Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces filopodia formation through S1PR2 activation of ERM proteins.
ABSTRACT: Previously we demonstrated that the sphingolipids ceramide and S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) regulate phosphorylation of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of cytoskeletal proteins [Canals, Jenkins, Roddy, Hernande-Corbacho, Obeid and Hannun (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 32476-3285]. In the present article, we show that exogenously applied or endogenously generated S1P (in a sphingosine kinase-dependent manner) results in significant increases in phosphorylation of ERM proteins as well as filopodia formation. Using phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable ezrin mutants, we show that the S1P-induced cytoskeletal protrusions are dependent on ERM phosphorylation. Employing various pharmacological S1PR (S1P receptor) agonists and antagonists, along with siRNA (small interfering RNA) techniques and genetic knockout approaches, we identify the S1PR2 as the specific and necessary receptor to induce phosphorylation of ERM proteins and subsequent filopodia formation. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which S1P regulates cellular architecture that requires S1PR2 and subsequent phosphorylation of ERM proteins.
Project description:Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins link cortical actin to the plasma membrane and coordinate cellular events that require cytoskeletal rearrangement, including cell division, migration, and invasion. While ERM proteins are involved in many important cellular events, the mechanisms regulating their function are not completely understood. Our laboratory previously identified reciprocal roles for the sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the regulation of ERM proteins. We recently showed that ceramide-induced activation of PP1? leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of ERM proteins, while S1P results in phosphorylation and activation of ERM proteins. Following these findings, we aimed to examine known inducers of the SK/S1P pathway and evaluate their ability to regulate ERM proteins. We examined EGF, a known inducer of the SK/S1P pathway, for its ability to regulate the ERM family of proteins. We found that EGF induces ERM c-terminal threonine phosphorylation via activation of the SK/S1P pathway, as this was prevented by siRNA knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SK. Using pharmacological, as well as genetic, knockdown approaches, we determined that EGF induces ERM phosphorylation via activation of S1PR2. In addition, EGF led to cell polarization in the form of lamellipodia, and this occurred through a mechanism involving S1PR2-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin T567. EGF-induced cellular invasion was also found to be dependent on S1PR2-induced T567 ezrin phosphorylation, such that S1PR2 antagonist, JTE-013, and expression of a dominant-negative ezrin mutant prevented cellular invasion toward EGF. In this work, a novel mechanism of EGF-stimulated invasion is unveiled, whereby S1P-mediated activation of S1PR2 and phosphorylation of ezrin T567 is required.
Project description:The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates cellular proliferation, mitogenesis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. These biologies are mediated through S1P binding to specific GPCRs [sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)1-5] and some other less well-characterized intracellular targets. Ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins, a family of adaptor molecules linking the cortical actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, are emerging as critical regulators of cancer invasion via regulation of cell morphology and motility. Recently, we identified S1P as an acute ERM activator (via phosphorylation) through its action on S1PR2. In this work, we dissect the mechanism of S1P generation downstream of epidermal growth factor (EGF) leading to ERM phosphorylation and cancer invasion. Using pharmacologic inhibitors, small interfering RNA technologies, and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that sphingosine kinase (SK)2, and not SK1, is essential and sufficient in EGF-mediated ERM phosphorylation in HeLa cells. In fact, knocking down SK2 decreased ERM activation 2.5-fold. Furthermore, we provide evidence that SK2 is necessary to mediate EGF-induced invasion. In addition, overexpressing SK2 causes a 2-fold increase in HeLa cell invasion. Surprisingly, and for the first time, we find that this event, although dependent on S1PR2 activation, does not generate and does not require extracellular S1P secretion, therefore introducing a potential novel model of autocrine/intracrine action of S1P that still involves its GPCRs. These results define new mechanistic insights for EGF-mediated invasion and novel actions of SK2, therefore setting the stage for novel targets in the treatment of growth factor-driven malignancies.
Project description:Endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction induced by inflammatory agonists is a frequent pathophysiologic event in multiple diseases. The platelet-derived phospholipid sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) reverses this dysfunction by potently enhancing the EC barrier through a process involving Rac GTPase-dependent cortical actin rearrangement as an integral step. In this study we explored the role of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) family of actin-binding linker protein in modulating S1P-induced human pulmonary EC barrier enhancement. S1P induces ERM translocation to the EC periphery and promotes ERM phosphorylation on a critical threonine residue (Ezrin-567, Radixin-564, Moesin-558). This phosphorylation is dependent on activation of PKC isoforms and Rac1. The majority of ERM phosphorylation on these critical threonine residues after S1P occurs in moesin and ezrin. Baseline radixin phosphorylation is higher than in the other two ERM proteins but does not increase after S1P. S1P-induced moesin and ezrin threonine phosphorylation is not mediated by the barrier enhancing receptor S1PR1 because siRNA downregulation of S1PR1 fails to inhibit these phosphorylation events, while stimulation of EC with the S1PR1-specific agonist SEW2871 fails to induce these phosphorylation events. Silencing of either all ERM proteins or radixin alone (but not moesin alone) reduced S1P-induced Rac1 activation and phosphorylation of the downstream Rac1 effector PAK1. Radixin siRNA alone, or combined siRNA for all three ERM proteins, dramatically attenuates S1P-induced EC barrier enhancement (measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), peripheral accumulation of di-phospho-MLC, and cortical cytoskeletal rearrangement. In contrast, moesin depletion has the opposite effects on these parameters. Ezrin silencing partially attenuates S1P-induced EC barrier enhancement and cytoskeletal changes. Thus, despite structural similarities and reported functional redundancy, the ERM proteins differentially modulate S1P-induced alterations in lung EC cytoskeleton and permeability. These results suggest that ERM activation is an important regulatory event in EC barrier responses to S1P.
Project description:Vascular calcification is the deposition of mineral in the artery wall by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to pathological stimuli. The process is similar to bone formation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given that ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology and biomineralization, their role in VSMC matrix mineralization was investigated. During phosphate-induced VSMC mineralization, endogenous S1P levels increased accompanied by increased sphingosine kinase (SK) activity and increased mRNA expression of SK1 and SK2. Consistent with this, mineralization was increased by exogenous S1P, but decreased by C2-ceramide. Mechanistically, exogenous S1P stimulated ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) phosphorylation in VSMCs and ERM phosphorylation was increased concomitantly with endogenous S1P during mineralization. Moreover, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase with desipramine prevented increased S1P levels, ERM activation, and mineralization. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of ERM phosphorylation with NSC663894 decreased mineralization induced by phosphate and exogenous S1P. Although further studies will be needed to verify these findings in vivo, this study defines a novel role for the SK-S1P-ERM pathways in phosphate-induced VSMC matrix mineralization and shows that blocking these pathways with pharmacological inhibitors reduces mineralization. These results may inform new therapeutic approaches to inhibit or delay vascular calcification.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles in cardiovascular development and immunity. S1P is abundant in plasma because erythrocytes-the major source of S1P-lack any S1P-degrading activity; however, much remains unclear about the source of the plasma S1P precursor, sphingosine (SPH), derived mainly from the hydrolysis of ceramides by the action of ceramidases that are encoded by 5 distinct genes, acid ceramidase 1 ( ASAH1)/ Asah1, ASAH2/ Asah2, alkaline ceramidase 1 ( ACER1)/ Acer1, ACER2/ Acer2, and ACER3/ Acer3, in humans/mice. Previous studies have reported that knocking out Asah1 or Asah2 failed to reduce plasma SPH and S1P levels in mice. In this study, we show that knocking out Acer1 or Acer3 also failed to reduce the blood levels of SPH or S1P in mice. In contrast, knocking out Acer2 from either whole-body or the hematopoietic lineage markedly decreased the blood levels of SPH and S1P in mice. Of interest, knocking out Acer2 from whole-body or the hematopoietic lineage also markedly decreased the levels of dihydrosphingosine (dhSPH) and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (dhS1P) in blood. Taken together, these results suggest that ACER2 plays a key role in the maintenance of high plasma levels of sphingoid base-1-phosphates-S1P and dhS1P-by controlling the generation of sphingoid bases-SPH and dhSPH-in hematopoietic cells.-Li, F., Xu, R., Low, B. E., Lin, C.-L., Garcia-Barros, M., Schrandt, J., Mileva, I., Snider, A., Luo, C. K., Jiang, X.-C., Li, M.-S., Hannun, Y. A., Obeid, L. M., Wiles, M. V., Mao, C. Alkaline ceramidase 2 is essential for the homeostasis of plasma sphingoid bases and their phosphates.
Project description:Sphingolipids and their synthetic enzymes have emerged as critical mediators in numerous diseases including inflammation, aging, and cancer. One enzyme in particular, sphingosine kinase (SK) and its product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has been extensively implicated in these processes. SK catalyzes the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P and exists as two isoforms, SK1 and SK2. In this review, we will discuss the contributions from the laboratory of Dr. Lina M. Obeid that have defined the roles for several bioactive sphingolipids in signaling and disease with an emphasis on her work defining SK1 in cellular fates and pathobiologies including proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and inflammation.
Project description:Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) family proteins regulate cytoskeletal responses by tethering the plasma membrane to the underlying actin cortex. Mutations in ERM proteins lead to severe combined immunodeficiency, but the function of these proteins in T cells remains poorly defined. Using mice in which T cells lack all ERM proteins, we demonstrate a selective role for these proteins in facilitating S1P-dependent egress from lymphoid organs. ERM-deficient T cells display defective S1P-induced migration in vitro, despite normal responses to standard protein chemokines. Analysis of these defects revealed that S1P promotes a fundamentally different mode of migration than chemokines, characterized by intracellular pressurization and bleb-based motility. ERM proteins facilitate this process, controlling directional migration by limiting blebbing to the leading edge. We propose that the distinct modes of motility induced by S1P and chemokines are specialized to allow T cell migration across lymphatic barriers and through tissue stroma, respectively.
Project description:The receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) mediates the attractive response of axons to the guidance cue netrin-1 during development. On netrin-1 stimulation, DCC is phosphorylated and induces the assembly of signaling complexes within the growth cone, leading to activation of cytoskeleton regulators, namely the GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. The molecular mechanisms that link netrin-1/DCC to the actin machinery remain unclear. In this study we seek to demonstrate that the actin-binding proteins ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) are effectors of netrin-1/DCC signaling in embryonic cortical neurons. We show that ezrin associates with DCC in a netrin-1-dependent manner. We demonstrate that netrin-1/DCC induces ERM phosphorylation and activation and that the phosphorylation of DCC is required in that context. Moreover, Src kinases and RhoA/Rho kinase activities mediate netrin-1-induced ERM phosphorylation in neurons. We also observed that phosphorylated ERM proteins accumulate in growth cone filopodia, where they colocalize with DCC upon netrin-1 stimulation. Finally, we show that loss of ezrin expression in cortical neurons significantly decreases axon outgrowth induced by netrin-1. Together, our findings demonstrate that netrin-1 induces the formation of an activated ERM/DCC complex in growth cone filopodia, which is required for netrin-1-dependent cortical axon outgrowth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a crucial regulator of a wide array of cellular processes, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, but its role in Leishmania donovani infection is unknown. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In the present study, we observed that L. donovani infection in THP-1 derived macrophages (TDM) leads to decrease in the expression of S1pr2 and S1pr3 at mRNA level. We further observed that Leishmania infection inhibits the phosphorylation of sphingosine kinase 1 (sphK1) in a time-dependent manner. Exogenous S1P supplementation decreases L. donovani induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increases p38 phosphorylation in TDM, resulting in a decrease in the intracellular parasite burden in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, sphK inhibition by DMS increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation leading to increased IL-10 and parasite load. To gain further insight, cytokines expression were checked in S1P supplemented TDM and we observed increase in IL-12, while decrease IL-10 expression at mRNA and protein levels. In addition, treatment of antagonist of S1PR2 and S1PR3 such as JTE-013 and CAY10444 respectively enhanced Leishmania-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and parasite load. CONCLUSIONS:Our overall study not only reports the significant role of S1P signaling during L. donovani infection but also provides a novel platform for the development of new drugs against Leishmaniasis.
Project description:Mechanisms by which cancer cells communicate with the host organism to regulate lung colonization/metastasis are unclear. We show that this communication occurs via sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) generated systemically by sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), rather than via tumour-derived S1P. Modulation of systemic, but not tumour SK1, prevented S1P elevation, and inhibited TRAMP-induced prostate cancer growth in TRAMP(+/+) SK1(-/-) mice, or lung metastasis of multiple cancer cells in SK1(-/-) animals. Genetic loss of SK1 activated a master metastasis suppressor, Brms1 (breast carcinoma metastasis suppressor 1), via modulation of S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) in cancer cells. Alterations of S1PR2 using pharmacologic and genetic tools enhanced Brms1. Moreover, Brms1 in S1PR2(-/-) MEFs was modulated by serum S1P alterations. Accordingly, ectopic Brms1 in MB49 bladder cancer cells suppressed lung metastasis, and stable knockdown of Brms1 prevented this process. Importantly, inhibition of systemic S1P signalling using a novel anti-S1P monoclonal antibody (mAb), Sphingomab, attenuated lung metastasis, which was prevented by Brms1 knockdown in MB49 cells. Thus, these data suggest that systemic SK1/S1P regulates metastatic potential via regulation of tumour S1PR2/Brms1 axis.