Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio mimicus Strain CAIM 602T.
ABSTRACT: Vibrio mimicus is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with gastrointestinal diseases in humans around the world. We report the complete genome sequence of the Vibrio mimicus strain CAIM 602(T) (CDC1721-77, LMG 7896(T), ATCC 33653(T)).
Project description:<i>Vibrio mimicus</i> is an emerging pathogen, mainly associated with contaminated seafood consumption. However, little is known about its evolution, biodiversity, and pathogenic potential. This study analyzes the pan-, core, and accessory genomes of nine <i>V. mimicus</i> strains. The core genome yielded 2424 genes in chromosome I (ChI) and 822 genes in chromosome II (ChII), with an accessory genome comprising an average of 10.9% of the whole genome for ChI and 29% for ChII. Core genome phylogenetic trees were obtained, and <i>V. mimicus</i> ATCC-33654 strain was the closest to the outgroup in both chromosomes. Additionally, a phylogenetic study of eight conserved genes (<i>fts</i>Z, <i>gap</i>A, <i>gyr</i>B, <i>topA</i>, <i>rpo</i>A, <i>rec</i>A, <i>mre</i>B, and <i>pyr</i>H), including <i>Vibrio cholerae</i>, <i>Vibrio parilis</i>, <i>Vibrio metoecus</i>, and <i>Vibrio caribbenthicus</i>, clearly showed clade differentiation. The main virulence genes found in ChI corresponded with type I secretion proteins, extracellular components, flagellar proteins, and potential regulators, while, in ChII, the main categories were type-I secretion proteins, chemotaxis proteins, and antibiotic resistance proteins. The accessory genome was characterized by the presence of mobile elements and toxin encoding genes in both chromosomes. Based on the genome atlas, it was possible to characterize differential regions between strains. The pan-genome of <i>V. mimicus</i> encompassed 3539 genes for ChI and 2355 genes for ChII. These results give us an insight into the virulence and gene content of <i>V. mimicus</i>, as well as constitute the first approach to its diversity.
Project description:Vibrio mimicus differs from Vibrio cholerae in a number of genotypic and phenotypic traits but like V. cholerae can give rise to diarrheal disease. We examined clinical isolates of V. mimicus for the presence of CTXPhi, the lysogenic filamentous bacteriophage that carries the cholera toxin genes in epidemic V. cholerae strains. Four V. mimicus isolates were found to contain complete copies of CTXPhi. Southern blot analyses revealed that V. mimicus strain PT5 contains two CTX prophages integrated at different sites within the V. mimicus genome whereas V. mimicus strains PT48, 523-80, and 9583 each contain tandemly arranged copies of CTXPhi. We detected the replicative form of CTXPhi, pCTX, in all four of these V. mimicus isolates. The CTX prophage in strain PT5 was found to produce infectious CTXPhi particles. The nucleotide sequences of CTXPhi genes orfU and zot from V. mimicus strain PT5 and V. cholerae strain N16961 were identical, indicating contemporary horizontal transfer of CTXPhi between these two species. The receptor for CTXPhi, the toxin-coregulated pilus, which is encoded by another lysogenic filamentous bacteriophage, VPIPhi, was also present in the CTXPhi-positive V. mimicus isolates. The nucleotide sequences of VPIPhi genes aldA and toxT from V. mimicus strain PT5 and V. cholerae N16961 were identical, suggesting recent horizontal transfer of this phage between V. mimicus and V. cholerae. In V. mimicus, the vibrio pathogenicity island prophage was integrated in the same chromosomal attachment site as in V. cholerae. These results suggest that V. mimicus may be a significant reservoir for both CTXPhi and VPIPhi and may play an important role in the emergence of new toxigenic V. cholerae isolates.
Project description:Whether Vibrio mimicus is a variant of Vibrio cholerae or a separate species has been the subject of taxonomic controversy. A genomic analysis was undertaken to resolve the issue. The genomes of V. mimicus MB451, a clinical isolate, and VM223, an environmental isolate, comprise ca. 4,347,971 and 4,313,453 bp and encode 3,802 and 3,290 ORFs, respectively. As in other vibrios, chromosome I (C-I) predominantly contains genes necessary for growth and viability, whereas chromosome II (C-II) bears genes for adaptation to environmental change. C-I harbors many virulence genes, including some not previously reported in V. mimicus, such as mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA), and enterotoxigenic hemolysin (HlyA); C-II encodes a variant of Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), and Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) cluster of genes. Extensive genomic rearrangement in C-II indicates it is a hot spot for evolution and genesis of speciation for the genus Vibrio. The number of virulence regions discovered in this study (VSP-II, MSHA, HlyA, type IV pilin, PilE, and integron integrase, IntI4) with no notable difference in potential virulence genes between clinical and environmental strains suggests these genes also may play a role in the environment and that pathogenic strains may arise in the environment. Significant genome synteny with prototypic pre-seventh pandemic strains of V. cholerae was observed, and the results of phylogenetic analysis support the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, V. mimicus and V. cholerae diverged from a common ancestor with a prototypic sixth pandemic genomic backbone.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vibrios, which include more than 100 species, are ubiquitous in marine and estuarine environments, and several of them e.g. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus, are pathogens for humans. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains possess two sets of genes for type III secretion system (T3SS), T3SS1 and T3SS2. The latter are critical for virulence of the organism and be classified into two distinct phylogroups, T3SS2? and T3SS2?, which are reportedly also found in pathogenic V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 serogroup strains. However, whether T3SS2-related genes are present in other Vibrio species remains unclear. RESULTS: We therefore examined the distribution of the genes for T3SS2 in vibrios other than V. parahaemolyticus by using a PCR assay targeting both T3SS2? and T3SS2? genes. Among the 32 Vibrio species tested in our study, several T3SS2-related genes were detected in three species, V. cholerae, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, and most of the essential genes for type III secretion were present in T3SS2-positive V. cholerae and V. mimicus strains. Moreover, both V. mimicus strains possessing T3SS2? and T3SS2? were identified. The gene organization of the T3SS2 gene clusters in V. mimicus strains was fundamentally similar to that of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae in both T3SS2?- and T3SS2?-possessing strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first reported evidence of the presence of T3SS2 gene clusters in V. mimicus strains. This finding thus provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of the V. mimicus species.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae identification based on molecular sequence data has been hampered by a lack of sequence variation from the closely related Vibrio mimicus. The two species share many genes coding for proteins, such as ctxAB, and show almost identical 16S DNA coding for rRNA (rDNA) sequences. Primers targeting conserved sequences flanking the 3' end of the 16S and the 5' end of the 23S rDNAs were used to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Two major (ca. 580 and 500 bp) and one minor (ca. 750 bp) amplicons were consistently generated for both species, and their sequences were determined. The largest fragment contains three tRNA genes (tDNAs) coding for tRNAGlu, tRNALys, and tRNAVal, which has not previously been found in bacteria examined to date. The 580-bp amplicon contained tDNAIle and tDNAAla, whereas the 500-bp fragment had single tDNA coding either tRNAGlu or tRNAAla. Little variation, i.e., 0 to 0.4%, was found among V. cholerae O1 classical, O1 El Tor, and O139 epidemic strains. Slightly more variation was found against the non-O1/non-O139 serotypes (ca. 1% difference) and V. mimicus (2 to 3% difference). A pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed, based on the region differentiating all of V. cholerae strains from V. mimicus. The PCR system developed was subsequently evaluated by using representatives of V. cholerae from environmental and clinical sources, and of other taxa, including V. mimicus. This study provides the first molecular tool for identifying the species V. cholerae.
Project description:<i>Vibrio mimicus</i> is a foodborne pathogen, which is widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Moreover, it is often involved in aquatic animal diseases. In recent years, <i>V. mimicus</i> is an emerging pathogen in some species of Siluriformes. The strain SCCF01 was isolated from yellow catfish (<i>Pelteobagrus fulvidraco</i>). In this study, we aimed to perform genomic analysis of <i>V. mimicus</i> strain SCCF01 to identify genetic features and evolutionary relationships. Information on gene function and classification was obtained by functional annotation, and circular graph of strain SCCF01 genome, which was created by Circos v0.64. Information on virulence genes (adhesion, flagellum system, exotoxin, and secretory system, etc.) was obtained by virulence genes annotation. Genome element prediction showed that most of the mobile elements were distributed in chromosome I. Therefore, chromosome I of SCCF01 genome has more plasticity than chromosome II and might be larger in size. Genomic linear relationship between the strain of <i>V. mimicu</i>s and strain SCCF01 was analyzed by linear pairwise comparison but was unable to determine the relationship. Gene family analysis predicted that the evolutionary direction of strain SCCF01 was: clinical strain → environmental strain → SCCF01 strain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain SCCF01 was more closely related to environmental strains. According to gene family analysis and phylogenetic analysis, we speculated that strain SCCF01 has probably diverged from environmental strains.
Project description:Atypical El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 harboring variant ctxB genes of cholera toxin (CT) have gradually become a major cause of recent cholera epidemics. Vibrio mimicus occasionally produces CT, encoded by ctxAB on CTX? genome; toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), a major intestinal colonization factor; and also the CTX?-specific receptor. This study carried out extensive molecular characterization of CTX? and ToxT regulon in V. mimicus ctx-positive (ctx +) strains (i.e., V. mimicus strains containing ctx) isolated from the Bengal coast. Southern hybridization, PCR, and DNA sequencing of virulence-related genes revealed the presence of an El Tor type CTX prophage (CTXET) carrying a novel ctxAB, tandem copies of environmental type pre-CTX prophage (pre-CTXEnv), and RS1 elements, which were organized as an RS1-CTXET-RS1-pre-CTXEnv-pre-CTXEnv array. Additionally, novel variants of tcpA and toxT, respectively, showing phylogenetic lineage to a clade of V. cholerae non-O1 and to a clade of V. cholerae non-O139, were identified. The V. mimicus strains lacked the RTX (repeat in toxin) and TLC (toxin-linked cryptic) elements and lacked Vibrio seventh-pandemic islands of the El Tor strains but contained five heptamer (TTTTGAT) repeats in ctxAB promoter region similar to those seen with some classical strains of V. cholerae O1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that all the ctx + V. mimicus strains were clonally related. However, their in vitro CT production and in vivo toxigenicity characteristics were variable, which could be explainable by differential transcription of virulence genes along with the ToxR regulon. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that environmental V. mimicus strains act as a potential reservoir of atypical virulence factors, including variant CT and ToxT regulons, and may contribute to the evolution of V. cholerae hybrid strains.IMPORTANCE Natural diversification of CTX? and ctxAB genes certainly influences disease severity and shifting patterns in major etiological agents of cholera, e.g., the overwhelming emergence of hybrid El Tor variants, replacing the prototype El Tor strains of V. cholerae This report, showing the occurrence of CTXET comprising a novel variant of ctxAB in V. mimicus, points out a previously unnoticed evolutionary event that is independent of the evolutionary event associated with the El Tor strains of V. cholerae Identification and cluster analysis of the newly discovered alleles of tcpA and toxT suggest their horizontal transfer from an uncommon clone of V. cholerae The genomic contents of ToxT regulon and of tandemly arranged multiple pre-CTX?Env and of a CTX?ET in V. mimicus probably act as salient raw materials that induce natural recombination among the hallmark virulence genes of hybrid V. cholerae strains. This report provides valuable information to enrich our knowledge on the evolution of new variant CT and ToxT regulons.
Project description:Vibrio mimicus is a gram-negative bacterium responsible for diseases in humans. Three strains of V. mimicus identified as V. mimicus 87, V. mimicus 92 and V. mimicus 93 were isolated from a shrimp processing facility in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. The strains were analyzed using several molecular techniques and according to the cluster analysis they were different, their similarities ranged between 51.3% and 71.6%. ERIC-PCR and RAPD (vmh390R) were the most discriminatory molecular techniques for the differentiation of these strains. The complete genomes of two strains (V. mimicus 87, renamed as CAIM 1882, and V. mimicus 92, renamed as CAIM 1883) were sequenced. The sizes of the genomes were 3.9 Mb in both strains, with 2.8 Mb in ChI and 1.1 Mb in ChII. A 12.7% difference was found in the proteome content (BLAST matrix). Several virulence genes were detected (e.g. capsular polysaccharide, an accessory colonization factor and genes involved in quorum-sensing) which were classified in 16 categories. Variations in the gene content between these genomes were observed, mainly in proteins and virulence genes (e.g., hemagglutinin, mobile elements and membrane proteins). According to these results, both strains were different, even when they came from the same source, giving an insight of the diversity of V. mimicus. The identification of various virulence genes, including a not previously reported V. mimicus gene (acfD) in ChI in all sequenced strains, supports the pathogenic potential of this species. Further analysis will help to fully understand their potential virulence, environmental impact and evolution.
Project description:A new protocol for rapid, specific, and sensitive cell-based quantification of Vibrio cholerae/Vibrio mimicus in water samples was developed. The protocol is based on catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) in combination with solid-phase cytometry. For pure cultures, we were able to quantify down to 6 V. cholerae cells on one membrane with a relative precision of 39% and down to 12 cells with a relative precision of 17% after hybridization with the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled probe Vchomim1276 (specific for V. cholerae and V. mimicus) and signal amplification. The corresponding position of the probe on the 16S rRNA is highly accessible even when labeled with HRP. For the first time, we were also able to successfully quantify V. cholerae/V. mimicus via solid-phase cytometry in extremely turbid environmental water samples collected in Austria. Cell numbers ranged from 4.5 × 10(1) cells ml(-1) in the large saline lake Neusiedler See to 5.6 × 10(4) cells ml(-1) in an extremely turbid shallow soda lake situated nearby. We therefore suggest CARD-FISH in combination with solid-phase cytometry as a powerful tool to quantify V. cholerae/V. mimicus in ecological studies as well as for risk assessment and monitoring programs.