Analysis of sex hormone genes reveals gender differences in the genetic etiology of blood pressure salt sensitivity: the GenSalt study.
ABSTRACT: We examined the association between 799 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 39 sex hormone genes and blood pressure (BP) responses to a dietary-sodium intervention.A 7-day low-sodium feeding study (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium feeding study (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Han Chinese participants. Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and the end of each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.Among men, absolute BP responses to sodium interventions decreased with the number of minor alleles of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) markers rs9340844, rs9397453, rs9371562, rs9397459, and rs9383951. For example, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to low-sodium intervention (95% confidence interval) were -2.67 (-3.13, -2.22) mm Hg among those with the rs9397453 C/C genotype, -1.23 (-1.98, -0.48) mm Hg among those with the C/T genotype, and 0.08 (-2.31, 2.47) mm Hg among those with the T/T genotype (P = 1×10(-4); false discovery rate (FDR)-q = 0.04). Mean DBP responses to high sodium according to the rs9397453 genotypes were 1.46 (1.03, 1.89) mm Hg among those with C/C, 0.19 (-0.54, 0.91) mm Hg among those with C/T, and -1.10 (-2.82, 0.61) mm Hg among those with T/T (P = 2×10(-4); FDR-q = 0.04). Similar trends were noted for the association between these ESR1 variants and SBP responses to the dietary intervention. There were no significant associations between sex hormone gene variants and salt sensitivity in women, with genotype-gender interactions noted for the ESR1 markers that achieved significance in men.We identified strong, consistent associations between ESR1 gene variants and salt sensitivity in men. Our results support a gender-specific role for ESR1 in the etiology of this complex trait.
Project description:We examined the association between 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-adducin (ADD1) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) genes and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) pressure responses to salt intake.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Han participants from rural North China. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.We identified a significant association between a rare ADD1 variant rs17833172 and SBP, DBP, and MAP responses to high sodium (P values <0.0001) and DBP response to low sodium (P value = 0.002). Participants homozygous for the variant A allele of this marker had SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% confidence interval) to high salt of 1.6 (-1.8, 4.9), -0.8 (-5.6, 4.0), and -0.1 (-4.0, 3.9) mm Hg, respectively, vs. corresponding responses of 4.6 (2.5, 6.6), 1.7 (-0.2, 3.6), and 2.7 (0.9, 4.4) mm Hg, respectively, for those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the G allele. In addition, participants with at least one copy of the A allele of SNP rs1129649 of the GNB3 gene had significantly decreased MAP response to low salt compared to homozygotes for the C allele (P value = 0.004) with responses of -3.4 (-3.8, -3.0) vs. -4.2 (-4.6, -3.8) mm Hg, respectively.These data support a role for the ADD1 and GNB3 genes in BP salt sensitivity. Future studies aimed at replicating these novel findings are warranted.
Project description:Both sodium reduction and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lower blood pressure (BP); however, the patterns of their effects on BP over time are unknown. In the DASH-Sodium trial, adults with pre-/stage 1 hypertension, not using antihypertensive medications, were randomly assigned to either a typical American diet (control) or DASH. Within their assigned diet, participants randomly ate each of 3 sodium levels (50, 100, and 150 mmol/d, at 2100 kcal) over 4-week periods. BP was measured weekly for 12 weeks; 412 participants enrolled (57% women; 57% black; mean age, 48 years; mean systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP], 135/86 mm Hg). For those assigned control, there was no change in SBP/DBP between weeks 1 and 4 on the high-sodium diet (weekly change, -0.04/0.06 mm Hg/week) versus a progressive decline in BP on the low-sodium diet (-0.94/-0.70 mm Hg/week; P interactions between time and sodium <0.001 for SBP and DBP). For those assigned DASH, SBP/DBP changed -0.60/-0.16 mm Hg/week on the high- versus -0.42/-0.54 mm Hg/week on the low-sodium diet (P interactions between time and sodium=0.56 for SBP and 0.10 for DBP). When comparing DASH to control, DASH changed SBP/DBP by -4.36/-1.07 mm Hg after 1 week, which accounted for most of the effect observed, with no significant difference in weekly rates of change for either SBP (P interaction=0.97) or DBP (P interaction=0.70). In the context of a typical American diet, a low-sodium diet reduced BP without plateau, suggesting that the full effects of sodium reduction are not completely achieved by 4 weeks. In contrast, compared with control, DASH lowers BP within a week without further effect thereafter. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000608.
Project description:The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the association of genetic variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) system with blood pressure (BP) response to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population.We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations of 48 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 genes of NP system with BP response to dietary sodium intervention.SNP rs5063 in the NPPA gene and SNP rs2077386 in the NPPC gene exhibited significant associations with BP response to low-sodium dietary intervention under recessive genetic model. For rs5063, absolute mean arterial pressure responses (95% confidence interval) to the low-sodium intervention were 1.31 (-1.08, 3.70) mm Hg for TT genotype and -3.74 (-4.01, -3.46) mm Hg for CC or TC genotype, respectively (P = 4.1 × 10(-5)). Individuals with at least one copy of the C allele of rs2077386 had significantly reduction in systolic BP during the low-sodium intervention compared to those with genotype GG with responses of -5.48 (-5.83, -5.14) vs. -2.76 (-3.52, -2.00) mm Hg, respectively (P = 1.9 × 10(-13)).These novel findings suggested that genetic variants of NP system may contribute to the variation of BP response to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Certainly, replication of these results in other populations and further functional studies are warranted to clarify their role in the regulation of BP and hypertension.
Project description:Prostasin, a serine protease, is suggested to be a novel mechanism regulating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expressed in the distal nephron. This study aimed to evaluate whether the human prostasin gene is a novel candidate gene underlying blood pressure (BP) elevation.In a sample of healthy African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) twin subjects aged 17.6 +/- 3.3 years (n = 920, 45% AAs), race-specific tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) were identified to tag all the available SNPs +/- 2 kb up- and downstream of the prostasin gene from HapMap at r2 of 0.8-1.0. Selection yielded four tSNPs in AAs and one in EAs, with one tSNP (rs12597511: C to T) present in both AAs and EAs.For rs12597511, CT and TT genotypes exhibited higher systolic BP (SBP) than CC genotype (115.9 +/- 1.1 mm Hg vs. 113.7 +/- 0.6 mm Hg, P = 0.025 (AAs); and 110.7 +/- 0.5 mm Hg vs. 109.6 +/- 0.6 mm Hg, P = 0.115 (EAs)). CT and TT genotypes compared with CC genotype showed a significant increase in diastolic BP (DBP) in both racial groups (62.5 +/- 0.7 mm Hg vs. 60.4 +/- 0.4 mm Hg, P = 0.003 (AAs); and 58.2 +/- 0.3 mm Hg vs. 56.7 +/- 0.4 mm Hg, P = 0.007 (EAs)). Furthermore, there was an increase in radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) in subjects with CT and TT genotype as compared with those with CC genotype (6.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.1 m/s, P < 0.0001) (EAs); and 6.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.1 m/s, P = 0.354 (AAs)). Analyses combining AAs and EAs consistently demonstrated a statistical significance of rs12597511 on all the phenotypes including SBP/DBP and PWV.Genetic variation of the prostasin gene may be implicated in the development of hypertension in youths..
Project description:Genetic factors may influence blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary potassium intake. We examined the association of genetic variants in the apelin-APJ system and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with BP responses to potassium supplementation.We conducted a 7-day potassium supplementation (60 mmol/day) intervention among 1,906 Chinese adults who participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on HapMap data and potential functional SNPs were selected in the APLN, APLNR, and ACE2 genes. Because the ACE2 and APLN genes are located on the X chromosome, men and women were analyzed separately.In women, SNP rs2235306 in the APLN gene was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0009). The DBP responses (95% confidence interval (CI)) among those with genotypes T/T, T/C, and C/C were -2.22 (-2.74, -1.70), -1.69 (-2.20, -1.19), and -0.81 (-1.54, -0.09) mm Hg, respectively. In men, SNP rs4646174 of the ACE2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 3.0 x 10(-6), respectively). The SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% CI) were -0.79 (-2.27, 0.69) vs. -3.53 (-3.94, -3.12), 1.07 (-0.34, 2.49) vs. -1.06 (-1.43, -0.69), and 0.44 (-0.60, 1.48) vs. -1.89 (-2.22, -1.55) mm Hg among men with minor G allele compared to those with major C allele of rs4646174, respectively.Our study indicates that genetic variation of APLN and ACE2 may influence BP response to potassium intake.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) and to dietary sodium intake might be related to the risk of hypertension. We examined the association between BP responses to the CPT and to dietary sodium and potassium interventions.The CPT and dietary intervention were conducted among 1906 study participants in rural China. The dietary intervention included three 7-day periods of low sodium intake (3 g/d of salt [sodium chloride] [51.3 mmol/d of sodium]), high sodium intake (18 g/d of salt [307.8 mmol/d of sodium]), and high sodium intake plus potassium chloride supplementation (60 mmol/d). A total of 9 BP measurements were obtained during the 3-day baseline observation and the last 3 days of each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.Blood pressure response to the CPT was significantly associated with BP changes during the sodium and potassium interventions (all P < .001). Compared with the lowest quartile of BP response to the CPT (quartile 1), systolic BP changes (95% confidence intervals) for the quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were -2.02 (-2.87 to -1.16) mm Hg, -3.17 (-4.05 to -2.28) mm Hg, and -5.98 (-6.89 to -5.08) mm Hg, respectively, during the low-sodium intervention. Corresponding systolic BP changes during the high-sodium intervention were 0.40 (-0.36 to 1.16) mm Hg, 0.44 (-0.35 to 1.22) mm Hg, and 2.30 (1.50 to 3.10) mm Hg, respectively, and during the high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention were -0.26 (-0.99 to 0.46) mm Hg, -0.95 (-1.70 to -0.20) mm Hg, and -1.59 (-2.36 to -0.83) mm Hg, respectively.These results indicate that BP response to the CPT was associated with salt sensitivity and potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, a low-sodium or high-potassium diet might be more effective to lower BP among individuals with high responses to the CPT.
Project description:Some studies have suggested reductions in blood pressure (BP)with statin treatment, particularly in persons with hypertension. Randomized trial evidence is limited.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with equal allocation to simvastatin, 20 mg; pravastatin sodium,40 mg; or placebo for 6 months. Nine hundred seventy-three men and women without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol screening levels of 115 to 190 mg/dL, had assessment of systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively). Blood pressure values were compared for placebo vs statins by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Additional analyses were performed that (1) were confined to subjects with neither high baseline BP (SBP>140 mm Hg or DBP>90 mm Hg) nor receiving BP medications, to exclude groups in whom BP medications or medication changes may have influenced results, and (2) separately evaluated simvastatin and pravastatin (vs placebo). The time course of BP changes after statin initiation and the effect of stopping statins on BP were examined.Statins modestly but significantly reduced BP relative to placebo,by 2.2 mm Hg for SBP (P=.02) and 2.4 mm Hg for DBP (P<.001) in ITT analysis. Blood pressure reductions ranged from 2.4 to 2.8 mm Hg for both SBP and DBP with both simvastatin and pravastatin, in those subjects with full follow-up, and without potential for influence by BP medications (ie, neither receiving nor meriting BP medications).Reductions in SBP and DBP occurred with hydrophilic and lipophilic statins and extended to normotensive subjects. These modest effects may contribute to the reduced risk of stroke and cardiovascular events reported on statins. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00330980.
Project description:Background Blood pressure (BP) guidelines for patients with aortic stenosis or a history of aortic stenosis treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR) match those in the general population, but this extrapolation may not be warranted. Methods and Results Among patients enrolled in the Medtronic intermediate, high, and extreme risk trials, we included those with a transcatheter AVR (n=1794) or surgical AVR (n=1103) who were alive at 30 days. The associations between early (average of discharge and 30 day post-AVR) systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) measurements and clinical outcomes between 30 days and 1 year were evaluated. Among 2897 patients, after adjustment, spline curves demonstrated an association between lower SBP (<120 mm Hg, representing 21% of patients) and DBP (<60 mm Hg, representing 30% of patients) and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and repeat hospitalization. These relationships were unchanged when patients with moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation post-AVR were excluded. After adjustment, compared with DBP 60 to <80 mm Hg, DBP 30 to <60 mm Hg was associated with increased all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.14) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.52-3.00), but DBP 80 to <100 mm Hg was not. Similarly, after adjustment, compared with SBP 120 to <150 mm Hg, SBP 90 to <120 mm Hg was associated with increased all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.21) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.25-2.61), but SBP 150 to <180 mm Hg was not. Conclusions Lower BP in the first month after transcatheter AVR or surgical AVR is common and associated with increased mortality and repeat hospitalization. Clarifying optimal BP targets in these patients ought to be a priority and may improve patient outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration Information URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01586910, NCT01240902.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ?135/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?130/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?120/70 mm?Hg) have been derived from European, Asian, and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African American adults. METHODS:We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African American adults (n=5306). Analyses were restricted to 1016 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Mean SBP and DBP levels were calculated for daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm), 24-hour (all available readings), and nighttime (midnight-6:00 am) periods, separately. Daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension were identified using regression- and outcome-derived approaches. The composite of a cardiovascular disease or an all-cause mortality event was used in the outcome-derived approach. For this latter approach, BP thresholds were identified only for SBP because clinic DBP was not associated with the outcome. Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive medication use. RESULTS:Among participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 134/85 mm?Hg, 130/81 mm?Hg, and 123/73 mm?Hg, respectively. The outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP corresponding to a clinic SBP ?140 mm?Hg were 138 mm?Hg, 134 mm?Hg, and 129 mm?Hg, respectively. Among participants taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 135/85 mm?Hg, 133/82 mm?Hg, and 128/76 mm?Hg, respectively. The corresponding outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP were 140 mm?Hg, 137 mm?Hg, and 133 mm?Hg, respectively, among those taking antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of the outcome-derived approach for SBP and regression-derived approach for DBP, the following definitions for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime hypertension corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP ?140/90 mm?Hg are proposed for African American adults: daytime SBP/DBP ?140/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?135/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?130/75 mm?Hg, respectively.
Project description:Genetic determinants of blood pressure (BP) response to potassium, or potassium sensitivity, are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional candidate gene analysis to identify genetic determinants of potassium sensitivity.A total of 1906 Han Chinese participants took part in a 7-day high-sodium diet followed by a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium dietary intervention. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and after each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Significant linkage signals (logarithm of odds [LOD] score, >3) for BP responses to potassium were detected at chromosomal regions 3q24-q26.1, 3q28, and 11q22.3-q24.3. Maximum multipoint LOD scores of 3.09 at 3q25.2 and 3.41 at 11q23.3 were observed for absolute diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses, respectively. Linkage peaks of 3.56 at 3q25.1 and 3.01 at 11q23.3 for percent DBP response and 3.22 at 3q25.2, 3.01 at 3q28, and 4.48 at 11q23.3 for percent MAP response also were identified. Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1), single-nucleotide polymorphism rs16860760 in the 3q24-q26.1 region was significantly associated with absolute and percent systolic BP responses to potassium (P=0.0008 and P=0.0006, respectively). Absolute (95% CI) systolic BP responses for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were -3.71 (-4.02 to -3.40), -2.62 (-3.38 to -1.85), and 1.03 (-3.73 to 5.79) mm Hg, respectively, and percent responses (95% CI) were -3.07 (-3.33 to -2.80), -2.07 (-2.74 to -1.41), and 0.90 (-3.20 to 4.99), respectively. Similar trends were observed for DBP and MAP responses.Genetic regions on chromosomes 3 and 11 may harbor important susceptibility loci for potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, the AGTR1 gene was a significant predictor of BP responses to potassium intake.