ABSTRACT: Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting and repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Several causative genes have been identified, but their genetic bases still remain elusive. Primary Torsion Dystonias (PTDs), in which dystonia is the only clinical sign, can be inherited in a monogenic fashion, and many genes and loci have been identified for autosomal dominant (DYT1/TOR1A; DYT6/THAP1; DYT4/TUBB4a; DYT7; DYT13; DYT21; DYT23/CIZ1; DYT24/ANO3; DYT25/GNAL) and recessive (DYT2; DYT17) forms. However most sporadic cases, especially those with late-onset, are likely multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors interplaying to reach a threshold of disease. At present, genetic counseling of dystonia patients remains a difficult task. Recently non-motor clinical findings in dystonias, new highlights in the pathophysiology of the disease, and the availability of high-throughput genome-wide techniques are proving useful tools to better understand the complexity of PTD genetics. We briefly review the genetic basis of the most common forms of hereditary PTDs, and discuss relevant issues related to molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Project description:Dystonia, a common and genetically heterogeneous neurological disorder, was recently defined as "a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both." Via the application of whole-exome sequencing, the genetic landscape of dystonia and closely related movement disorders is becoming exposed. In particular, several "novel" genetic causes have been causally associated with dystonia or dystonia-related disorders over the past 2 years. These genes include PRRT2 (DYT10), CIZ1 (DYT23), ANO3 (DYT24), GNAL (DYT25), and TUBB4A (DYT4). Despite these advances, major gaps remain in identifying the genetic origins for most cases of adult-onset isolated dystonia. Furthermore, model systems are needed to study the biology of PRRT2, CIZ1, ANO3, Gαolf, and TUBB4A in the context of dystonia. This review focuses on these recent additions to the family of dystonia genes, genotype-phenotype correlations, and possible cellular contributions of the encoded proteins to the development of dystonia.
Project description:Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) is the most effective intervention for medically refractory segmental and generalized dystonia in both children and adults. Predictive factors for the degree of improvement after GPi DBS include shorter disease duration and dystonia subtype with idiopathic isolated dystonia usually responding better than acquired combined dystonias. Other factors contributing to variability in outcome may include body distribution, pattern of dystonia and DBS related factors such as lead placement and stimulation parameters. The responsiveness to DBS appears to vary between different monogenic forms of dystonia, with some improving more than others. The first observation in this regard was reports of superior DBS outcomes in DYT-TOR1A (DYT1) dystonia, although other studies have found no difference. Recently a subgroup with young onset DYT-TOR1A, more rapid progression and secondary worsening after effective GPi DBS, has been described. Myoclonus dystonia due to DYT-SCGE (DYT11) usually responds well to GPi DBS. Good outcomes following GPi DBS have also been documented in X-linked dystonia Parkinsonism (DYT3). In contrast, poorer, more variable DBS outcomes have been reported in DYT-THAP1 (DYT6) including a recent larger series. The outcome of GPi DBS in other monogenic isolated and combined dystonias including DYT-GNAL (DYT25), DYT-KMT2B (DYT28), DYT-ATP1A3 (DYT12), and DYT-ANO3 (DYT24) have been reported with varying results in smaller numbers of patients. In this article the available evidence for long term GPi DBS outcome between different genetic dystonias is reviewed to reappraise popular perceptions of expected outcomes and revisit whether genetic diagnosis may assist in predicting DBS outcome.
Project description:Cervical dystonias have a variable presentation and underlying etiology, but collectively represent the most common form of focal dystonia. There are a number of known genetic forms of dystonia (DYT1-27); however the heterogeneity of disease presentation does not always make it easy to categorize the disease by phenotype-genotype comparison.In this report, we describe a 53-year-old female who presented initially with hand tremor following a total hip arthroplasty. The patient developed a mixed hyperkinetic disorder consisting of chorea, dystonia affecting the upper extremities, dysarthria, and blepharospasm. Whole exome sequencing of the patient revealed a novel heterozygous missense variant (Chr11(GRCh38): g.26525644C > G; NM_031418.2(ANO3): c.702C > G; NP_113606.2. p.C234W) in exon 7 in the ANO3 gene.ANO3 encodes anoctamin-3, a Ca+2-dependent phospholipid scramblase expressed in striatal-neurons, that has been implicated in autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia (Dystonia-24, DYT24, MIM# 615034). To date, only a handful of cases of DYT-24 have been described in the literature. The complex clinical presentation of the patient described includes hyperkinesias, complex motor movements, and vocal tics, which have not been reported in other patients with DYT24. This report highlights the utility of using clinical whole exome sequencing in patients with complex neurological phenotypes that would not normally fit a classical presentation of a defined genetic disease.
Project description:Background: Dystonia-24 (DYT24) is a monogenic autosomal dominant dystonia caused by mutations in the gene ANO3, which has shown phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity according to previous reports. Objective: To screen and identify ANO3 mutations in a cohort of patients with dystonia in China and to expand the spectrum of DYT24. Methods: This study screened ANO3 mutations in 187 Chinese dystonia patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). In silico investigations were conducted in detected ANO3 variants and co-segregation analysis was carried out if applicable. The effects of identified variants were classified according to the standards and guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Results: Four different variants were identified in four unrelated dystonia patients, including three missense variants [c.1789G>C (p.V600L), c.182A>C (p.E61A), c.787A>G (p.M263V)] and one splice site change (c.1714-3T>C). The novel missense mutation c.1798G>C (p.V600L), identified in a teenaged girl with generalized dystonia, showed high pathogenicity and was classified as "likely pathogenic" according to ACMG guidelines. Of note, she responded well to deep brain stimulation. Conclusion: Our study helps expand the mutational and clinical spectrum of DYT24 due to ANO3 mutations by further reporting four variants. Rare ANO3 variants appear to represent an uncommon cause of dystonia in China.
Project description:Genes causing primary dystonia are rare. Recently, pathogenic mutations in the anoctamin 3 gene (ANO3) have been identified to cause autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia and have been assigned to the dystonia locus dystonia-24 (DYT24). Here, we expand on the phenotypic spectrum of DYT24 and provide demonstrative videos. Moreover, tremor recordings were performed, and back-averaged electroencephalography, sensory evoked potentials, and C-reflex studies were carried out in two individuals who carried two different mutations in ANO3. Ten patients from three families are described. The age at onset ranged from early childhood to the forties. Cervical dystonia was the most common site of onset followed by laryngeal dystonia. The characteristic feature in all affected individuals was the presence of tremor, which contrasts DYT24 from the typical DYT6 phenotype. Tremor was the sole initial manifestation in some individuals with ANO3 mutations, leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor. Electrophysiology in two patients with two different mutations showed co-contraction of antagonist muscles, confirming dystonia, and a 6-Hz arm tremor at rest, which increased in amplitude during action. In one of the studied patients, clinically superimposed myoclonus was observed. The duration of the myoclonus was in the range of 250 msec at about 3 Hz, which is more consistent with subcortical myoclonus. In summary, ANO3 causes a varied phenotype of young-onset or adult-onset craniocervical dystonia with tremor and/or myoclonic jerks. Patients with familial cervical dystonia who also have myoclonus-dystonia as well as patients with prominent tremor and mild dystonia should be tested for ANO3 mutations.
Project description:Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions resulting in abnormal postures. Although common in the clinic, the etiology of dystonia remains unclear. Most dystonias are idiopathic and are not associated with clear pathological brain abnormalities. Attempts to genetically model these dystonias in rodents have failed to replicate dystonic symptoms. This is at odds with the fact that rodents can exhibit dystonia. Because of this discrepancy, it is necessary to consider alternative approaches to generate phenotypically and genotypically faithful models of dystonia. Conditional knockout of dystonia-related genes is 1 technique that may prove useful for modeling genetic dystonias. Lentiviral-mediated small or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of particular genes is another approach. Finally, in cases in which the function of a dystonia-related gene is well-known, pharmacological blockade of the protein product can be used. Such an approach was successfully implemented in the case of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, DYT12. This (DYT12) is a hereditary dystonia caused by mutations in the ?? isoform of the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) pump (sodium pump), which partially hampers its physiological function. It was found that partial selective pharmacological block of the sodium pumps in the cerebellum and basal ganglia of mice recapitulates all of the salient features of DYT12, including dystonia and parkinsonism induced by stress. This DYT12 model is unique in that it faithfully replicates human symptoms of DYT12, while targeting the genetic cause of this disorder. Acute disruption of proteins implicated in dystonia may prove a generally fruitful method to model dystonia in rodents.
Project description:Genetic findings of the past years have provided ample evidence for a substantial etiologic heterogeneity of dystonic syndromes. While an increasing number of genes are being identified for Mendelian forms of isolated and combined dystonias using classical genetic mapping and whole-exome sequencing techniques, their precise role in the molecular pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Also, the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of sporadic dystonias is still enigmatic. Only the systematic ascertainment and precise clinical characterization of very large cohorts with dystonia, combined with systematic genetic studies, will be able to unravel the complex network of factors that determine disease risk and phenotypic expression.
Project description:Primary torsin dystonias (PTD) are a group of movement disorders characterized by twisting muscle contractures, where dystonia is the only clinical sign (except for tremor) and there is no evidence of neuronal degeneration or an acquired cause. Eleven genes have been mapped for primary dystonia including DYT1 ( TOR1A), DYT2, DYT4 ( TUBB4A), DYT6 ( THAP1), DYT7, DYT13,, DYT17, DYT21, CIZ1 ( CIZ1), DYT24 ( ANO3), and DYT25 ( GNAL); however only 3 ( TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL) have mutations in early onset dystonia patients. Each is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait but with reduced penetrance, meaning that individuals can carry the mutation but do not show clinical symptoms. The most common form of PTD is adult onset focal accounting for about 90% of all cases of dystonia with a prevalence estimated at 30/100,000 in the general population. A small percentage of focal cases are due to mutations in CIZ1, ANO3, THAP1, TUBB4A, and GNAL, but the vast majority... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:Literary reports on dystonia date back to post-Medieval times. Medical reports are instead more recent. We review here the early descriptions and the historical establishment of a consensus on the clinical phenomenology and the diagnostic features of dystonia syndromes. Lumping and splitting exercises have characterized this area of knowledge, and it remains largely unclear how many dystonia types we are to count. This review describes the history leading to recognize that focal dystonia syndromes are a coherent clinical set encompassing cranial dystonia (including blepharospasm), oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, truncal dystonia, writer's cramp, and other occupational dystonias. Papers describing features of dystonia and diagnostic criteria are critically analyzed and put into historical perspective. Issues and inconsistencies in this lumping effort are discussed, and the currently unmet needs are critically reviewed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.<h4>Methods</h4>We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.<h4>Results</h4>Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.