Resveratrol confers protection against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity by modulating myeloperoxidase levels in glial cells.
ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) functions as a key molecular component of the host defense system against diverse pathogens. We have previously reported that increased MPO levels and activity is a distinguishing feature of rotenone-exposed glial cells, and that either overactivation or deficiency of MPO leads to pathological conditions in the brain. Here, we provide that modulation of MPO levels in glia by resveratrol confers protective effects on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. We show that resveratrol significantly reduced MPO levels but did not trigger abnormal nitric oxide (NO) production in microglia and astrocytes. Resveratrol-induced down-regulation of MPO, in the absence of an associated overproduction of NO, markedly attenuated rotenone-triggered inflammatory responses including phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production in primary microglia and astrocytes. In addition, impaired responses of primary mixed glia from Mpo (-/-) mice to rotenone were relieved by treatment with resveratrol. We further show that rotenone-induced neuronal injury, particularly dopaminergic cell death, was attenuated by resveratrol in neuron-glia co-cultures, but not in neurons cultured alone. Similar regulatory effects of resveratrol on MPO levels were observed in microglia treated with MPP(+), another Parkinson's disease-linked neurotoxin, supporting the beneficial effects of resveratrol on the brain. Collectively, our findings provide that resveratrol influences glial responses to rotenone by regulating both MPO and NO, and thus protects against rotenone-induced neuronal injury.
Project description:Rotenone exposure has emerged as an environmental risk factor for inflammation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the harmful effects of rotenone in the brain remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that myeloperoxidase (MPO) may have a potential regulatory role in rotenone-exposed brain-resident immune cells. We show that microglia, unlike neurons, do not undergo death; instead, they exhibit distinctive activated properties under rotenone-exposed conditions. Once activated by rotenone, microglia show increased production of reactive oxygen species, particularly HOCl. Notably, MPO, an HOCl-producing enzyme that is undetectable under normal conditions, is significantly increased after exposure to rotenone. MPO-exposed glial cells also display characteristics of activated cells, producing proinflammatory cytokines and increasing their phagocytic activity. Interestingly, our studies with MPO inhibitors and MPO-knockout mice reveal that MPO deficiency potentiates, rather than inhibits, the rotenone-induced activated state of glia and promotes glial cell death. Furthermore, rotenone-triggered neuronal injury was more apparent in co-cultures with glial cells from Mpo(-/-) mice than in those from wild-type mice. Collectively, our data provide evidence that MPO has dual functionality under rotenone-exposed conditions, playing a critical regulatory role in modulating pathological and protective events in the brain.
Project description:Exposure to pesticides such as rotenone is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic neurons are especially sensitive to the toxicity of compounds that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain such as rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). However, there is scarce information on their effects on glia. To evaluate whether these neurotoxicants affect the immune response of glia, primary mouse mixed glial and microglial cultures were treated with interleukin (IL) 4 in the absence and presence of MPP+?or rotenone. Using qRTPCR or western blot, we determined the expression of anti-inflammatory markers, the CD200R1 microglial receptor and its ligand CD200, and genes regulating glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. ATP and lactate levels were additionally determined as an index of cell metabolism. Microglial phagocytosis was also evaluated. MPP+?and rotenone clearly abrogated the IL4-induced expression of anti-inflammatory markers in mixed glial cultures. CD200 and CD200R1 expression and microglia phagocytosis were also affected by the neurotoxicants. Changes in the mRNA expression of the molecules regulating glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, as well as in ATP levels and lactate release suggested that metabolic reprogramming in response to MPP+?and rotenone differs between microglial and mixed glial cultures. These findings support the hypothesis that parkinsonian neurotoxicants may impair brain immune response altering glial cell metabolism.
Project description:We explored the hypothesis that injured neurons release lipocalin-2 as a help me signal.In vivo lipocalin-2 responses were assessed in rat focal cerebral ischemia and human stroke brain samples using a combination of ELISA and immunostaining. In vitro, microglia and astrocytes were exposed to lipocalin-2, and various markers and assays of glial activation were quantified. Functional relevance of neuron-to-glia lipocalin-2 signaling was examined by transferring conditioned media from lipocalin-2-activated microglia and astrocytes onto neurons to see whether activated glia could protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation and promote neuroplasticity.In human stroke samples and rat cerebral ischemia, neuronal expression of lipocalin-2 was significantly increased. In primary cell cultures, exposing microglia and astrocytes to lipocalin-2 resulted in glial activation. In microglia, lipocalin-2 converted resting ramified shapes into a long-rod morphology with reduced branching, increased interleukin-10 release, and enhanced phagocytosis. In astrocytes, lipocalin-2 upregulated glial fibrillary acid protein, brain-derived neurotropic factor, and thrombospondin-1. Conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated astrocytes upregulated synaptotagmin, and conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated microglia upregulated synaptophysin and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) and protected neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation.These findings provide proof of concept that lipocalin-2 is released by injured neurons as a help me distress signal that activates microglia and astrocytes into potentially prorecovery phenotypes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exposure to increased manganese (Mn) causes inflammation and neuronal injury in the cortex and basal ganglia, resulting in neurological symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms underlying neuronal death from exposure to Mn are not well understood but involve inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes. Expression of neurotoxic inflammatory genes in glia is highly regulated through the NF-?B pathway, but factors modulating neurotoxic glial-glial and glial-neuronal signaling by Mn are not well understood.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the role of NF-?B in Mn-induced neurotoxicity by exposing purified microglia, astrocytes (from wild-type and astrocyte-specific IKK knockout mice), and mixed glial cultures to varying Mn concentrations and then treating neurons with the conditioned media (GCM) of each cell type. We hypothesized that mixed glial cultures exposed to Mn (0-100 ?M) would enhance glial activation and neuronal death compared to microglia, wild-type astrocytes, or IKK-knockout astrocytes alone or in mixed cultures.<h4>Results</h4>Mixed glial cultures treated with 0-100 ?M Mn for 24 h showed the most pronounced effect of increased expression of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), Tnf, Ccl5, Il6, Ccr2, Il1b, and the astrocyte-specific genes, C3 and Ccl2. Gene deletion of IKK2 in astrocytes dramatically reduced cytokine release in Mn-treated mixed glial cultures. Measurement of neuronal viability and apoptosis following exposure to Mn-GCM demonstrated that mixed glial cultures induced greater neuronal death than either cell type alone. Loss of IKK in astrocytes also decreased neuronal death compared to microglia alone, wild-type astrocytes, or mixed glia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This suggests that astrocytes are a critical mediator of Mn neurotoxicity through enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including those most associated with a reactive phenotype such as CCL2 but not C3.
Project description:Neuronal plasticity is regulated by the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in many normal brain functions, as well as in acute response to injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease. In a female rat model of axotomy, the E2-dependent compensatory neuronal sprouting is antagonized by P4. To resolve complex glial-neuronal cell interactions, we used the "wounding-in-a-dish" model of neurons cocultured with astrocytes or mixed glia (microglia to astrocytes, 1:3). Although both astrocytes and mixed glia supported E2-enhanced neurite outgrowth, P4 antagonized E2-induced neurite outgrowth only with mixed glia, but not astrocytes alone. We now show that P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth is mediated by microglial expression of progesterone receptor (Pgr) membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1)/S2R, a putative nonclassical Pgr mediator with multiple functions. The P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth was restored by add-back of microglia to astrocyte-neuron cocultures. Because microglia do not express the classical Pgr, we examined the role of Pgrmc1, which is expressed in microglia in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown by siRNA-Pgrmc1 in microglia before add-back to astrocyte-neuron cocultures suppressed the P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth. Conditioned media from microglia restored the P4-E2 activity, but only if microglia were activated by lipopolysaccharide or by wounding. Moreover, the microglial activation was blocked by Pgmrc1-siRNA knockdown. These findings explain why nonwounded cultures without microglial activation lack P4 antagonism of E2-induced neurite outgrowth. We suggest that microglial activation may influence brain responses to exogenous P4, which is a prospective therapy in traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord. The three major glial cell types are considered in healthy CNS and after spinal cord injury (SCI). Astrocytes, which in the healthy CNS regulate neurotransmitter and neurovascular dynamics, respond to SCI by becoming reactive and forming a glial scar that limits pathology and plasticity. Microglia, which in the healthy CNS scan for infection/damage, respond to SCI by promoting axon growth and remyelination-but also with hyperactivation and cytotoxic effects. Oligodendrocytes and their precursors, which in healthy tissue speed axon conduction and support axonal function, respond to SCI by differentiating and producing myelin, but are susceptible to death. Thus, post-SCI responses of each glial cell can simultaneously stimulate and stifle repair. Interestingly, potential therapies could also target interactions between these cells. Astrocyte-microglia cross-talk creates a feed-forward loop, so shifting the response of either cell could amplify repair. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes/precursors also influence post-SCI cell survival, differentiation, and remyelination, as well as axon sparing. Therefore, optimizing post-SCI responses of glial cells-and interactions between these CNS cells-could benefit neuroprotection, axon plasticity, and functional recovery.
Project description:The role of the interaction between neurons and glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is gaining more attention. Neuroinflammation participates in the progressive nature of diverse neurologic diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Activated microglia release neurotoxic molecules, which take part in the neuroinflammatory responses. Astrocytes are also key players in these responses. Reactive astrocytes secrete inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). This secretion can be regulated by extracellular ATP mediated through P2X7 receptors. However, whether the activity of astrocytic P2X7 receptors changes in Parkinson's disease and whether these changes would influence the secretion of inflammatory factors in astrocytes are still unclear. In our study, through immunocytochemistry, whole-cell patch clamp and ELISA assay, we found that P2X7 receptors were expressed in midbrain astrocytes, and that, rotenone, a Parkinson's disease model used at a low concentration (2-20 nM) for 48 h increased the P2X7 receptor current density and thereby inhibited the secretion of TNF-?. Our research suggests that rotenone can regulate cytokine secretion of astrocytes through elevated P2X7 channel current density and, in turn, take part in the neuroinflammatory process in the rotenone Parkinson's disease model.
Project description:Classical immunohistochemical studies in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain reveal prominent glial reactions, but whether this pathological feature is due primarily to cell proliferation or to a phenotypic change of existing resting cells remains controversial. We performed double-fluorescence immunohistochemical studies of astrocytes and microglia, followed by unbiased stereology-based quantitation in temporal cortex of 40 AD patients and 32 age-matched nondemented subjects. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC2) were used as markers of astrocytic and microglial activation, respectively. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 L1 and glutamine synthetase were used as constitutive astrocytic markers, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1) as a constitutive microglial marker. As expected, AD patients had higher numbers of GFAP(+) astrocytes and MHC2(+) microglia than the nondemented subjects. However, both groups had similar numbers of total astrocytes and microglia and, in the AD group, these total numbers remained essentially constant over the clinical course of the disease. The GFAP immunoreactivity of astrocytes, but not the MHC2 immunoreactivity of microglia, increased in parallel with the duration of the clinical illness in the AD group. Cortical atrophy contributed to the perception of increased glia density. We conclude that a phenotypic change of existing glial cells, rather than a marked proliferation of glial precursors, accounts for the majority of the glial responses observed in the AD brain.
Project description:The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is a widely used target for microglial PET imaging radioligands, but its expression in post-mortem normal and diseased human brain is not well described. We aimed at characterizing the TSPO expression in human control (CTRL) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Specifically, we sought to: (1) define the cell type(s) expressing TSPO; (2) compare tspo mRNA and TSPO levels between AD and CTRL brains; (3) correlate TSPO levels with quantitative neuropathological measures of reactive glia and AD neuropathological changes; and (4) investigate the effects of the TSPO rs6971 SNP on tspo mRNA and TSPO levels, glial responses and AD neuropathological changes. We performed quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot in post-mortem brain samples from CTRL and AD subjects, as well as analysis of publicly available mouse and human brain RNA-Seq datasets. We found that: (1) TSPO is expressed not just in microglia, but also in astrocytes, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells; (2) there is substantial overlap of tspo mRNA and TSPO levels between AD and CTRL subjects and in TSPO levels between temporal neocortex and white matter in both groups; (3) TSPO cortical burden does not correlate with the burden of activated microglia or reactive astrocytes, A? plaques or neurofibrillary tangles, or the cortical thickness; (4) the TSPO rs6971 SNP does not significantly impact tspo mRNA or TSPO levels, the magnitude of glial responses, the cortical thickness, or the burden of AD neuropathological changes. These results could inform ongoing efforts toward the development of reactive glia-specific PET radioligands.
Project description:We previously showed that autophagy is an important component in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and in the combined morphine-induced neuroinflammation in human astrocytes and microglia. Here we further studied the consequences of autophagy using glial cells of mice partially lacking the essential autophagy gene Atg6 (Beclin1) exposed to HIV Tat and morphine. Tat is known to cause an inflammatory response, increase calcium release, and possibly interact with autophagy pathway proteins. Following Tat exposure, autophagy-deficient (Becn1+/-) glial cells had significantly and consistently reduced levels in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the chemokines RANTES and MCP-1 when compared to Tat-treated cells from control (C57BL/6J) mice, suggesting an association between the inflammatory effects of Tat and Beclin1. Further, differences in RANTES and MCP-1 secretion between C57BL/6J and Becn1+/- glia treated with Tat and morphine also suggest a role of Beclin1 in the morphine-induced enhancement. Analysis of autophagy maturation by immunoblot suggests that Beclin1 may be necessary for Tat, and to a lesser extent morphine-induced arrest of the pathway as demonstrated by accumulation of the adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1 in C57BL/6J glia. Calcium release induced by Tat alone or in combination with morphine in C57BL/6J glia was significantly reduced in Becn1+/- glia while minimal interactive effect of Tat with morphine in the production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species was detected in glia derived from Becn1+/- or C57BL/6J. Overall, the data establish a role of Beclin1 in Tat and morphine-mediated inflammatory responses and calcium release in glial cells and support the notion that autophagy mediates Tat alone and combined morphine-induced neuropathology.