Regulation of STAT3 by histone deacetylase-3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: implications for therapy.
ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with an activated B-cell (ABC) gene-expression profile has been shown to have a poorer prognosis compared with tumors with a germinal center B-cell type. ABC cell lines have constitutive activation of STAT3; however, the mechanisms regulating STAT3 signaling in lymphoma are unknown. In studies of class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression, we found overexpression of HDAC3 in phospho STAT3-positive DLBCL and the HDAC3 was found to be complexed with STAT3. Inhibition of HDAC activity by panobinostat (LBH589) increased p300-mediated STAT3(Lys685) acetylation with increased nuclear export of STAT3 to the cytoplasm. HDAC inhibition abolished STAT3(Tyr705) phosphorylation with minimal effect on STAT3(Ser727) and JAK2 tyrosine activity. pSTAT3(Tyr705)-positive DLBCLs were more sensitive to HDAC inhibition with LBH589 compared with pSTAT3(Tyr705)-negative DLBCLs. This cytotoxicity was associated with downregulation of the direct STAT3 target Mcl-1. HDAC3 knockdown upregulated STAT3(Lys685) acetylation but prevented STAT3(Tyr705) phosphorylation and inhibited survival of pSTAT3-positive DLBCL cells. These studies provide the rationale for targeting STAT3-positive DLBCL tumors with HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is activated by phosphorylation of a specific tyrosine residue (Tyr705) in response to various extracellular signals. STAT3 activity was also found to be regulated by acetylation of Lys685. However, the molecular mechanism by which Lys685 acetylation affects the transcriptional activity of STAT3 remains elusive. By genetically encoding the co-translational incorporation of acetyl-lysine into position Lys685 and co-expression of STAT3 with the Elk receptor tyrosine kinase, we were able to characterize site-specifically acetylated, and simultaneously acetylated and phosphorylated STAT3. We measured the effect of acetylation on the crystal structure, and DNA binding affinity and specificity of Tyr705-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated STAT3. In addition, we monitored the deacetylation of acetylated Lys685 by reconstituting the mammalian enzymatic deacetylation reaction in live bacteria. Surprisingly, we found that acetylation, per se, had no effect on the crystal structure, and DNA binding affinity or specificity of STAT3, implying that the previously observed acetylation-dependent transcriptional activity of STAT3 involves an additional cellular component. In addition, we discovered that Tyr705-phosphorylation protects Lys685 from deacetylation in bacteria, providing a new possible explanation for the observed correlation between STAT3 activity and Lys685 acetylation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antitumor immune response of programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) has shown clinical value not only in Hodgkin lymphoma and EBV-associated lymphomas but also in EBV-negative diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of non-germinal center B cell-like (non-GCB) subtype. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is known to induce PD-L1 in immune cells and its activated form, phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), is also frequently expressed in non-GCB DLBCL. Herein, we investigated associations between PD-L1 expression/gene alteration, pSTAT3 expression and clinicopathologic variables in EBV-negative DLBCL. METHODS:In 107 cases of DLBCLs with non-GCB subtype (67%; 72/107), GCB subtype (25%; 27/107) and unclassifiable cases (8%; 8/107), we performed PD-L1 and pSTAT3 immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for PD-L1 gene translocation and copy number gain/amplification. RESULTS:PD-L1 was expressed in tumor cells (PD-L1t) in 21% (23/107; 30% cutoff), immune cells (PD-L1i) in 36% (38/107; 20% cutoff), and pSTAT3 in tumor nuclei in 41% (44/107; 40% cutoff). PD-L1 gene alteration was observed in 10% (10/102) including translocation in 6% (6/102) and copy number gain/amplification in 4% (4/102). Non-GCB subtype was associated with PD-L1t and pSTAT3 (p?=?0.006 and p?=?0.042), and tended to have PD-L1 gene alteration (p?=?0.058). Tumoral PD-L1 expression without gene alteration (PD-L1t+ GA-) correlated with pSTAT3-positive tumor cell proportions (%) (p?=?0.033). In survival analysis, pSTAT3 expression independently predicted shorter PFS in total cohort (p?=?0.017) and R-CHOP-treated group (p?=?0.007), and in pSTAT3-negative R-CHOP-treated subset, PD-L1 expression in immune cells (PD-L1i) correlated with shorter PFS (p?=?0.042). CONCLUSIONS:Gene alteration and protein expression of PD-L1 and pSTAT3 expression were closely related in DLBCL and constituted features of non-GCB subtype. In addition to known clinical significance of pSTAT3, immune cell expression of PD-L1 (PD-L1i) had also clinical value in pSTAT3-dependent manner. These findings may provide an insight into immunotherapeutic strategy and risk stratification in DLBCL patients.
Project description:Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines (U251 and U87), and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705) correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705) is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705) is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705)could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.
Project description:STAT3 regulates cell growth by up-regulating downstream targets, such as Myc. The frequency of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) and Myc expression and their prognostic relevance is unknown within diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) germinal center B-cell (GCB) and non-GCB subtypes. pSTAT3 and Myc were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tumors from 40 DLBCL patients uniformly treated on a clinical trial of epratuzumab/rituximab-CHOP. A total of 35% of cases were pSTAT3-positive, and pSTAT3 positivity was more frequent in the non-GCB (P = .06) type but did not correlate with event-free survival (EFS). Myc expression was observed in 50% of cases and was more frequent in non-GCB type (P = .07). Myc-positive cases had inferior EFS in all patients, including the GCB and pSTAT3-positive cases, were more likely to express Myc (P = .06). Myc translocations involving the major breakpoint regions were found in 10% (3 of 29) of cases, and all 3 cases were GCB and had an inferior EFS (P = .09). pSTAT3, but not Myc expression, was correlated with elevated pretreatment serum cytokines, such as IL-10 (P = .05), G-CSF (P = .03), and TNF-? (P = .04). pSTAT3 IHC in DLBCL tumors has the potential to identify patients for STAT3 pathway-directed therapy; Myc IHC is a potential marker for inferior EFS in GCB patients.
Project description:Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, includes two main molecular subtypes: activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL and germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL. ABC DLBCL is more aggressive, with the activated JAK1-STAT3 pathway that promotes cell survival. In order to study the underlying pathogenic mechanism, we performed a ChIP-seq experiment by phospho-STAT3(Tyr705) antibody in ABC DLBCL cell lines, and identified 3,456 STAT3 target genes genome-wide. In parallel, ChIP-seq experiment was performed with STAT3 antibody in α-IgM stimulated naïve B cells for verification of these targets of STAT3 protein. TMD8 was treated by eithor DMSO or AZD1480 (JAK inhibitor) for 4hrs, ChIP-seq experiments were performed by pSTAT3(Tyr705) antibody (#9145S, Cell signaling). Naïve B cells were collected from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Naive B Cell Isolation kit (miltenyi biotec; 130-091-150), and treated by 10ug/ml α-IgM (southernbiotech; #2020-01) for 24hrs. ChIP-seq experiments were performed by STAT3 antibody (SC-482X, Santa Cruz). Overall design: TMD8 cells were treated by eithor DMSO or AZD1480(JAK inhibitor) for 4hrs. Naïve B cells were collected from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Naive B Cell Isolation kit (miltenyi biotec; 130-091-150), and treated by 10ug/ml α-IgM (southernbiotech; #2020-01) for 24hrs.
Project description:Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited.We evaluated expression of pSTAT3 in de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling (GEP), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Results were analyzed in correlation with cell-of-origin (COO), critical lymphoma biomarkers, and genetic translocations.pSTAT3 expression was observed in 16% of DLBCL and was associated with advanced stage, multiple extranodal sites of involvement, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, MYC expression, and MYC/BCL2 expression. Expression of pSTAT3 predicted inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with de novo DLBCL. When DLBCL cases were stratified according to COO or MYC expression, pSTAT3 expression did not predict inferior outcome, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic predictability of pSTAT3 expression was due to its association with the ABC subtype, MYC expression, and adverse clinical features. GEP demonstrated upregulation of genes, which can potentiate function of STAT3. GSEA showed the JAK-STAT pathway to be enriched in pSTAT3(+) DLBCL.The results of this study provide a rationale for the ongoing successful clinical trials targeting the JAK-STAT pathway in DLBCL.
Project description:The activated B cell-like (ABC) subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. In this study, we showed that the NF-kappaB pathway induced the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in ABC DLBCL cell lines, which also have high levels of total and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 protein, suggesting autocrine signaling. Using RNA interference for STAT3, we defined a gene expression signature of IL-6 and IL-10 signaling through STAT3. Based on this signature, we constructed a molecular predictor of STAT3 signaling that defined a subset of ABC DLBCL tumors with high expression of STAT3, IL-6, and/or IL-10 and their downstream targets. Although the STAT3-high and STAT3-low subsets had equivalent expression of genes that distinguish ABC DLBCL from germinal center B cell-like DLBCL, STAT3-high ABC DLBCLs had higher expression of signatures that reflected NF-kappaB activity, proliferation, and glycolysis. A small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase signaling, which blocked STAT3 signature expression, was toxic only for ABC DLBCL lines and synergized with an inhibitor of NF-kappaB signaling. These findings suggest that the biological interplay between the STAT3 and NF-kappaB pathways may be exploited for the treatments of a subset of ABC DLBCLs.
Project description:MCL1 is an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family that is deregulated in various solid and hematological malignancies. However, its role in the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unclear. We analyzed gene expression profiling data from 350 DLBCL patient samples and detected that activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCLs express MCL1 at significantly higher levels compared to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL patient samples (p=2.7 x 10(-10)) [PMID 23257783]. Immunohistochemistry confirmed high MCL1 protein expression predominantly in ABC DLBCL in an independent patient cohort (n=249; p=0.001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms leading to aberrant MCL1 expression, we analyzed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data of 203 DLBCL samples [GSE11318] and identified recurrent chromosomal gains/amplifications of the MCL1 locus that occurred in 26% of ABC DLBCLs. In addition, aberrant STAT3 signaling contributed to high MCL1 expression in this subtype. Knockdown of MCL1 as well as treatment with the BH3-mimetic obatoclax induced apoptotic cell death in MCL1 positive DLBCL cell lines. In summary, MCL1 is deregulated in a significant fraction of ABC DLBCLs and contributes to therapy resistance. These data suggest that specific inhibition of MCL1 might be utilized therapeutically in a subset of DLBCLs. This GEO dataset is comprised of aCGH measurements for DLBCL cell lines, which are used in the above-mentioned paper. Cell lines were measured against the DNA of a healthy male donor who in turn was measured against a pool of healthy DNAs to correct for individual CNVs of the donor.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent novel molecular targets for the treatment of various types of cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Many HDAC inhibitors have already shown remarkable antitumor activities in the preclinical setting; however, their clinical utility is limited because of unfavorable toxicities associated with their broad range HDAC inhibitory effects. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibition may allow for MM cytotoxicity without attendant side effects. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC3 knockdown and a small-molecule HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition via apoptosis, evidenced by caspase and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Importantly, HDAC3 inhibition downregulates phosphorylation (tyrosine 705 and serine 727) of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Neither interleukin-6 nor bone marrow stromal cells overcome this inhibitory effect of HDAC3 inhibition on phospho-STAT3 and MM cell growth. Moreover, HDAC3 inhibition also triggers hyperacetylation of STAT3, suggesting crosstalk signaling between phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC3, but not HDAC1 or 2, significantly enhances bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we confirm that BG45 alone and in combination with bortezomib trigger significant tumor growth inhibition in vivo in a murine xenograft model of human MM. Our results indicate that HDAC3 represents a promising therapeutic target, and validate a prototype novel HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 in MM.