependent and JNK-dependent caspase-1 and caspase-8 activation, which in turn, led to early autocrine interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 secretion and amplification of long-term cytokines. Importantly, Salmonella typhimurium-induced cytokines from human intestinal myeloid-derived cells required TPL2 as well as autocrine IL-1? and IL-18. Finally, rs1042058 GG risk carrier MDMs from healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease had increased TPL2 expression and NOD2-initiated TPL2 phosphorylation, ERK, JNK and NF?B activation, and early autocrine IL-1? and IL-18 secretion.Taken together, the rs1042058 GG IBD-risk polymorphism in TPL2 results in a gain-of-function by increasing TPL2 expression and signalling, thereby amplifying PRR-initiated outcomes.
Project description:The p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in inflammation. Targeting p38 MAPK may be a potential strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we show that a novel chromone derivative, DCO-6, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide, IL-1? and IL-6, decreased the levels of iNOS, IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA expression in both RAW264.7 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages, and inhibited LPS-induced activation of p38 MAPK but not of JNK, ERK. Moreover, DCO-6 specifically inhibited TLR4-dependent p38 activation without directly inhibiting its kinase activity. LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was remarkably impaired by DCO-6, which disrupted the formation of the TRAF6-ASK1 complex. Administering DCO-6 significantly protected mice from LPS-induced septic shock in parallel with the inhibition of p38 activation and ROS production. Our results indicate that DCO-6 showed anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of ROS-dependent activation of TRAF6-ASK1-p38 pathway. Blockade of the upstream events required for p38 MAPK action by DCO-6 may provide a new therapeutic option in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Non-typeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection is common in COPD. Corticosteroids can have limited therapeutic effects in COPD patients. NTHi causes corticosteroid insensitive cytokine production from COPD alveolar macrophages. We investigated the mechanisms by which NTHi causes corticosteroid insensitive inflammatory responses, and the effects of NTHi exposure on COPD macrophage polarisation.<h4>Method</h4>Alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls were exposed to NTHi in conjunction with the corticosteroid dexamethasone and/or the p38 MAPK inhibitor BIRB-796. Cytokine release, GR phosphorylation and modulation and macrophage phenotype were analysed.<h4>Results</h4>Dexamethasone significantly inhibited NTHi induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 from COPD macrophages but, CXCL8 was not suppressed. BIRB-796 combined with dexamethasone caused significantly greater inhibition of all cytokines than either drug alone (p?<?0.05 all comparisons). NTHi caused phosphorylation of GR S226 reducing GR nuclear localisation, an effect regulated by p38 MAPK. NTHi altered macrophage polarisation by increasing IL-10 and decreasing CD36, CD206, CD163 and HLA-DR.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NTHi exposure causes p38 MAPK dependent GR phosphorylation associated with decreased GR function in COPD alveolar macrophages. Combining a p38 MAPK inhibitor with corticosteroids can enhance anti-inflammatory effects during NTHi exposure of COPD alveolar macrophages. NTHi causes macrophage polarisation that favours bacterial persistence.
Project description:The p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) participate in cytokine-stimulated inflammatory gene expression in airway smooth muscle cells. The following study was undertaken to determine whether Src tyrosine kinases are signaling intermediaries upstream of cytokine-stimulated MAPK activation and gene expression. Treating human airway myocytes with interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interferon (IFN) ? caused a rapid 1.8-fold increase in Src family tyrosine kinase activity within 1 minute that remained 2.3 to 2.7 fold above basal conditions for 15 minutes. This activity was blocked by addition of 30 ?M PP1, a pyrimidine inhibitor specific for Src family tyrosine kinases, in immune-complex assays to confirm that this stimulus activates Src tyrosine kinase. Addition of PP1 also blocked cytokine-stimulated expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8, while decreasing phosphorylation of ERK, but not p38 MAPK. Since this inflammatory stimulus may activate additional inflammatory signaling pathways downstream of Src, we tested the effects of PP1 on phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). PP1 had no effect on cytokine-stimulated STAT 1 or STAT 3 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinases participate in the regulation of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 expression and that these effects of Src are mediated through activation of ERK MAPK and not p38 MAPK or STAT1/STAT3 phosphorylation.
Project description:Antrodia cinnamomea is an indigenous medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, commonly used for the treatment of cancers and inflammatory disorders. 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4AAQB) is one of the active component isolated from the mycelium of A. cinnamomea. However, whether 4AAQB exhibits anti-inflammatory effect is not clear.The anti-inflammatory activity of 4AAQB was examined by ELISA to measure the pro-inflammatory cytokines production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-simulated RAW264.7 cells, peritoneal macrophages and in mice. The effect of 4AAQB for MAPK kinase molecules phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage including ERK, JNK and p38 were evaluated. The in vivo efficacy of 4AAQB was also demonstrated.In the present study, we found that 4AAQB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects inhibit tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/interleukin-6 (IL-6) releasing and LPS-stimulated phagocytes migration without affect cell growth. In addition, the MAPK kinase molecules phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage including ERK, JNK and p38 was inhibited by 4AAQB. The phosphorylation of NF?B subunit p65 and IkB? were also decreased after 4AAQB treatment. Furthermore, 4AAQB attenuates the cytokine production in LPS-induced and CLP-induced septic mice.These results showed that 4AAQB exhibited anti-inflammatory property both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that 4AAQB may be a therapeutic candidate which used in inflammatory disorders treatment.