Hepatitis C virus core protein down-regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1) and inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis through microRNA-345 targeting in human hepatoma cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, but HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs are unknown. The HCV core protein regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression. However, the mechanism of HCV core-associated p21(Waf1/Cip1) regulation remains to be further clarified. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs play an important role in regulating p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in human hepatoma cells. METHODS:Cellular microRNA profiling was investigated in core-overexpressing hepatoma cells using TaqMan low density array. Array data were further confirmed by TaqMan real-time qPCR for single microRNA in core-overexpressing and full-length HCV replicon-expressing cells. The target gene of microRNA was examined by reporter assay. The gene expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was examined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. RESULTS:HCV core protein up- or down-regulated some cellular microRNAs in Huh7 cells. HCV core-induced microRNA-345 suppressed p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression through targeting its 3' untranslated region in human hepatoma cells. Moreover, the core protein inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis through p21(Waf1/Cip1)-targeting microRNA-345 in Huh7 cells. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE:HCV core protein enhances the expression of microRNA-345 which then down-regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression. It is the first time that HCV core protein has ever been shown to suppress p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression through miR-345 targeting.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is well known mechanism that regulates cellular senescence of cancer cells. Here we show that inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) or with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) against DNMT1 and 3b induced the cellular senescence of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and increased p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression. DNMT inhibition changed histone marks into the active forms and decreased the methylation of CpG islands in the p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) promoter regions. Enrichment of EZH2, the key factor that methylates histone H3 lysine 9 and 27 residues, was decreased on the p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) promoter regions. We found that DNMT inhibition decreased expression levels of Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins and increased expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), which target PcG proteins. Decreased CpG island methylation and increased levels of active histone marks at genomic regions encoding miRNAs were observed after 5-AzaC treatment. Taken together, DNMTs have a critical role in regulating the cellular senescence of hUCB-MSCs through controlling not only the DNA methylation status but also active/inactive histone marks at genomic regions of PcG-targeting miRNAs and p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1/WAF1) promoter regions.
Project description:An important mechanism by which the tumor suppressor p53 maintains genomic stability is to induce cell cycle arrest through activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene. We show that the gene encoding the gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor (GKLF, KLF4) is concurrently induced with p21(WAF1/Cip1) during serum deprivation and DNA damage elicited by methyl methanesulfonate. The increases in expression of both Gklf and p21(WAF1/Cip1) due to DNA damage are dependent on p53. Moreover, during the first 30 min of methyl methanesulfonate treatment, the rise in Gklf mRNA level precedes that in p21(WAF1/Cip1), suggesting that GKLF may be involved in the induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1). Indeed, GKLF activates p21(WAF1/Cip1) through a specific Sp1-like cis-element in the p21(WAF1/Cip1) proximal promoter. The same element is also required by p53 to activate the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter, although p53 does not bind to it. Potential mechanisms by which p53 activates the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter include a physical interaction between p53 and GKLF and the transcriptional induction of Gklf by p53. Consequently, the two transactivators cause a synergistic induction of the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter activity. The physiological relevance of GKLF in mediating p53-dependent induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) is demonstrated by the ability of antisense Gklf oligonucleotides to block the production of p21(WAF1/Cip1) in response to p53 activation. These findings suggest that GKLF is an essential mediator of p53 in the transcriptional induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and may be part of a novel pathway by which cellular responses to stress are modulated.
Project description:Tissue injury transiently silences miRNA-dependent posttranscriptional gene silencing in its effort to unleash adult tissue repair. Once the wound is closed, miRNA biogenesis is induced averting neoplasia. In this work, we report that Dicer plays an important role in reestablishing the barrier function of the skin post-wounding via a miRNA-dependent mechanism. MicroRNA expression profiling of skin and wound-edge tissue revealed global upregulation of miRNAs following wound closure at day 14 post-wounding with significant induction of Dicer expression. Barrier function of the skin, as measured by trans-epidermal water loss, was compromised in keratinocyte-specific conditional (K14/Lox-Cre) Dicer-ablated mice because of malformed cornified epithelium lacking loricrin expression. Studies on human keratinocytes recognized that loricrin expression was inversely related to the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1). Compared to healthy epidermis, wound-edge keratinocytes from Dicer-ablated skin epidermis revealed elevated p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression. Adenoviral and pharmacological suppression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in keratinocyte-specific conditional Dicer-ablated mice improved wound healing indicating a role of Dicer in the suppression of p21(Waf1/Cip1). This work upholds p21(Waf1/Cip1) as a druggable target to restore barrier function of skin suffering from loss of Dicer function as would be expected in diabetes and other forms of oxidant insult.
Project description:The xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product DDB2, a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), associates with the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cul4A-DDB1. But the precise role of these interactions in the NER activity of DDB2 is unclear. Several models, including DDB2-mediated ubiquitination of histones in UV-irradiated cells, have been proposed. But those models lack clear genetic evidence. Here we show that DDB2 participates in NER by regulating the cellular levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1). We show that DDB2 enhances nuclear accumulation of DDB1, which binds to a modified form of p53 containing phosphorylation at Ser18 (p53(S18P)) and targets it for degradation in low-dose-UV-irradiated cells. DDB2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), unlike wild-type MEFs, are deficient in the proteolysis of p53(S18P). Accumulation of p53(S18P) in DDB2(-/-) MEFs causes higher expression p21(Waf1/Cip1). We show that the increased expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) is the cause NER deficiency in DDB2(-/-) cells because deletion or knockdown of p21(Waf1/Cip1) reverses their NER-deficient phenotype. p21(Waf1/Cip1) was shown to bind PCNA, which is required for both DNA replication and NER. Moreover, an increased level of p21(Waf1/Cip1) was shown to inhibit NER both in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide genetic evidence linking the regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) to the NER activity of DDB2.
Project description:p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. To investigate the role of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in proliferation of human liver cancer cells, we examined the expression of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), cdk2 and cdk4 expression in two human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells). The effects of p21(WAF1/CIP1) on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cdks were also examined in these cells. HepG2 cells expressed all these proteins with lower level of cdk4. PLC/PRF/5 cells expressed the other proteins except p21(WAF1/CIP1). Transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene inhibited [(3)H]thymidine incorporation of both cells with different extent. Although the transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) did not affect cdk2 and cdk4 expression, it did reduce cdk2 kinase activity by 20%. These results suggest that: (a) p21(WAF1/CIP1) involved in DNA synthesis of human liver cancer cells; (b) p21(WAF1/CIP1) could be a target gene for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:Although the role of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression is well documented in various cell culture studies, its in vivo roles are poorly understood. To gain further insight into the role of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression in vivo, we attempted to visualize the dynamics of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression in living animals. In this study, we established a transgenic mice line (p21-p-luc) expressing the firefly luciferase under the control of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene promoter. In conjunction with a noninvasive bioluminescent imaging technique, p21-p-luc mice enabled us to monitor the endogenous p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression in vivo. By monitoring and quantifying the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression repeatedly in the same mouse throughout its entire lifespan, we were able to unveil the dynamics of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression in the aging process. We also applied this system to chemically induced skin carcinogenesis and found that the levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression rise dramatically in benign skin papillomas, suggesting that p21(Waf1/Cip1) plays a preventative role(s) in skin tumor formation. Surprisingly, moreover, we found that the level of p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression strikingly increased in the hair bulb and oscillated with a 3-week period correlating with hair follicle cycle progression. Notably, this was accompanied by the expression of p63 but not p53. This approach, together with the analysis of p21(Waf1/Cip1) knockout mice, has uncovered a novel role for the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene in hair development. These data illustrate the unique utility of bioluminescence imaging in advancing our understanding of the timing and, hence, likely roles of specific gene expression in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as oncogenes and tumour suppressors to participate in tumour development. However, the roles of miRNAs in chemoresistance of human lung adenocarcinoma (LA) remain largely undefined. METHODS: On the basis of miRNA microarray data, miR-224 was identified as the most upregulated miRNA in cisplatin (DDP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II)-resistant A549 cells compared with parental A549 cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of miR-224 in the formation of DDP-resistant phenotype of LA cells and its possible molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: Here we showed that miR-224 could promote the in vitro and in vivo DDP resistance of LA cells via regulating G1/S cell cycle transition and apoptosis. p21(WAF1/CIP1), a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was identified as the direct and functional target gene of miR-224. Overexpression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) could phenocopy the effect of miR-224 downregulation and silencing of p21(WAF1/CIP1) could partially reverse the effect of miR-224 downregulation on DDP resistance of DDP-resistant LA cells. In addition, miR-224 could affect the G1/S transition of cell cycle and apoptosis in LA cells through the p21(WAF1/CIP1)-pRb pathway and the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway. Furthermore, miR-224 was found to be downregulated in DDP-responding LA tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with p21(WAF1/CIP1). Multivariate analyses indicated that the status of miR-224 might be an independent prognostic factor for predicting the survival of LA patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed novel light on the roles of miR-224/p21(WAF1/CIP1) signalling in the DDP resistance of LA cells, and targeting it will be a potential strategic approach for reversing the DDP resistance in human LAs.
Project description:The role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of apoptosis remains incongruous. Here, we demonstrate that corticosterone protects neurons from apoptosis by a mechanism involving the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1). In primary cortical neurons, corticosterone leads to a dose- and Akt-kinase-dependent upregulation with enhanced phosphorylation and cytoplasmic appearance of p21(Waf1/Cip1) at Thr 145. Exposure of neurons to the neurotoxin ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) results in activation of caspase-3 and a dramatic loss of p21(Waf1/Cip1) preceding apoptosis in neurons. These effects of AF64A are reversed by pretreatment with corticosterone. Corticosterone-mediated upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and neuroprotection are completely abolished by glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as well as inhibitors of PI3- and Akt-kinase. Both germline and somatically induced p21(Waf1/Cip1) deficiency abrogate the neuroprotection by corticosterone, whereas overexpression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) suffices to protect neurons from apoptosis. We identify p21(Waf1/Cip1) as a novel antiapoptotic factor for postmitotic neurons and implicate p21(Waf1/Cip1) as the molecular target of neuroprotection by high-dose glucocorticoids.
Project description:The tumor suppressor, microRNA-34 (miR-34), a transcriptional target of TP53, functions in a positive feedback loop to activate TP53. Although miR-34 can inhibit cancer cells carrying TP53 mutations, this feedback to TP53 may be a prerequisite for full miR-34 function and may restrict its therapeutic application to patients with intact TP53. To investigate the functional relationships between TP53 and miR-34, and that of other TP53-regulated miRNAs including miR-215/192, we have used a panel of isogenic cancer cell lines that differ only with respect to their endogenous TP53 status. miR-34-induced inhibition of cancer cell growth is the same in TP53-positive and TP53-negative cells. In contrast, miR-215/192 functions through TP53. In the absence of TP53, miR-34, but not miR-215/192, is sufficient to induce an upregulation of the cell cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1). We identify histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) as a direct target of miR-34 and demonstrate that repression of HDAC1 leads to an induction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) and mimics the miR-34 cellular phenotype. Depletion of p21(CIP1/WAF1) specifically interferes with the ability of miR-34 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. The data suggest that miR-34 controls a tumor suppressor pathway previously reserved for TP53 and provides an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer patients irrespective of TP53 status.
Project description:Decitabine (DAC) and 5-azacitidine have recently been approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. The pharmacodynamic effects of DAC and 5-azacitidine outside their known activity as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) require further investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DAC on the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a gene with a putative CpG island surrounding its promoter region. Promoter methylation analysis of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in leukemia cells revealed the absence of CpG methylation. However, DAC upregulated p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in a dose-dependent manner (ED(50)=103.34 nM) and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in leukemia cells. Sequential application of DAC followed by different histone deacetylase inhibitors induced expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) synergistically. Upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) paralleled DAC-induced apoptosis (ED(50)=153 nM). Low doses of DAC induced gamma-H2AX expression (ED(50)=16.5 nM) and upregulated p21(WAF1/CIP1) in congenic HCT 116 colon cancer cells in a DNMT-independent and p53-dependent fashion. Inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-alpha or the kinase activity of ATM by either the specific ATM inhibitor KU-5593 or caffeine abrogated p21(WAF1/CIP1) upregulation, indicating that DAC upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) was p53- and ATM-dependent in leukemia cells. In conclusion, DAC upregulates p21(WAF1/CIP1) in DNMT-independent manner via the DNA damage/ATM/p53 axis.