FCRL5 exerts binary and compartment-specific influence on innate-like B-cell receptor signaling.
ABSTRACT: Innate-like splenic marginal zone (MZ) and peritoneal cavity B1 B lymphocytes share critical responsibilities in humoral responses but have divergent B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling features. A discrete marker of these subsets with tyrosine-based dual regulatory potential termed "Fc receptor-like 5" (FCRL5) was investigated to explore this discrepancy. Although FCRL5 repressed the robust BCR activity that is characteristic of MZ B cells, it had no influence on antigen receptor stimulation that is blunted in peritoneal cavity-derived B1 B cells. The molecular basis for the receptor's inhibitory function derived from recruitment of the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Surprisingly, mutagenesis of this docking site unearthed coactivation properties for FCRL5 that were orchestrated by independent association of the Lyn Src-family kinase with an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like sequence. FCRL5's unique binary regulation directly correlated with SHP-1 and Lyn activity, which, like BCR function, differed between MZ and B1 B cells. These findings collectively imply a specialized counterregulatory role for FCRL molecules at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity.
Project description:The Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRL5) on B cells has both an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence and two consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic region. To evaluate its signaling potential, we expressed constructs for chimeric molecules composed of the cytoplasmic region of FCRL5 and the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB in a B cell line lacking an endogenous Fc receptor. Coligation of this fusion protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) inhibited BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation, and Erk kinase activation. Our mutational analysis indicated that, whereas tyrosines in both the inhibitory and activation motifs are phosphorylated after ligation, only those in ITIMs influence BCR-mediated signaling. This FCRL5 inhibitory effect was mediated through dual ITIM recruitment of the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, which in turn dephosphorylates the ITAM-based tyrosines in BCR Igalpha/Igbeta heterodimers. An FCRL5 inhibitory effect on BCR signaling was likewise demonstrable for primary B cells. Although its ligand is presently unknown, we conclude that FCRL5 has the functional potential to serve as an inhibitory coreceptor on mature B cells in humans.
Project description:Protein-zero related (PZR) is an immunoglobulin V (IgV)-type immunoreceptor with two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). PZR interacts with Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) via its tyrosine-phosphorylated ITIMs, for which c-Src is a putative kinase. Towards elucidating PZR function in endothelial cells (ECs), the authors cloned PZR from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and characterized it. Mature bovine PZR had 94.8% and 92.7% sequence identity with canine and human proteins, respectively, and the two ITIM sequences were conserved among higher vertebrates. PZR was expressed in many cell types and was localized to cell contacts and intracellular granules in BAECs and mesothelioma (REN) cells. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that PZR, Grb-2-associated binder-1 (Gab1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were three major SHP-2-binding proteins in BAECs. H(2)O(2) enhanced PZR tyrosine phosphorylation and PZR/SHP-2 interaction in ECs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. To see if tyrosine kinases other than Src are also capable of phosphorylating PZR, the authors cotransfected HEK293 cells with PZR and one of several tyrosine kinases and found that c-Src, c-Fyn, c-Lyn, Csk, and c-Abl, but not c-Fes, phosphorylated PZR and increased PZR/SHP-2 interaction. These results suggest that PZR is a cell adhesion protein that may be involved in SHP-2-dependent signaling at interendothelial cell contacts.
Project description:Immunoreceptors can transduce either inhibitory or activatory signals depending on ligand avidity and phosphorylation status, which is modulated by the protein kinases Lyn and Fyn. Here we show that Lyn and Fyn control immune receptor signaling status. SHP-1 tyrosine 536 phosphorylation by Lyn activates the phosphatase promoting inhibitory signaling through the immunoreceptor. By contrast, Fyn-dependent phosphorylation of SHP-1 serine 591 inactivates the phosphatase, enabling activatory immunoreceptor signaling. These SHP-1 signatures are relevant in vivo, as Lyn deficiency exacerbates nephritis and arthritis in mice, whereas Fyn deficiency is protective. Similarly, Fyn-activating signature is detected in patients with lupus nephritis, underlining the importance of this Lyn-Fyn balance. These data show how receptors discriminate negative from positive signals that respectively result in homeostatic or inflammatory conditions.Src-family kinases Fyn and Lyn are signaling components downstream of ITAM-bearing antigen receptors. Here the authors show that by phosphorylating SHP-1 at different residues, Lyn and Fyn can have opposing regulatory effects on ITAM receptors.
Project description:Fc receptor homolog 4 (FcRH4) is a B cell-specific member of the recently identified family of FcRHs whose intracellular domain contains three potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). The signaling potential of this receptor, shown here to be preferentially expressed by memory B cells, was compared with the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb in B cells expressing either WT FcgammaRIIb or chimeric proteins in which the intracellular domain of FcRH4 was fused to the transmembrane and extracellular domains of FcgammaRIIb. Coligation of the FcgammaRIIb/FcRH4 chimeric protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) led to tyrosine phosphorylation of the two membrane-distal tyrosines and profound inhibition of BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, whole cell tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activation. Mutational analysis of the FcRH4 cytoplasmic region indicated that the two membrane-distal ITIMs are essential for this inhibitory potential. Phosphopeptides corresponding to these ITIMs could bind the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, which associated with the WT FcRH4 and with mutants having inhibitory capability. These findings indicate the potential for FcRH4 to abort B cell receptor signaling by recruiting SHP-1 and SHP-2 to its two membrane distal ITIMs.
Project description:B1 and B2 B cells differ in their ability to respond to T-cell-independent (TI) antigens. Here we report that the Src-family kinase (SFK) regulator CD148 has a unique and critical role in the initiation of B1 but not B2 cell antigen receptor signaling. CD148 loss-of-function mice were found to have defective B1 B-cell-mediated antibody responses against the T-cell-independent antigens NP-ficoll and Pneumovax 23 and had impaired selection of the B1 B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire. These deficiencies were associated with a decreased ability of B1 B cells to induce BCR signaling downstream of the SFK Lyn. Notably, Lyn appeared to be selectively regulated by CD148 and loss of this SFK resulted in opposite signaling phenotypes in B1 and B2 B cells. These findings reveal that the function and regulation of Lyn during B1 cell BCR signaling is distinct from other B cell subsets.
Project description:C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) is a major negative regulator of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that play critical roles in immunoreceptor signaling. CSK is brought in contiguity to the plasma membrane-bound SFKs via binding to transmembrane adaptor PAG, also known as CSK-binding protein. The recent finding that PAG can function as a positive regulator of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-mediated mast cell signaling suggested that PAG and CSK have some non-overlapping regulatory functions in mast cell activation. To determine the regulatory roles of CSK in Fc?RI signaling, we derived bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with reduced or enhanced expression of CSK from wild-type (WT) or PAG knockout (KO) mice and analyzed their Fc?RI-mediated activation events. We found that in contrast to PAG-KO cells, antigen-activated BMMCs with CSK knockdown (KD) exhibited significantly higher degranulation, calcium response, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc?RI, SYK, and phospholipase C. Interestingly, Fc?RI-mediated events in BMMCs with PAG-KO were restored upon CSK silencing. BMMCs with CSK-KD/PAG-KO resembled BMMCs with CSK-KD alone. Unexpectedly, cells with CSK-KD showed reduced kinase activity of LYN and decreased phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT5. This was accompanied by impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in antigen-activated cells. In line with this, BMMCs with CSK-KD exhibited enhanced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase SHP-1, which provides a negative feedback loop for regulating phosphorylation of STAT5 and LYN kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that in WT BMMCs SHP-1 forms complexes containing LYN, CSK, and STAT5. Altogether, our data demonstrate that in Fc?RI-activated mast cells CSK is a negative regulator of degranulation and chemotaxis, but a positive regulator of adhesion to fibronectin and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Some of these pathways are not dependent on the presence of PAG.
Project description:BCR signaling regulates the activities and fates of B cells. BCR signaling encompasses two feedback loops emanating from Lyn and Fyn, which are Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Positive feedback arises from SFK-mediated trans phosphorylation of BCR and receptor-bound Lyn and Fyn, which increases the kinase activities of Lyn and Fyn. Negative feedback arises from SFK-mediated cis phosphorylation of the transmembrane adapter protein PAG1, which recruits the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Csk to the plasma membrane, where it acts to decrease the kinase activities of Lyn and Fyn. To study the effects of the positive and negative feedback loops on the dynamical stability of BCR signaling and the relative contributions of Lyn and Fyn to BCR signaling, we consider in this study a rule-based model for early events in BCR signaling that encompasses membrane-proximal interactions of six proteins, as follows: BCR, Lyn, Fyn, Csk, PAG1, and Syk, a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is activated as a result of SFK-mediated phosphorylation of BCR. The model is consistent with known effects of Lyn and Fyn deletions. We find that BCR signaling can generate a single pulse or oscillations of Syk activation depending on the strength of Ag signal and the relative levels of Lyn and Fyn. We also show that bistability can arise in Lyn- or Csk-deficient cells.
Project description:Mast cells are major effectors in high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-dependent allergic reactions. Here we show that phospholipase C (PLC)-?3 is crucial for Fc?RI-mediated mast cell activation. Plcb3(-/-) mice showed blunted Fc?RI-dependent late-phase, but not acute, anaphylactic responses and airway inflammation. Accordingly, Fc?RI stimulation of Plcb3(-/-) mast cells exhibited reduced cytokine production but normal degranulation. Reduced cytokine production in Plcb3(-/-) cells could be accounted for by increased activity of the negative regulatory Src family kinase Lyn and reduced activities of the positive regulatory protein kinases MAPKs. Mechanistically, PLC-?3 constitutively interacts with Fc?RI, Lyn, and SHP-1 (protein phosphatase). SHP-1 probably recognizes its substrates Lyn and MAPKs via the recently described kinase tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, KTIM. Consistent with PLC-?3- and SHP-1-mediated repression of Lyn activity by dephosphorylation at Tyr396, Fc?RI-mediated phenotypes were similar in Plcb3(-/-) and SHP-1 mutant mast cells. Thus, we have defined a PLC-?3- and SHP-1-mediated signaling pathway for Fc?RI-mediated cytokine production.
Project description:Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes.We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity.These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.
Project description:c-Src kinase is a rate-limiting activator of osteoclast (OC) function and Src inhibitors are therefore candidate antiosteoporosis drugs. By affecting alphavbeta3 and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced signaling, c-Src is central to osteoclast activity, but not differentiation. We find Lyn, another member of Src family kinases (SFK) is, in contrast, a negative regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption. The absence of Lyn enhances receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-mediated differentiation of osteoclast precursors without affecting proliferation and survival, while its overexpression decreases osteoclast formation. In further contrast to c-Src, Lyn deficiency does not impact the activity of the mature cell. Reflecting increased osteoclast development in vitro, Lyn-/- mice undergo accelerated osteoclastogenesis and bone loss, in vivo, in response to RANKL. Mechanistically, Lyn forms a complex with receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK), the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, and the adapter protein, Grb2-associated binder 2 (Gab2). Upon RANKL exposure, Gab2 phosphorylation, JNK, and NF-kappaB activation are enhanced in Lyn-/- osteoclasts, all critical events in osteoclast development. We therefore establish that Lyn regulates osteoclast formation and does it in a manner antithetical to that of c-Src. The most pragmatic aspect of our findings is that successful therapeutic inhibition of c-Src, in the context of the osteoclast, will require its stringent targeting.