Marginal zone lymphoma: old, new, targeted, and epigenetic therapies.
ABSTRACT: Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is an indolent B-cell lymphoma arising from marginal zone B-cells present in lymph nodes and extranodal tissues. MZL comprises 5-17% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in adults. The World Health Organization categorizes MZL into three distinct types based on their site of impact: (1) splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL); (2) nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL); (3) extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which can be subdivided into gastric and nongastric. The subgroups of MZL share some common features but are different in their biology and behavior. Owing to the rarity of MZL there are few randomized trials available comparing various treatment options and therefore treatment is controversial, lacking standard guidelines. Treatment should be patient tailored and can range from a 'watchful waiting' approach for asymptomatic patients without cytopenias to surgery or localized radiation therapy. Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy has resulted in longer failure-free survival than chemotherapy alone in patients with SMZL. Helicobacter pylori positive gastric MALT shows a good response rate to triple antibiotic therapy. Newer therapies such as bendamustine, everolimus, lenalidomide, vorinostat and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors are in clinical trials for patients with relapsed or refractory MZL and have shown promising results. We are presently conducting clinical trials testing the efficacy of the epigenetic activity of cladribine as a hypomethylating agent in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat and rituximab in patients with MZL. Further studies with the newer agents should be done both in newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory MZL to streamline the care and to avoid the use of toxic chemotherapies as initial treatment.
Project description:Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%-10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted.Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case-control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88).Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found.
Project description:Study Design Case report. Objective Most spinal lymphomas occur in the context of systematic lymphomas. Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of B-cell lymphoma originating from the marginal zone of B-cell follicles. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal MZL and rarely occurs in the central nervous system. To date, there has been only one case report of primary spinal MALT lymphoma and there are no case reports of relapsed MALT lymphoma at a different location of the spine. Results A 58-year-old man complained of gait disturbance and urinary dysfunction. Magnetic resonance images showed an abnormal lesion in the epidural space at T11-L1 compressing the conus medullaris. The patient underwent laminectomy and partial resection of the tumor. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with MALT lymphoma. Following postoperative radiotherapy, the epidural mass disappeared completely. Three years later, epidural MALT lymphoma at a different location in the thoracic spine (T8-T10) occurred and caused myelopathy again. Histologic diagnosis of the relapsed tumor was the same as had been seen 3 years previously. Conclusions This is the first case report of relapsed spinal MALT lymphoma at a different location of the thoracic spine. Though the prognosis of MALT lymphoma is fairly good, careful follow-up is needed to screen any relapse or transformation to a high-grade lymphoma.
Project description:Marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZL) have been divided into three distinct subtypes (extranodal MZL of MALT type, nodal MZL; splenic MZL). Nevertheless, the relationship between them is still unclear. We performed a comprehensive analysis of genomic DNA copy number changes in a very large series of MZL cases with the aim of addressing this question. Samples from 218 MZL patients (25 nodal, 57 MALT, 134 splenic and two not better specified MZL) were analyzed with the Affymetrix Human Mapping 250K SNP arrays, and the data combined with matched gene expression in 33/218 cases. MALT lymphoma presented significantly more frequently gains at 3p, 6p, 18p and del(6q23) (TNFAIP3/A20), whilst splenic MZL was associated with del(7q31), del(8p). Nodal MZL did not show statistically significant differences when compared with MALT lymphoma while lacked the splenic MZL-related 7q losses. Gains of 3q and 18q gains were common to all three subtypes. Del(8p) was often present together with del(17p) (TP53). While del(17p) did not determine a worse outcome and del(8p) was only of borderline significance, the presence of both deletions had a highly significant negative impact on the outcome of splenic MZL. Overall design: Copy number analysis of Affymetrix 250K Nsp SNP arrays was performed for a total of 218 MZL samples were analyzed by high resolution genome wide-DNA profiling: 57 MALT lymphoma, 134 splenic MZL, 25 nodal MZL and two MZL where allocation to a specific category was not possible.
Project description:Marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZL) have been divided into three distinct subtypes (extranodal MZL of MALT type, nodal MZL; splenic MZL). Nevertheless, the relationship between them is still unclear. We performed a comprehensive analysis of genomic DNA copy number changes in a very large series of MZL cases with the aim of addressing this question. Samples from 218 MZL patients (25 nodal, 57 MALT, 134 splenic and two not better specified MZL) were analyzed with the Affymetrix Human Mapping 250K SNP arrays, and the data combined with matched gene expression in 33/218 cases. MALT lymphoma presented significantly more frequently gains at 3p, 6p, 18p and del(6q23) (TNFAIP3/A20), whilst splenic MZL was associated with del(7q31), del(8p). Nodal MZL did not show statistically significant differences when compared with MALT lymphoma while lacked the splenic MZL-related 7q losses. Gains of 3q and 18q gains were common to all three subtypes. Del(8p) was often present together with del(17p) (TP53). While del(17p) did not determine a worse outcome and del(8p) was only of borderline significance, the presence of both deletions had a highly significant negative impact on the outcome of splenic MZL. Copy number analysis of Affymetrix 250K Nsp SNP arrays was performed for a total of 218 MZL samples were analyzed by high resolution genome wide-DNA profiling: 57 MALT lymphoma, 134 splenic MZL, 25 nodal MZL and two MZL where allocation to a specific category was not possible.
Project description:Unique and shared cytogenetic abnormalities have been documented for marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) arising at different sites. Recently, homozygous deletions of the chromosomal band 6q23, involving the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, A20) gene, a negative regulator of NF-kappaB, were described in ocular adnexal MZL, suggesting a role for A20 as a tumor suppressor in this disease. Here, we investigated inactivation of A20 by DNA mutations or deletions in a panel of extranodal MZL (EMZL), nodal MZL (NMZL), and splenic MZL (SMZL). Inactivating mutations encoding truncated A20 proteins were identified in 6 (19%) of 32 MZLs, including 2 (18%) of 11 EMZLs, 3 (33%) of 9 NMZLs, and 1 (8%) of 12 SMZLs. Two additional unmutated nonsplenic MZLs also showed monoallelic or biallelic A20 deletions by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or SNP-arrays. Thus, A20 inactivation by either somatic mutation and/or deletion represents a common genetic aberration across all MZL subtypes, which may contribute to lymphomagenesis by inducing constitutive NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:We performed a phase II study of oral vorinostat, a histone and protein deacetylase inhibitor, to examine its efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed/refractory indolent lymphoma.In this open label phase II study (NCT00253630), patients with relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with ? 4 prior therapies were eligible. Oral vorinostat was administered at a dose of 200 mg twice daily on days 1 through 14 of a 21-day cycle until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR), with secondary end points of progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression, duration of response, safety, and tolerability.All 35 eligible patients were evaluable for response. The median number of vorinostat cycles received was nine. ORR was 29% (five complete responses [CR] and five partial responses [PR]). For 17 patients with FL, ORR was 47% (four CR, four PR). There were two of nine responders with MZL (one CR, one PR), and no formal responders among the nine patients with MCL, although one patient maintained stable disease for 26 months. Median PFS was 15.6 months for patients with FL, 5.9 months for MCL, and 18.8 months for MZL. The drug was well-tolerated over long periods of treatment, with the most common grade 3 adverse events being thrombocytopenia, anemia, leucopenia, and fatigue.Oral vorinostat is a promising agent in FL and MZL, with an acceptable safety profile. Further studies in combination with other active agents in this setting are warranted.
Project description:Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by massive splenomegaly, moderate lymphocytosis with or without villous lymphocytes, rare involvement of peripheral lymph nodes and indolent clinical course. As a rare disease, with no randomized prospective trials, there is no standard of care for SMZL so far. Splenectomy has been done for many years as an attempt to control disease, but nowadays it has not been encouraged as first line because of new advances in therapy as rituximab, that are as effective with minimal toxicity. Facing these controversies, this review highlights advances in the literature regarding diagnosis, prognostic factors, treatment indications and therapeutic options.
Project description:The rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial (RESORT; E4402) was a phase 3 randomized prospective trial comparing maintenance rituximab (MR) versus a retreatment (RR) dosing strategy in asymptomatic, low tumour burden indolent lymphoma. A planned exploratory sub-study compared the two strategies for small lymphocytic (SLL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZL). Patients responding to rituximab weekly × 4 were randomized to MR (single dose rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure) or RR (rituximab weekly × 4) at the time of each progression until treatment failure. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTTF). Patients with SLL (n = 57), MZL (n = 71) and unclassifiable small B-cell lymphoma (n = 3) received induction rituximab. The overall response rate (ORR) was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 31-49%; SLL ORR 22·8%; MZL ORR 52·1%]; all 52 responders were randomized. At a median of 4·3 years from randomization, treatment failure occurred in 18/23 RR and 15/29 MR. The median TTTF was 1·4 years for RR and 4·8 years for MR (P = 0·012); median time to first cytotoxic therapy was 6·3 years for RR and not reached for MR (P = 0·0002). Survival did not differ (P = 0·72). In low tumour burden SLL and MZL patients responding to rituximab induction, MR significantly improved TTTF as compared with RR.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal presentation of lymphoma; however, the data for outcomes of patients with subtypes other than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are limited. Therefore, we analyzed overall survival (OS) of adult patients diagnosed with PCNSL by histologic subtype between 1998 and 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. A total of 4375 patients were identified. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 18-96). DLBCL was the most common histology (N=3,091), followed by follicular lymphoma (FL, N=83), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL, N=64), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL, N=63), Burkitt lymphoma (BL, N=27), small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL, N=22), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, N=13) and others (N=1,012). The 5-year OS rates were 30% in DLBCL, 66% in FL, 33% in PTCL, 79% in MZL, 42% in BL, 38% in SLL and 45% in HL. Radiation alone showed similar OS compared to no treatment in DLBCL, BL and PTCL, while radiation alone was associated with similar OS to chemotherapy or chemo-radiation in FL and MZL. The outcomes of patients with PCNSL are unfavorable; with the exception of FL and MZL which can potentially show prolonged survival with surgical resection or radiation monotherapy.
Project description:The aetiology of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is purported to differ by anatomic site. While this is supported by clinical series of single MZL sites, no population-based study has comprehensively assessed incidence patterns across sites. To gain insight into disease aetiology, we assessed MZL incidence by site using data from 18 U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program population-based registries. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates (IRs) by sex, race, and calendar year. During 2001-2009, 4,081 (IR = 5·7/1,000,000 person-years) and 8,821 (IR = 12·3) individuals were diagnosed with nodal MZL and extranodal MZL, respectively. The most common extranodal sites were stomach (IR = 3·8), spleen (IR = 1·6), eye/adnexa (IR = 1·4), and lung, skin, and salivary glands (IRs = 0·9-1·0). We observed distinct age-specific patterns by MZL site, with IRs increasing steeply at younger ages and less prominently after mid-life at several sites, except skin. Gender and racial/ethnic disparities were also apparent across sites. Between 2001-2005 and 2006-2009, MZL IRs decreased significantly for gastric (-15%) and soft tissue (-28%) sites, whereas IRs increased significantly for lung (18%), skin (43%), and kidney/renal pelvis (116%). In combination, our findings support the contention that MZL is characterized by aetiological heterogeneity across sites and susceptibility is probably influenced by intrinsic characteristics and environmental exposures.