Reversible redox effect on gas permeation of cobalt doped ethoxy polysiloxane (ES40) membranes.
ABSTRACT: This work reports the remarkable effect of reversible gas molecular sieving for high temperature gas separation from cobalt doped ethoxy polysiloxane (CoES40) membranes. This effect stemmed from alternating the reducing and oxidising (redox) state of the cobalt particles embedded in the ES40 matrix. The reduced membranes gave the best H2 permeances of 1 × 10(-6)?mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1) and H2/N2 permselectivities of 65. The reduction process tailored a molecular gap attributed to changes in the specific volume between the reduced cobalt (Co(OH)2 and CoO) particles in the ES40 structure, thus allowing for the increased diffusion of gases. Upon re-oxidation, the tailored molecular gap became constricted as the particles reversed to Co3O4 resulting a lower gas diffusion, particularly for the larger gases ie. CO2 and N2. The ES40 matrix proved to be structurally rigid enough to withstand the reversible redox effect of cobalt particles across multiple cycles.
Project description:A detailed comparison of the gas permeability of four Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity containing Tröger's base (TB-PIMs) is reported. In particular, we present the results of a systematic study of the differences between four related polymers, highlighting the importance of the role of methyl groups positioned at the bridgehead of ethanoanthracene (EA) and triptycene (Trip) components. The PIMs show BET surface areas between 845-1028 m2 g-1 and complete solubility in chloroform, which allowed for the casting of robust films that provided excellent permselectivities for O2/N2, CO2/N2, CO2/CH4 and H2/CH4 gas pairs so that some data surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds. Their interesting gas transport properties were mostly ascribed to a combination of high permeability and very strong size-selectivity of the polymers. Time lag measurements and determination of the gas diffusion coefficient of all polymers revealed that physical ageing strongly increased the size-selectivity, making them suitable for the preparation of thin film composite membranes.
Project description:There is a need for gas separation membranes that can perform at high temperatures, for example, for CO<sub>2</sub> capture in industrial processes. Polyphosphazenes classify as interesting materials for use under these conditions because of their high thermal stability, hybrid nature, and postfunctionalization options. In this work, thin-film composite cyclomatrix polyphosphazene membranes are prepared via the interfacial polymerization reaction between polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene on top of a ceramic support. The prepared polyphosphazene networks are highly crosslinked and show excellent thermal stability until 340 °C. Single gas permeation experiments at temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 °C reveal a molecular sieving behavior, with permselectivities as high as 130 for H<sub>2</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> at the low temperatures. The permselectivities of the membranes persist at the higher temperatures; at 250 °C H<sub>2</sub>/N<sub>2</sub> (40), H<sub>2</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> (31) H<sub>2</sub>/CO<sub>2</sub> (7), and CO<sub>2</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> (4), respectively, while maintaining permeances in the order of 10<sup>-7</sup> to 10<sup>-8</sup> mol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> Pa<sup>-1</sup>. Compared to other types of polymer-based membranes, especially the H<sub>2</sub>/N<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> selectivities are high, with similar permeances. Consequently, the hybrid polyphosphazene membranes have great potential for use in high-temperature gas separation applications.
Project description:Heightened levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) have prompted research into techniques for their capture and separation, including membrane separation, chemical looping, and cryogenic distillation. Ionic liquids, due to their negligible vapour pressure, thermal stability, and broad electrochemical stability have expanded their application in gas separations. This work provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of ionic liquid membranes (ILMs) for gas separation by focusing on the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2), or mixtures of these gases from various gas streams. The three general types of ILMs, such as supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs), ionic liquid polymeric membranes (ILPMs), and ionic liquid mixed-matrix membranes (ILMMMs) for the separation of various mixed gas systems, are discussed in detail. Furthermore, issues, challenges, computational studies and future perspectives for ILMs are also considered. The results of the analysis show that SILMs, ILPMs, and the ILMMs are very promising membranes that have great potential in gas separation processes. They offer a wide range of permeabilities and selectivities for CO2, CH4, N2, H2 or mixtures of these gases. In addition, a comparison was made based on the selectivity and permeability of SILMs, ILPMs, and ILMMMs for CO2/CH4 separation based on a Robeson's upper bound curves.
Project description:The use of nanomaterials in real life applications is often hampered by our inability to produce them in large quantities while preserving their desired properties in terms of size, shape, and crystalline phase. Here we present a novel continuous method to synthesize nanostructures with an unprecedented degree of control regarding their properties. In particular, the excellent properties of microreactors for chemical synthesis are enhanced by the introduction of gas slugs of tailored composition. Slug dynamics accelerate mixing, reduce processing times (from hours in batch processes to minutes or even seconds), and, depending on the gas atmosphere used, allows one to accurately control the crystalline phase and shape of the resulting nanostructures. Inert (N2), oxidizing (O2), or reducing (CO, H2) gases were used, leading to different morphologies and crystalline structures in a high yield, highly reproducible fabrication process.
Project description:A hydroxypolyamide (HPA) manufactured from 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxy phenyl)-hexafluoropropane (APAF) diamine and 5′-terbutyl-m-terphenyl-4,4′′-dicarboxylic acid chloride (tBTpCl), and a copolyimide produced by stochiometric copolymerization of APAF and 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diamine (6FpDA), using the same diacid chloride, were obtained and used as polymeric matrixes in mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) loaded with 20% (w/w) of two porous polymer networks (triptycene-isatin, PPN-1, and triptycene-trifluoroacetophenone, PPN-2). These MMMs, and also the thermally rearranged membranes (TR-MMMs) that underwent a thermal treatment process to convert the o-hydroxypolyamide moieties to polybenzoxazole ones, were characterized, and their gas separation properties evaluated for H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2. Both TR process and the addition of PPN increased permeability with minor decreases in selectivity for all gases tested. Excellent results were obtained, in terms of the permeability versus selectivity compromise, for H2/CH4 and H2/N2 separations with membranes approaching the 2008 Robeson’s trade-off line. The best gas separation properties were obtained when PPN-2 was used. Finally, gas permeation was characterized in terms of chain intersegmental distance and fraction of free volume of the membrane along with the kinetic diameters of the permeated gases. The intersegmental distance increased after TR and/or the addition of PPN-2. Permeability followed an exponential dependence with free volume and a quadratic function of the kinetic diameter of the gas.
Project description:Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall.
Project description:A SiOC membrane with high oxidative stability for gas separation was tailored by utilizing vinyltrimethoxysilane, triethoxysilane, and 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane as Si precursors. Amorphous SiOC networks were formed via the condensation of Si-OH groups, the hydrosilylation of Si-H and Si-CH=CH2 groups, and a crosslinking reaction of Si-CH3 groups, respectively. The crosslinking of Si-CH3 groups at temperatures ranging from 600 to 700 °C under a N2 atmosphere was quite effective in constructing a Si-CH2-Si unit without the formation of mesopores, which was confirmed by the results of N2 adsorption and by the gas permeation properties. The network pore size of the SiOC membrane calcined at 700 °C under N2 showed high oxidative stability at 500 °C and was appropriate for the separation of large molecules (H2/CF4 selectivity: 640, H2/SF6: 2900, N2/CF4: 98). A SiOC membrane calcined at 800 °C showed H2/N2 selectivity of 62, which was approximately 10 times higher than that calcined at 700 °C because the SiOC networks were densified by the cleavage and redistribution reactions of Si-C and Si-O groups.
Project description:A novel composite membrane consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene was successfully fabricated. Seamless filling of the spaces in CNT forests with parylene was achieved by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and followed with the Ar/O2 plasma etching to expose CNT tips. Transport properties of various gases through the CNT/parylene membranes were explored. And gas permeances were independent on feed pressure in accordance with the Knudsen model, but the permeance values were over 60 times higher than that predicted by the Knudsen diffusion kinetics, which was attributed to specular momentum reflection inside smooth CNT pores. Gas permeances and enhancement factors over the Knudsen model firstly increased and then decreased with rising temperature, which confirmed the existence of non-Knudsen transport. And surface adsorption diffusion could affect the gas permeance at relatively low temperature. The gas permeance of the CNT/parylene composite membrane could be improved by optimizing operating temperature.
Project description:A cobalt rhenium catalyst active for ammonia synthesis at 400 °C and ambient pressure was studied using in situ XAS to elucidate the reducibility and local environment of the two metals during reaction conditions. The ammonia reactivity is greatly affected by the gas mixture used in the pre-treatment step. Following H2/Ar pre-treatment, a subsequent 20 min induction period is also observed before ammonia production occurs whereas ammonia production commences immediately following comparable H2/N2 pre-treatment. In situ XAS at the Co K-edge and Re LIII-edge show that cobalt initiates reduction, undergoing reduction between 225 and 300 °C, whereas reduction of rhenium starts at 300 °C. The reduction of rhenium is near complete below 400 °C, as also confirmed by H2-TPR measurements. A synergistic co-metal effect is observed for the cobalt rhenium system, as complete reduction of both cobalt and rhenium independently requires higher temperatures. The phases present in the cobalt rhenium catalyst during ammonia production following both pre-treatments are largely bimetallic Co-Re phases, and also monometallic Co and Re phases. The presence of nitrogen during the reduction step strongly promotes mixing of the two metals, and the bimetallic Co-Re phase is believed to be a pre-requisite for activity.
Project description:In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)-CO-N2-noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system.