Metabolome response to glucose in the ?-cell line INS-1 832/13.
ABSTRACT: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells is triggered by metabolism of the sugar to increase ATP/ADP ratio that blocks the KATP channel leading to membrane depolarization and insulin exocytosis. Other metabolic pathways believed to augment insulin secretion have yet to be fully elucidated. To study metabolic changes during GSIS, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of 87 metabolites temporally following a change in glucose from 3 to 10 mM glucose and in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in the INS-1 832/13 ?-cell line. U-[(13)C]Glucose was used to probe flux in specific metabolic pathways. Results include a rapid increase in ATP/ADP, anaplerotic tricarboxylic acid cycle flux, and increases in the malonyl CoA pathway, support prevailing theories of GSIS. Novel findings include that aspartate used for anaplerosis does not derive from the glucose fuel added to stimulate insulin secretion, glucose flux into glycerol-3-phosphate, and esterification of long chain CoAs resulting in rapid consumption of long chain CoAs and de novo generation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. Further, novel metabolites with potential roles in GSIS such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), GDP-mannose, and farnesyl pyrophosphate were found to be rapidly altered following glucose exposure.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is potentiated by fatty acids (FA). The initial step in the metabolism of intracellular FA is the conversion to acyl-CoA by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsls). Because the predominantly expressed Acsl isoforms in INS 832/13 cells are Acsl4 and -5, we characterized the role of these Acsls in beta-cell function by using siRNA to knock down Acsl4 or Acsl5. Compared with control cells, an 80% suppression of Acsl4 decreased GSIS and FA-potentiated GSIS by 32 and 54%, respectively. Knockdown of Acsl5 did not alter GSIS. Acsl4 knockdown did not alter FA oxidation or long chain acyl-CoA levels. With Acsl4 knockdown, incubation with 17 mm glucose increased media epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and reduced cell membrane levels of EETs. Further, exogenous EETs reduced GSIS in INS 832/13 cells, and in Acsl4 knockdown cells, an EET receptor antagonist partially rescued GSIS. These results strongly suggest that Acsl4 activates EETs to form EET-CoAs that are incorporated into glycerophospholipids, thereby sequestering EETs. Exposing INS 832/13 cells to arachidonate or linoleate reduced Acsl4 mRNA and protein expression and reduced GSIS. These data indicate that Acsl4 modulates GSIS by regulating the levels of unesterified EETs and that arachidonate controls the expression of its activator Acsl4.
Project description:AMPK regulates many metabolic pathways including fatty acid and glucose metabolism, both of which are closely associated with insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells. Insulin secretion is regulated by metabolic coupling factors such as ATP/ADP ratio and other metabolites generated by the metabolism of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acid and amino acids. However, the connection between AMPK activation and insulin secretion in ?-cells has not yet been fully elucidated at a metabolic level. To study the effect of AMPK activation on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, we applied the pharmacological activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) to an INS-1 (832/13) ?-cell line. We measured the change in 66 metabolites in the presence or absence of AICAR using different stable isotopic labeled nutrients to probe selected pathways. AMPK activation by AICAR increased basal insulin secretion and reduced the glucose stimulation index. Although ATP/ADP ratios were not strongly affected by AICAR, several other metabolites and pathways important for insulin secretion were affected by AICAR treatment including long-chain CoAs, malonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl CoA, diacylglycerol, and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Tracer studies using 13C-glucose revealed lower glucose flux in the purine and pyrimidine pathway and in the glycerolipid synthesis pathway. Untargeted metabolomics revealed reduction in ceramides caused by AICAR that may explain the beneficial role of AMPK in protecting ?-cells from lipotoxicity. Taken together, the results provide an overall picture of the metabolic changes associated with AICAR treatment and how it modulates insulin secretion and ?-cell survival.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the current diabetes epidemic. Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a drinking water and food contaminant, is one of the most widespread environmental diabetogens according to epidemiological studies. Several schemes have been proposed to explain the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure; however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. We have shown that in vitro exposure to low concentrations of arsenite (iAsIII) or its trivalent methylated metabolites, methylarsonite (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII), inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from isolated pancreatic islets, with little effect on insulin transcription or total insulin content. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to trivalent arsenicals impairs mitochondrial metabolism, which plays a key role in the regulation of GSIS in ? cells. We used a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer to measure oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a proxy for mitochondrial metabolism, in cultured INS-1 832/13 ? cells exposed to iAsIII, MAsIII, or DMAsIII and stimulated with either glucose or pyruvate, a final product of glycolysis and a substrate for the Krebs cycle. We found that 24-h exposure to 2 ?M iAsIII or 0.375-0.5 ?M MAsIII inhibited OCR in both glucose- and pyruvate-stimulated ? cells in a manner that closely paralleled GSIS inhibition. In contrast, 24-h exposure to DMAsIII (up to 2 µM) had no effects on either OCR or GSIS. These results suggest that iAsIII and MAsIII may impair GSIS in ? cells by inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, and that at least one target of these arsenicals is pyruvate decarboxylation or downstream reactions.
Project description:Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.
Project description:Thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone) is a major bioactive component of Nigella sativa, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of symptoms, including elevated blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Normalization of elevated blood glucose depends on both glucose disposal by peripheral tissues and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells. We employed clonal ?-cells and rodent islets to investigate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and Nigella sativa extracts (NSEs) on GSIS and cataplerotic metabolic pathways implicated in the regulation of GSIS. TQ and NSE regulated NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios via a quinone-dependent redox cycling mechanism. TQ content was positively correlated with the degree of redox cycling activity of NSE extracts, suggesting that TQ is a major component engaged in mediating NSE-dependent redox cycling. Both acute and chronic exposure to TQ and NSE enhanced GSIS and were associated with the ability of TQ and NSE to increase the ATP/ADP ratio. Furthermore, TQ ameliorated the impairment of GSIS following chronic exposure of ?-cells to glucose overload. This protective action was associated with the TQ-dependent normalization of chronic accumulation of malonyl-CoA, elevation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase, and fatty acid-binding proteins following chronic glucose overload. Together, these data suggest that TQ modulates the ?-cell redox circuitry and enhances the sensitivity of ?-cell metabolic pathways to glucose and GSIS under normal conditions as well as under hyperglycemia. This action is associated with the ability of TQ to regulate carbohydrate-to-lipid flux via downregulation of ACC and malonyl-CoA.
Project description:In preparation for the metabolic demands of pregnancy, ? cells in the maternal pancreatic islets increase both in number and in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) per cell. Mechanisms have been proposed for the increased ? cell mass, but not for the increased GSIS. Because serotonin production increases dramatically during pregnancy, we tested whether flux through the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3) affects GSIS during pregnancy. Pregnant Htr3a(-/-) mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance despite normally increased ? cell mass, and their islets lacked the increase in GSIS seen in islets from pregnant wild-type mice. Electrophysiological studies showed that activation of Htr3 decreased the resting membrane potential in ? cells, which increased Ca(2+) uptake and insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. Thus, our data indicate that serotonin, acting in a paracrine/autocrine manner through Htr3, lowers the ? cell threshold for glucose and plays an essential role in the increased GSIS of pregnancy.
Project description:Background:Proper glycemic control is an important goal of critical care medicine, including perioperative patient care that can influence patients' prognosis. Insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells is generally assumed to play a critical role in glycemic control in response to an elevated blood glucose concentration. Many animal and human studies have demonstrated that perioperative drugs, including volatile anesthetics, have an impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the effects of the intravenous anesthetic propofol on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity are largely unknown at present. Methods:The effect of propofol on insulin secretion under low glucose or high glucose was examined in mouse MIN6 cells, rat INS-1 cells, and mouse pancreatic ?-cells/islets. Cellular oxygen or energy metabolism was measured by Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), potassium channels, and insulin mRNA was assessed by qRT-PCR. Protein expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv2) was also assessed by immunoblot. Propofol's effects on potassium channels including stromatoxin-1-sensitive Kv channels and cellular oxygen and energy metabolisms were also examined. Results:We showed that propofol, at clinically relevant doses, facilitates insulin secretion under low glucose conditions and GSIS in MIN6, INS-1 cells, and pancreatic ?-cells/islets. Propofol did not affect intracellular ATP or ADP concentrations and cellular oxygen or energy metabolism. The mRNA expression of GLUT2 and channels including the voltage-dependent calcium channels Cav1.2, Kir6.2, and SUR1 subunit of KATP, and Kv2 were not affected by glucose or propofol. Finally, we demonstrated that propofol specifically blocks Kv currents in ?-cells, resulting in insulin secretion in the presence of glucose. Conclusions:Our data support the hypothesis that glucose induces membrane depolarization at the distal site, leading to KATP channel closure, and that the closure of Kv channels by propofol depolarization in ?-cells enhances Ca2+ entry, leading to insulin secretion. Because its activity is dependent on GSIS, propofol and its derivatives are potential compounds that enhance and initiate ?-cell electrical activity.
Project description:Glucose metabolism promotes insulin secretion in ?-cells via metabolic coupling factors that are incompletely defined. Moreover, chronically elevated glucose causes ?-cell dysfunction, but little is known about how cells handle excess fuels to avoid toxicity. Here we sought to determine which among the candidate pathways and coupling factors best correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), define the fate of glucose in the ?-cell, and identify pathways possibly involved in excess-fuel detoxification. We exposed isolated rat islets for 1 h to increasing glucose concentrations and measured various pathways and metabolites. Glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, and ATP production correlated well with GSIS and saturated at 16 mm glucose. However, glucose utilization, glycerol release, triglyceride and glycogen contents, free fatty acid (FFA) content and release, and cholesterol and cholesterol esters increased linearly up to 25 mm glucose. Besides being oxidized, glucose was mainly metabolized via glycerol production and release and lipid synthesis (particularly FFA, triglycerides, and cholesterol), whereas glycogen production was comparatively low. Using targeted metabolomics in INS-1(832/13) cells, we found that several metabolites correlated well with GSIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, malonyl-CoA, and lower ADP levels. Glucose dose-dependently increased the dihydroxyacetone phosphate/glycerol 3-phosphate ratio in INS-1(832/13) cells, indicating a more oxidized state of NAD in the cytosol upon glucose stimulation. Overall, the data support a role for accelerated oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, anaplerosis, and malonyl-CoA/lipid signaling in ?-cell metabolic signaling and suggest that a decrease in ADP levels is important in GSIS. The results also suggest that excess-fuel detoxification pathways in ?-cells possibly comprise glycerol and FFA formation and release extracellularly and the diversion of glucose carbons to triglycerides and cholesterol esters.
Project description:Pancreatic ? cells secrete insulin in response to postprandial increases in glucose levels to prevent hyperglycemia and inhibit insulin secretion under fasting conditions to protect against hypoglycemia. ? cells lack this functional capability at birth and acquire glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) during neonatal life. Here, we have shown that during postnatal life, the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A initiates a metabolic program by repressing key genes, thereby enabling the coupling of insulin secretion to glucose levels. In a murine model, ? cell-specific deletion of Dnmt3a prevented the metabolic switch, resulting in loss of GSIS. DNMT3A bound to the promoters of the genes encoding hexokinase 1 (HK1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) - both of which regulate the metabolic switch - and knockdown of these two key DNMT3A targets restored the GSIS response in islets from animals with ? cell-specific Dnmt3a deletion. Furthermore, DNA methylation-mediated repression of glucose-secretion decoupling genes to modulate GSIS was conserved in human ? cells. Together, our results reveal a role for DNA methylation to direct the acquisition of pancreatic ? cell function.
Project description:Syntaxin (Syn)-1A mediates exocytosis of predocked insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs) during first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part via its interaction with plasma membrane (PM)-bound L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav). In contrast, Syn-3 mediates exocytosis of newcomer SGs that accounts for second-phase GSIS. We now hypothesize that the newcomer SG Syn-3 preferentially binds and modulates R-type Cav opening, which was postulated to mediate second-phase GSIS. Indeed, glucose-stimulation of pancreatic islet ?-cell line INS-1 induced a predominant increase in interaction between Syn-3 and Cav?1 pore-forming subunits of R-type Cav2.3 and to lesser extent L-type Cavs, while confirming the preferential interactions between Syn-1A with L-type (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) Cavs. Consistently, direct binding studies employing heterologous HEK cells confirmed that Syn-3 preferentially binds Cav2.3, whereas Syn-1A prefers L-type Cavs. We then used siRNA knockdown (KD) of Syn-3 in INS-1 to study the endogenous modulatory actions of Syn-3 on Cav channels. Syn-3 KD enhanced Ca2+ currents by 46% attributed mostly to R- and L-type Cavs. Interestingly, while the transmembrane domain of Syn-1A is the putative functional domain modulating Cav activity, it is the cytoplasmic domain of Syn-3 that appears to modulate Cav activity. We conclude that Syn-3 may mimic Syn-1A in the ability to bind and modulate Cavs, but preferring Cav2.3 to perhaps participate in triggering fusion of newcomer insulin SGs during second-phase GSIS.