A daily calendar analysis of substance use and dating violence among high risk urban youth.
ABSTRACT: Dating violence (DV) among youth is an important public health problem. This study examined reasons for physical DV and the association between substance use and youth DV using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth.Patients (aged 14-24) presenting to an urban Emergency Department (ED) for a violent injury and a proportionally selected comparison sample of non-violently injured youth who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months (n=599) were enrolled in this study. Multi-level, multinomial regressions were conducted using daily-level substance use data from Time Line Follow Back (TLFB) responses and physical DV data that were obtained by coding Time Line Follow Back - Aggression Module responses for the 30 days prior to visiting the ED.The two most commonly reported reasons for physical dating aggression and victimization, across sexes, were "jealousy/rumors" or "angry/bad mood." Multi-level multinomial regression models, adjusting for clustering within individual participants, showed that among females, cocaine use and sedative/opiate use were associated with severe dating victimization and alcohol use was associated with severe dating aggression.Use of TLFB data offers a unique opportunity to understand daily-level factors associated with specific incidents of DV in more detail. This study provides novel data regarding reasons for DV and the relationship between daily substance use and DV among urban youth, with alcohol, cocaine, and sedative/opiate use being associated with various types of DV. ED based DV interventions should be tailored to address youths' reasons for DV as well as reducing their substance use.
Project description:Sexual minority youth (SMY) report more substance use and experience more physical and sexual dating violence victimization than heterosexual youth; however, few studies have explored the relationship between substance use and disparities in teen dating violence and victimization (TDVV) using national-level estimates, and examined if these relationships vary by sexual minority subgroups. Data from the nationally representative 2015 and 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to examine differences in TDVV and substance use by sexual identity, and to determine if substance use was associated with TDVV disparities between SMY and heterosexual high school students who dated 12 months prior to the survey (n?=?18,704). Sex-stratified logistic regression models generated prevalence ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics and substance use behaviors to determine if substance use mediated the relationship between sexual identity and TDVV. Compared with their heterosexual peers, SMY experienced higher rates of TDVV and were more likely to report using most types of substances, although differences were more pronounced among female students compared with male students. Disparities in TDVV were reduced for male gay and bisexual students as well as for female bisexual students once substance use was entered into the model, suggesting that there is a relationship between substance use and some of gay and bisexual students' risk for experiences of TDVV. Comprehensive efforts for violence prevention among sexual minority students may benefit from incorporating substance use prevention, given its relationship to disparities in TDVV.
Project description:PURPOSE:Sexual violence (SV), teen dating violence (TDV), and substance use are significant public health concerns among U.S. adolescents. This study examined whether latent classes of baseline alcohol and prescription drug misuse longitudinally predict SV and TDV victimization and perpetration (i.e., verbal,relational, physical/threatening, and sexual) 1 year later. METHODS:Students from six Midwestern high schools (n?=?1,875; grades 9-11) completed surveys across two consecutive spring semesters. Latent class analysis was used to identify classes of individuals according to four substance use variables. A latent class regression and a manual three-step auxiliary approach were used to assess concurrent and distal relationships between identified classes and SV and TDV victimization and perpetration. RESULTS:Three classes of substance use were identified: low/no use (41% of sample), alcohol only use (45%), and alcohol and prescription drug misuse (APD) (14%). Youth in the APD class experienced greater SV and TDV victimization and perpetration than the alcohol only class at baseline. At Time 2 (one year later), youth in the baseline APD class experienced significantly higher SV and TDV victimization and perpetration outcomes than youth in the alcohol only class with the exception of sexual and physical TDV perpetration. CONCLUSIONS:The misuse of both alcohol and prescription drugs emerged as a significant risk factor for later SV and TDV among adolescents. As such, it would be beneficial if future research continued to assess the nature of these associations and incorporate prescription drug use and misuse into heath education,substance use, and violence prevention programs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem, with females being victimized by partners at high rates with numerous negative health consequences. Previous research has been equivocal on whether substance use on the part of the victim temporally precedes and, thus, increases the odds of victimization. While the sole responsibility for violence is always with the perpetrator, knowing this information could provide useful information for theory as well as interventions designed to keep women safe. METHOD:Participants were female college students in a current dating relationship who had consumed alcohol in the previous month (N = 173). Students completed daily surveys on their violence victimization, alcohol use, and marijuana use for up to 90 consecutive days. RESULTS:On any drinking days, heavy drinking days, and as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed increased, women were more likely to be victimized by psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Marijuana use also preceded and increased the odds of sexual victimization. Relationship length moderated some of these temporal associations, such that the odds of victimization on a drinking day, or marijuana use day, were increased for participants in longer relationships. CONCLUSIONS:Findings underscore the importance of considering the role that alcohol and marijuana use play in increasing the risk for dating violence victimization among women. Intervention programs for dating violence may benefit by attempting to decrease substance use in order to reduce risk for female victims.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to determine whether dating violence victimization (psychological, physical, and sexual) and substance use (alcohol and marijuana) predicted sexual behaviors that increase risk for poor outcomes from ages 15-19. Adolescents (N?=?1042; 56% female) were recruited from high schools in Southeast Texas in 2010 and followed annually for six years. The mean age of the sample at baseline was 15.09 (SD?=?0.79). Participants primarily identified as Hispanic (31.4%), White (29.4%), and Black/African American (27.9%). Participants completed measures of dating violence victimization, substance use, and sexual behaviors annually. We examined unique and interactive associations between substance use and dating violence victimization with sexual behaviors that increase risk for poor outcomes. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that, when examining predictors simultaneously, marijuana use and psychological victimization predicted sexual behaviors over time for males. For females, marijuana use, and physical and psychological victimization all predicted sexual behaviors over time, with marijuana exerting the strongest effect, particularly among females who also used alcohol. Prevention efforts for adolescent sexual behaviors that increase risk for poor outcomes should include a focus on reducing substance use, particularly marijuana, and the effects of dating violence victimization.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The Timeline Followback (TLFB) was originally developed to assess alcohol consumption patterns (American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1996, 966) and has been increasingly modified for Web-based use. Additionally, new modes of substance use administration have emerged, creating a need for an adaptable TLFB tool than can capture data such as cannabis product potency or prescription drug use. Our goal was to validate an online TLFB that reliably assesses a wide range of substances in greater detail. METHODS:Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, daily substance use data were collected from 50 college students over a 14-day retrospective period using both the traditional in-person TLFB and online TLFB (O-TLFB). RESULTS:All substance use variables, including detailed measures of cannabis metrics, correlated significantly (r's ranged from .653 to .944, p < .001) between TLFB versions. Further, results demonstrated that both the online TLFB and in-person TLFB demonstrated concurrent validity with both the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Marijuana Dependence Scale (MDS). CONCLUSION:Overall, the data suggest that this new O-TLFB demonstrates strong reliability and delivers a versatile and secure tool for substance use assessment that is relevant to a variety of biomedical and psychological research contexts.
Project description:This study tested whether dating violence (DV) victimization is associated with increases in BMI across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and whether gender and previous exposure to child maltreatment modify such increases.Data were from participants (N = 9295; 49.9% female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at waves 2, 3, and 4 of the study. DV victimization was measured at waves 2, 3, and 4 by using items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Linear regression by using generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to test the association. Models were stratified according to gender and history of child maltreatment.From baseline to wave 4, BMI increased on average 6.5 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-6.7) and 6.8 units (95% CI: 6.5-7.1) among men and women, respectively, and nearly one-half (45.5% of men; 43.9% of women) reported DV at some point. In stratified models, DV victimization (?: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.0-0.6]) independently predicted BMI increase over time in women. Exposure to childhood sexual abuse magnified the increase in BMI associated with DV victimization (?: 1.3 [95% CI: 0.3-2.3]). No other types of childhood maltreatment were significant modifiers of the DV-BMI association. Violence victimization was not associated with BMI among men.Screening and support for DV victims, especially women who have also experienced childhood maltreatment, may be warranted to reduce the likelihood of health consequences associated with victimization.
Project description:With the increasing popularity of mobile Internet devices, the exposure of adolescents to media has significantly increased. There is limited information about associations between the types and frequency of media use and experiences of violence victimization and suicide risk. The current study sought to examine the association of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV) victimization, suicide risk with different types of media use (i.e., television and computer/video game use), and number of total media use hours per school day. Data from the nationally representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey ( n = 15,624) were used to examine the association between media use and violence victimization and suicide risk. Logistic regression models generated prevalence ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics and substance use behaviors to identify significant associations between media use and victimization and suicide risk, stratified by gender. Media use was associated with TDV victimization for male students only, while media use was related to experiences of bullying and suicide risk for both male and female students. In addition, limited (2 or fewer hours) and excessive (5 or more hours) media use emerged as significant correlates of suicide risk and bullying victimization, with limited media use associated with decreased risk and excessive media use with increased risk. Comprehensive, cross-cutting efforts to prevent different forms of victimization should take into account media use and its potential association with adolescent victimization and suicide risk. The current study results suggest limiting adolescent media use, as part of comprehensive prevention programming, might relate to reductions in risk for victimization and suicide.
Project description:To characterize youth seeking care for assault injuries, the context of violence, and previous emergency department (ED) service utilization to inform ED-based injury prevention.A consecutive sample of youth (14-24) presenting to an urban ED with an assault injury completed a survey of partner violence, gun/knife victimization, gang membership, and context of the fight.A total of 925 youth entered the ED with an assault injury; 718 completed the survey (15.4% refused); 730 comparison youth were sampled. The fights leading to the ED visit occurred at home (37.6%) or on streets (30.4%), and were commonly with a known person (68.3%). Fights were caused by issues of territory (23.3%) and retaliation (8.9%); 20.8% of youth reported substance use before the fight. The assault-injured group reported more peer/partner violence and more gun experiences. Assault-injured youth reported higher past ED utilization for assault (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16) or mental health reasons (OR: 7.98). Regression analysis found the assault-injured youth had more frequent weapon use (OR: 1.25) and substance misuse (OR: 1.41).Assault-injured youth seeking ED care report higher levels of previous violence, weapon experience, and substance use compared with a comparison group seeking care for other complaints. Almost 10% of assault-injured youth had another fight-related ED visit in the previous year, and ~5% had an ED visit for mental health. Most fights were with people known to them and for well-defined reasons, and were therefore likely preventable. The ED is a critical time to interact with youth to prevent future morbidity.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances.The current study examined (1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and (2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (N = 203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use.Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores (b = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.07; 1.02], P <.05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% CI: [1.61; 27.46], P <.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use, and ethnicity.These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Exposure to violence victimization may help explain disparities of substance use among gender-nonconforming youth (i.e., those whose gender expression differs from societal expectations).<h4>Methods</h4>In 2015, three large urban school districts (2 in California and 1 in Florida) conducted a Youth Risk Behavior Survey that included the assessment of gender expression among a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 6,082 high school students. Five categories of violence victimization were assessed (felt unsafe at school, threatened or injured with a weapon at school, bullied at school, electronically bullied, and forced sexual intercourse). In 2019, the effect of violence victimization on substance use disparities was examined by calculating sex-stratified prevalence ratios by gender nonconformity, adjusted for sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and grade (adjusted prevalence ratio 1 [APR1]), and comparing these with prevalence ratios adjusted for those variables plus violence victimization (adjusted prevalence ratio 2 [APR2]).<h4>Results</h4>Among female students, only being threatened or injured with a weapon was significantly (p<0.05) associated with gender nonconformity and there were no substance use disparities by gender nonconformity. Among male students, every category of violence victimization was more prevalent among gender-nonconforming than among gender-conforming students and most substance use categories demonstrated significant gender nonconformity disparities. After controlling for violence victimization, these disparities decreased but remained statistically significant for the use of cocaine (APR1=2.84 vs APR2=1.99), methamphetamine (APR1=4.47 vs APR2=2.86), heroin (APR1=4.55 vs APR2=2.96), and injection drug use (APR1=7.90 vs APR2=4.72).<h4>Conclusions</h4>School-based substance use prevention programs may benefit from strategies that support gender diversity and reduce violence victimizations experienced by gender-nonconforming students, by providing a safe and supportive school environment.