A functional genomics screen for microRNA regulators of NF-kappaB signaling.
ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-?B) pathway is conserved from fruit flies to humans and is a key mediator of inflammatory signaling. Aberrant regulation of NF-?B is associated with several disorders including autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, and cancer, making the NF-?B pathway an attractive therapeutic target. Many regulatory components of the NF-?B pathway have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and are common components of signal transduction pathways. Here we present a cell-based functional genomics screen to systematically identify miRNAs that regulate NF-?B signaling.We screened a library of miRNA mimics using a NF-?B reporter cell line in the presence and absence of tumor necrosis factor (+/- TNF). There were 9 and 15 hits in the -TNF and +TNF screens, respectively. We identified putative functional targets of these hits by integrating computational predictions with NF-?B modulators identified in a previous genome-wide cDNA screen. miR-517a and miR-517c were the top hits, activating the reporter 86- and 126-fold, respectively. Consistent with these results, miR-517a/c induced the expression of endogenous NF-?B targets and promoted the nuclear localization of p65 and the degradation of I?B. We identified TNFAIP3 interacting protein1 (TNIP1) as a target and characterized a functional SNP in the miR-517a/c binding site. Lastly, miR-517a/c induced apoptosis in vitro, which was phenocopied by knockdown of TNIP1.Our study suggests that miRNAs are common components of NF-?B signaling and miR-517a/c may play an important role in linking NF-?B signaling with cell survival through TNIP1.
Project description:The placenta is the principal regulator of the in utero environment, and disruptions to this environment can result in adverse offspring health outcomes. To better characterize the impact of in utero perturbations, we assessed the influence of known environmental pollutants on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in placental samples collected from the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard birth cohort. This study analyzed the expression of 654 miRNAs in 110 term placentas. Environmental pollutants measured in these placentas included dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). A moderated t-test was used to identify a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further analyzed using generalized linear models. We observed 112 miRNAs consistently expressed in >70% of the samples. Consistent with the literature, miRNAs located within the imprinted placenta-specific C19MC cluster, specifically mir-517a, mir-517c, mir-522, and mir-23a, are among the top expressed miRNA in our study. We observed a positive association between PBDE 209 and miR-188-5p and an inverse association between PBDE 99 and let-7c. Both PCBs and Cd were positively associated with miR-1537 expression level. In addition, multiple let-7 family members were downregulated with increasing levels of Hg and Pb. We did not observe DDE or BPA levels to be associated with placental miRNA expression. This is the first birth cohort study linking environmental pollutants and placental expression of miRNAs. Our results suggest that placental miRNA profiles may signal in utero exposures to environmental chemicals.
Project description:As a malignant tumour of the central nervous system, glioma exhibits high incidence and poor prognosis. Although TNIP1 and the TNF-?/NF-?B axis play key roles in immune diseases and inflammatory responses, their relationship and role in glioma remain unknown. Here, we revealed high levels of TNIP1 and TNF-?/NF-?B in glioma tissue. Glioma cell proliferation was activated with TNF-? treatment and showed extreme sensitivity to the TNF receptor antagonist. Furthermore, loss of TNIP1 disbanded the A20 complex responsible for I?B degradation and NF-?B nucleus translocation, and consequently erased TNF?-induced glioma cell proliferation. Thus, our investigation uncovered a vital function of the TNIP1-mediated TNF-?/NF-?B axis in glioma cell proliferation and provides novel insight into glioma pathology and diagnosis.
Project description:Background:Melanoma is notoriously resistant to current treatments, and less than 25% of metastatic melanoma cases respond to existing therapies. Growing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the prognosis of melanoma. MiR-517a has been implicated in many types of cancer; however, its expressional features and potential biological functions in melanoma remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of miR-517a on oxidative stress (OS) in melanoma cells. Methods:miR-517a expression in melanoma was determined using RT-qPCR. After treatment with different concentrations of H2O2, cell viability was determined in order to identify the most appropriate H2O2 concentration. Through loss and gain of function experiments, the interactions between miR-517a, the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, as well as their roles in OS of melanoma cells were identified. Moreover, the expression of Cleaved Caspase-3, extent of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, levels of T-AOC, ROS and MDA, and SOD activity were also tested. Finally, melanoma cell viability and apoptosis were detected. Results:MiR-517a was upregulated, while CDKN1C was downregulated in melanoma tissues and cells. MiR-517a targets CDKN1C and consequently reduced its expression. Inhibition of miR-517a was shown to increase Cleaved Caspase-3 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, levels of ROS and MDA, as well as cell apoptosis but decrease extent of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, T-AOC levels, SOD activity, along with cell proliferation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions:Overall, silencing miR-517a results in upregulated CDKN1C expression, and inhibited JNK signaling pathway activation, consequently promoting OS in melanoma cells.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumor that develops via activation of multiple pathways and molecular alterations. It has been a challenge to identify molecular classes of HCC and design treatment strategies for each specific subtype. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in HCC pathogenesis, and their expression profiles have been used to classify cancers. We analyzed miRNA expression in human HCC samples to identify molecular subclasses and oncogenic miRNAs.We performed miRNA profiling of 89 HCC samples using a ligation-mediated amplification method. Subclasses were identified by unsupervised clustering analysis. We identified molecular features specific for each subclass using expression pattern (Affymetrix U133 2.0; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), DNA change (Affymetrix STY Mapping Array), mutation (CTNNB1), and immunohistochemical (phosphor[p]-protein kinase B, p-insulin growth factor-IR, p-S6, p-epidermal growth factor receptor, ?-catenin) analyses. The roles of selected miRNAs were investigated in cell lines and in an orthotopic model of HCC.We identified 3 main clusters of HCCs: the wingless-type MMTV integration site (32 of 89; 36%), interferon-related (29 of 89; 33%), and proliferation (28 of 89; 31%) subclasses. A subset of patients with tumors in the proliferation subclass (8 of 89; 9%) overexpressed a family of poorly characterized miRNAs from chr19q13.42. Expression of miR-517a and miR-520c (from ch19q13.42) increased proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells in vitro. MiR-517a promoted tumorigenesis and metastatic dissemination in vivo.We propose miRNA-based classification of 3 subclasses of HCC. Among the proliferation class, miR-517a is an oncogenic miRNA that promotes tumor progression. There is rationale for developing therapies that target miR-517a for patients with HCC.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is the most common human extracranial solid tumor during infancy. Involvement of several miRNAs in its pathogenesis has been ascertained. Interestingly, most of their encoding genes reside in hypermethylated genomic regions: thus, their tumor suppressor function is normally disallowed in these tumors. To date, the therapeutic role of the demethylating agent 5'-Aza-2 deoxycytidine (5'-AZA) and its effects on miRNAome modulation in neuroblastoma have not been satisfactorily explored. Starting from a high-throughput expression profiling of 754 miRNAs and based on a proper selection, we focused on miR-29a-3p, miR-34b-3p, miR-181c-5p and miR-517a-3p as candidate miRNAs for our analysis. They resulted downregulated in four neuroblastoma cell lines with respect to normal adrenal gland. MiRNAs 29a-3p and 34b-3p also resulted downregulated in vivo in a murine neuroblastoma progression model. Unlike the amount of methylation of their encoding gene promoters, all these miRNAs were significantly overexpressed following treatment with 5'-AZA. Transfection with candidate miRNAs mimics significantly decreased neuroblastoma cells proliferation rate. A lower expression of miR-181c was significantly associated to a worse overall survival in a public dataset of 498 neuroblastoma samples (http://r2.amc.nl). Our data strongly suggest that CDK6, DNMT3A, DNMT3B are targets of miR-29a-3p, while CCNE2 and E2F3 are targets of miR-34b-3p. Based on all these data, we propose that miR-29a-3p, miR-34b-3p, miR-181c-5p and miR-517a-3p are disallowed tumor suppressor genes in neuroblastoma and suggest them as new therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma.
Project description:miRNAs of the largest human miRNA gene cluster at all, i.e., C19MC, are almost exclusively expressed in the placenta. Nevertheless, only little is known about the interindividual variation of their expression and even about possible influence of gestational age, conflicting data is reported as well as for miRNAs of the much smaller miR-371-3 cluster. Our present study aims at the analyses of the expression of miRNAs from both clusters at different times of pregnancy, possible differences between placenta samples obtained from spontaneous or induced abortions in the first trimester, and the possible variation of miRNA expression at different sites within same placentas. miR-371a-3p, miR-372-3p, miR-373-3p, miR-517a-3p, and miR-520c-3p were quantified in 85 samples and miR-371a-3p was quantified in maternal serum samples taken immediately before delivery. While for miRNA-517a-3p and miR-520c-3p the expression increased with increasing gestational age, the present study revealed strong interindividual differences in the expression of miR-371-3 in full-term placental tissue as well as for miRNAs of the C19MC cluster, where the levels differed to a much lesser extent than for the former microRNAs. Also, strong interindividual differences were noted between the serum samples but differences related to the site of the placenta where the sample has been taken from were excluded. For neither of the data from placental tissue, the study revealed differences between the spontaneous and induced abortion group. Thus, the differences do not in general seem to be related to first trimester abortion. It remains to be elucidated whether or not they affect other prenatal processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone to identify patients with ectopic pregnancy (EP) has been shown to have poor clinical utility. Pregnancy-associated circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated complications. This proof-of-concept study examined the diagnostic accuracy of various miRNAs to detect EP in an emergency department (ED) setting. METHODS:This study was a retrospective case-control analysis of 89 women who presented to the ED with vaginal bleeding and/or abdominal pain/cramping and received a diagnosis of viable intrauterine pregnancy (VIP), spontaneous abortion (SA), or EP. Serum hCG and progesterone concentrations were measured by immunoassays. The serum concentrations of miRNAs miR-323-3p, miR-517a, miR-519d, and miR-525-3p were measured with TaqMan real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the clinical utility of these biomarkers, both as single markers and as multimarker panels for EP. RESULTS:Concentrations of serum hCG, progesterone, miR-517a, miR-519d, and miR-525-3p were significantly lower in EP and SA cases than in VIP cases (P < 0.01). In contrast, the concentration of miR-323-3p was significantly increased in EP cases, compared with SA and VIP cases (P < 0.01). As a single marker, miR-323-3p had the highest sensitivity of 37.0% (at a fixed specificity of 90%). In comparison, the combined panel of hCG, progesterone, and miR-323-3p yielded the highest sensitivity (77.8%, at a fixed specificity of 90%). A stepwise analysis that used hCG first, added progesterone, and then added miR-323-3p yielded a 96.3% sensitivity and a 72.6% specificity. CONCLUSIONS:Pregnancy-associated miRNAs, especially miR-323-3p, added substantial diagnostic accuracy to a panel including hCG and progesterone for the diagnosis of EP.
Project description:Nuclear receptor (NR) coregulators include coactivators, contributing to holoreceptor transcriptional activity, and corepressors, mediating NR target gene silencing in the absence of hormone. We identified an atypical NR coregulator, TNF?-induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), from a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? screen of a human keratinocyte cDNA library. TNIP1's complex nomenclature parallels its additional function as an NF-?B inhibitor. Here we show TNIP1 is an atypical NR corepressor using two-hybrid systems, biochemical studies, and receptor activity assays. The requirements for TNIP1-PPAR interaction are characteristic for coactivators; however, TNIP1 partially decreases PPAR activity. TNIP1 has separable transcriptional activation and repression domains suggesting a modular nature to its overall effect. It may provide a means of lowering receptor activity in the presence of ligand without total loss of receptor function. TNIP1's multiple roles and expression in several cell types suggest its regulatory effect depends on its expression level and the expression of other regulators in NR and/or NF-?B signaling pathways. As a NR coregulator, TNIP1 targeting agonist-bound PPAR and reducing transcriptional activity offers control of receptor signaling not available from typical corepressors and may contribute to combinatorial regulation of transcription.
Project description:Dectin-1 is the critical sensor for ?-glucan from Candida which is the most common human fungal pathogen and cause superficial and system infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating innate immunity. However, the functional role of miRNAs in inflammatory response dependent on the activation of dectin-1 pathway has not been defined. In the present study, we found insoluble ?-glucan from the cell wall of Candida albicans (CaIG) was able to increase the production of of IL-6 and TNF? through Dectin-1-Syk-NF-?B and p38MAPK pathway. MiRNAs profiles combined with real-time PCR validation revealed that miR-146a, miR-30-5p, miR-210-3p expression level were increased in THP-1 cells treated with CaIG. The interaction between Dectin-1 and CaIG resulted in an long lasting increase of miR-146a expression dependent on Dectin-1-Syk-NF-?B, p38MAPK, contrasting with a rapid and transient increase of IL-6 and TNF?. Overexpression of miR-146a significantly suppressed the production of IL-6 and TNF?. MiR-146a mimics inhibited CaIG-induced activity of p-I?B? and translocation of NF-?B p65. Luciferase reporter assays showed miR-146a inhibited NF-?B promoter-binding activity. Together, our data suggest miR-146a may play the potent negative feedback regulator in inflammatory response following Dectin-1 stimulation.
Project description:The primary issue arising from prostate cancer (PCa) is its high prevalence to metastasize to bone, which severely affects the quality of life and survival time of PCa patients. miR-210-3p is a well-documented oncogenic miRNA implicated in various aspects of cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, the clinical significance and biological roles of miR-210-3p in PCa bone metastasis remain obscure.miR-210-3p expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in 68 bone metastatic and 81 non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. The biological roles of miR-210-3p in the bone metastasis of PCa were investigated both in vitro by EMT and Transwell assays, and in vivo using a mouse model of left cardiac ventricle inoculation. Bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter analysis were applied to discern and examine the relationship between miR-210-3p and its potential targets. RT-PCR was performed to identify the underlying mechanism of miR-210-3p overexpression in bone metastasis of PCa. Clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with its targets was examined in human PCa and metastatic bone tissues.miR-210-3p expression is elevated in bone metastatic PCa tissues compared with non-bone metastatic PCa tissues. Overexpression of miR-210-3p positively correlates with serum PSA levels, Gleason grade and bone metastasis status in PCa patients. Upregulating miR-210-3p enhances, while silencing miR-210-3p represses the EMT, invasion and migration of PCa cells in vitro. Importantly, silencing miR-210-3p significantly inhibits bone metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-210-3p maintains the sustained activation of NF-?B signaling via targeting negative regulators of NF-?B signaling (TNF-? Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1) TNIP1 and (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1) SOCS1, resulting in EMT, invasion, migration and bone metastasis of PCa cells. Moreover, our results further indicate that recurrent gains (amplification) contribute to miR-210-3p overexpression in a small number of PCa patients. The clinical correlation of miR-210-3p with SOCS1, TNIP1 and NF-?B signaling activity is verified in PCa tissues.Our findings unravel a novel mechanism for constitutive activation of NF-?B signaling pathway in the bone metastasis of PCa, supporting a functional and clinical significance of epigenetic events in bone metastasis of PCa.