Biochemical properties of MutT2 proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmatis and their contrasting antimutator roles in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is at increased risk of accumulating damaged guanine nucleotides such as 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP because of its residency in the oxidative environment of the host macrophages. By hydrolyzing the oxidized guanine nucleotides before their incorporation into nucleic acids, MutT proteins play a critical role in allowing organisms to avoid their deleterious effects. Mycobacteria possess several MutT proteins. Here, we purified recombinant M. tuberculosis MutT2 (MtuMutT2) and M. smegmatis MutT2 (MsmMutT2) proteins from M. tuberculosis (a slow grower) and M. smegmatis (fast growing model mycobacteria), respectively, for their biochemical characterization. Distinct from the Escherichia coli MutT, which hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP, the mycobacterial proteins hydrolyze not only 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP but also dCTP and 5-methyl-dCTP. Determination of kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) revealed that while MtuMutT2 hydrolyzes dCTP nearly four times better than it does 8-oxo-dGTP, MsmMutT2 hydrolyzes them nearly equally. Also, MsmMutT2 is about 14 times more efficient than MtuMutT2 in its catalytic activity of hydrolyzing 8-oxo-dGTP. Consistent with these observations, MsmMutT2 but not MtuMutT2 rescues E. coli for MutT deficiency by decreasing both the mutation frequency and A-to-C mutations (a hallmark of MutT deficiency). We discuss these findings in the context of the physiological significance of MutT proteins.
Project description:Approximately one third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. A better understanding of the pathogen biology is crucial to develop new tools/strategies to tackle its spread and treatment. In the host macrophages, the pathogen is exposed to reactive oxygen species, known to damage dGTP and GTP to 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP, respectively. Incorporation of the damaged nucleotides in nucleic acids is detrimental to organisms. MutT proteins, belonging to a class of Nudix hydrolases, hydrolyze 8-oxo-G nucleoside triphosphates/diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates and sanitize the nucleotide pool. Mycobacteria possess several MutT proteins. However, a functional homolog of Escherichia coli MutT has not been identified. Here, we characterized MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 proteins of M. tuberculosis. Unlike other MutT proteins, MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP, and 8-oxo-GTP to 8-oxo-GDP. Rv1700 then converts them to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. This observation suggests the presence of a two-stage mechanism of 8-oxo-dGTP/8-oxo-GTP detoxification in mycobacteria. MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP with a Km of ?50 ?M and Vmax of ?0.9 pmol/min per ng of protein, and Rv1700 converts 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP with a Km of ?9.5 ?M and Vmax of ?0.04 pmol/min per ng of protein. Together, MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 offer maximal rescue to E. coli for its MutT deficiency by decreasing A to C mutations (a hallmark of MutT deficiency). We suggest that the concerted action of MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 plays a crucial role in survival of bacteria against oxidative stress.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis MutT1, MutT2, MutT3, and Rv3908 (MutT4) enzymes were screened for an antimutator role. Results indicate that both MutT1, in M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, and MutT4, in M. smegmatis, have that role. Furthermore, an 8-oxo-guanosine triphosphatase function for MutT1 and MutT2 is suggested.
Project description:Living in an oxygen-rich environment is dangerous for a cell. Reactive oxygen species can damage DNA, RNA, protein and lipids. The MutT protein in Escherichia coli removes 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) and 8-oxo-guanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-GTP) from the nucleotide pools precluding incorporation into DNA and RNA. While 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation into DNA is mutagenic, it is not clear if 8-oxo-GTP incorporation into RNA can have phenotypic consequences for the cell. We use a bistable epigenetic switch sensitive to transcription errors in the Escherichia coli lacI transcript to monitor transient RNA errors. We do not observe any increase in epigenetic switching in mutT cells. We revisit the original observation of partial phenotypic suppression of a lacZamber allele in a mutT background that was attributed to RNA errors. We find that Lac+ revertants can completely account for the increase in ?-galactosidase levels in mutT lacZamber cultures, without invoking participation of transient transcription errors. Moreover, we observe a fluctuation type of distribution of ?-galactosidase appearance in a growing culture, consistent with Lac+ DNA revertant events. We conclude that the absence of MutT produces a DNA mutator but does not equally create an RNA mutator.
Project description:Most of the proteins carrying the 23-residue MutT-related sequence are capable of hydrolyzing compounds with a general structure of nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X and are called the Nudix hydrolases. Among the 22 human Nudix proteins (identified by the sequence signature), some remain uncharacterized as enzymes without a defined substrate. Here, we reveal that the NUDT18 protein, whose substrate was unknown, can degrade 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-Gua)-containing nucleoside diphosphates to the monophosphates. Because this enzyme is closely related to MTH1 (NUDT1) and MTH2 (NUDT15), we propose that it should be named MTH3. Although these three human proteins resemble each other in their sequences, their substrate specificities differ considerably. MTH1 cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP but not 8-oxo-dGDP, whereas MTH2 can degrade both 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-dGDP, although the intrinsic enzyme activity of MTH2 is considerably lower than that of MTH1. On the other hand, MTH3 is specifically active against 8-oxo-dGDP and hardly cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP. Other types of oxidized nucleoside diphosphates, 2-hydroxy-dADP and 8-hydroxy-dADP, were also hydrolyzed by MTH3. Another notable feature of the MTH3 enzyme is its action toward the ribonucleotide counterpart. MTH3 can degrade 8-oxo-GDP as efficiently as 8-oxo-dGDP, which is in contrast to the finding that MTH1 and MTH2 show a limited activity against the ribonucleotide counterpart, 8-oxo-GTP. These three enzymes may function together to help maintain the high fidelity of DNA replication and transcription under oxidative stress.
Project description:Escherichia coli MutT hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGMP, an event that can prevent the misincorporation of 8-oxoguanine opposite adenine in DNA. Of the several enzymes that recognize 8-oxoguanine, MutT exhibits high substrate specificity for 8-oxoguanine nucleotides; however, the structural basis for this specificity is unknown. The crystal structures of MutT in the apo and holo forms and in the binary and ternary forms complexed with the product 8-oxo-dGMP and 8-oxo-dGMP plus Mn(2+), respectively, were determined. MutT strictly recognizes the overall conformation of 8-oxo-dGMP through a number of hydrogen bonds. This recognition mode revealed that 8-oxoguanine nucleotides are discriminated from guanine nucleotides by not only the hydrogen bond between the N7-H and Odelta (N119) atoms but also by the syn glycosidic conformation that 8-oxoguanine nucleotides prefer. Nevertheless, these discrimination factors cannot by themselves explain the roughly 34,000-fold difference between the affinity of MutT for 8-oxo-dGMP and dGMP. When the binary complex of MutT with 8-oxo-dGMP is compared with the ligand-free form, ordering and considerable movement of the flexible loops surrounding 8-oxo-dGMP in the binary complex are observed. These results indicate that MutT specifically recognizes 8-oxoguanine nucleotides by the ligand-induced conformational change.
Project description:The chemical integrity of the nucleotide pool and its homeostasis are crucial for genome stability. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a crucial enzyme that carries out reversible conversions from nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) to deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Guanosine nucleotides (GDP, GTP, dGDP, and dGTP) are highly susceptible to oxidative damage to 8-oxo-GDP (8-O-GDP), 8-O-dGTP, 8-O-GTP, and 8-O-dGTP. MutT proteins in cells hydrolyze 8-O-GTP to 8-O-GMP or 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGMP to avoid its incorporation in nucleic acids. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, 8-O-dGTP is also known to be hydrolyzed by RibA (GTP cyclohydrolase II). In this study, we show that <i>E. coli</i> NDK catalyzes the conversion of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP or vice versa. However, the rate of NDK-mediated phosphorylation of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP is about thrice as efficient as the rate of dephosphorylation of 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGDP, suggesting an additive role of NDK in net production of 8-O-dGTP in cells. Consistent with this observation, the depletion of NDK (?<i>ndk</i>) in <i>E. coli</i> ?<i>mutT</i> or ?<i>mutT</i> ?<i>ribA</i> strains results in a decrease of A-to-C mutations. These observations suggest that NDK contributes to the physiological load of MutT in <i>E. coli</i> <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), a ubiquitous enzyme, is known for its critical role in homeostasis of cellular nucleotide pools. However, NDK has now emerged as a molecule with pleiotropic effects in DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, gene expression, tumor metastasis, development, and pathogen virulence and persistence inside the host. In this study, we reveal an unexpected role of NDK in genome instability because of its activity in converting 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP. This observation has important consequences in escalating A-to-C mutations in <i>Escherichia coli</i> The severity of NDK in enhancing these mutations may be higher in the organisms challenged with high oxidative stress, which promotes 8-O-dGDP/8-O-dGTP production.
Project description:The common substrate structure for the functionally diverse Nudix protein superfamily is nucleotide-diphosphate-X, where X is a large variety of leaving groups. The substrate specificity is known for less than 1% of the 29,400 known members. Most activities result in the release of an inorganic phosphate ion or of a product bearing a terminal phosphate moiety. Reactions have typically been monitored by a modification of the discontinuous Fiske-SubbaRow assay, which is relatively insensitive and slow. We report here the development of a continuous fluorescence assay that enables the rapid and accurate determination of substrate specificities in a 96-well format. We used this novel assay to confirm the reported substrate characterizations of MutT and NudD of Escherichia coli and to characterize DR_1025 of Deinococcus radiodurans and MM_0920 of Methanosarcina mazei. Novel findings enabled by the new assay include the following. First, in addition to the well-characterized hydrolysis of 8-oxo-dGTP at the ?-? position, MutT cleaves at the ?-? phosphate bond at a rate of 3% of that recorded for hydrolysis at the ?-? position. Second, MutT also catalyzes the hydrolysis of 5-methyl-dCTP. Third, 8-oxo-dGTP was observed to be the best substrate for DR_1025 of the 41 compounds screened.
Project description:Human MutT homologue 1 (hMTH1) hydrolyzes a variety of oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, including 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-oxo-dATP, 2-oxo-ATP and 8-oxo-dATP, to their corresponding nucleoside monophosphates, while Escherichia coli MutT possesses prominent substrate specificity for 8-oxoguanine nucleotides. Three types of crystals were obtained corresponding to the following complexes: selenomethionine-labelled hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (SeMet hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP), hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP) and hMTH1 with 2-oxo-dATP (hMTH1-2-oxo-dATP). Crystals of the SeMet hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP complex belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 45.8, c = 153.6 A, and diffracted to 2.90 A. Crystals of hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP and hMTH1-2-oxo-dATP belong to space groups P2(1) and P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 34.0, b = 59.0, c = 65.9 A, beta = 90.7 degrees and a = 59.2, b = 67.3, c = 80.0 A, respectively. Their diffraction data were collected at resolutions of 1.95 and 2.22 A, respectively.
Project description:The bacterial repair enzyme MutT hydrolyzes the damaged nucleotide OdGTP (the 5'-triphosphate derivative of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine; OdG), which is a known mutagen and has been linked to antibacterial action. Previous work has indicated important roles for the C8-oxygen, N7-hydrogen, and C2-exocyclic amine during OdGTP recognition by MutT. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the contribution of these three sites to the overall activity of MutT, we determined the reaction parameters for dGTP, OdGTP, and nine of their analogues using steady state kinetics. Our results indicate that overall high reaction efficiencies can be achieved despite altering any one of these sites. However, altering two or more sites leads to a significant decrease in efficiency. The data also suggest that, similar to another bacterial OdG repair enzyme, MutM, a specific carbonyl in the enzyme can not only promote activity by forming an active site hydrogen bond with the N7-hydrogen of OdGTP, but can also hinder activity through electrostatic repulsion with the N7-lone pair of dGTP.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative damage in DNA precursors, i.e. dNTPs, leading to point mutations upon incorporation. Escherichia coli mutT strains, deficient in the activity hydrolysing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP), display more than a 100-fold higher spontaneous mutation frequency over the wild-type strain. 8-oxo-dGTP induces A to C transversions when misincorporated opposite template A. Here, we report that DNA pol III incorporates 8-oxo-dGTP ??20 times more efficiently opposite template A compared with template C. Single, double or triple deletions of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V had modest effects on the mutT mutator phenotype. Only the deletion of all four polymerases led to a 70% reduction of the mutator phenotype. While pol III may account for nearly all 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation opposite template A, it only extends ??30% of them, the remaining 70% being extended by the combined action of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V. The unique property of pol III, a C-family DNA polymerase present only in eubacteria, to preferentially incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP opposite template A during replication might explain the high spontaneous mutation frequency in E.?coli mutT compared with the mammalian counterparts lacking the 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolysing activities.