Validation of the Emotiv EPOC(®) EEG gaming system for measuring research quality auditory ERPs.
ABSTRACT: Background. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have proved useful in investigating the role of auditory processing in cognitive disorders such as developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism. However, laboratory recordings of auditory ERPs can be lengthy, uncomfortable, or threatening for some participants - particularly children. Recently, a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system has been developed that is portable, inexpensive, and easy to set up. In this study we tested if auditory ERPs measured using a gaming EEG system (Emotiv EPOC(®), www.emotiv.com) were equivalent to those measured by a widely-used, laboratory-based, research EEG system (Neuroscan). Methods. We simultaneously recorded EEGs with the research and gaming EEG systems, whilst presenting 21 adults with 566 standard (1000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1200 Hz) tones under passive (non-attended) and active (attended) conditions. The onset of each tone was marked in the EEGs using a parallel port pulse (Neuroscan) or a stimulus-generated electrical pulse injected into the O1 and O2 channels (Emotiv EPOC(®)). These markers were used to calculate research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERPs (P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 peaks) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) in active and passive listening conditions for each participant. Results. Analyses were restricted to frontal sites as these are most commonly reported in auditory ERP research. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) indicated that the morphology of the research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERP waveforms were similar across all participants, but that the research and gaming EEG system MMN waveforms were only similar for participants with non-noisy MMN waveforms (N = 11 out of 21). Peak amplitude and latency measures revealed no significant differences between the size or the timing of the auditory P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and MMN peaks. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the gaming EEG system may prove a valid alternative to laboratory ERP systems for recording reliable late auditory ERPs (P1, N1, P2, N2, and the P3) over the frontal cortices. In the future, the gaming EEG system may also prove useful for measuring less reliable ERPs, such as the MMN, if the reliability of such ERPs can be boosted to the same level as late auditory ERPs.
Project description:Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under "passive" and "active" listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of 'high' (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children's late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component.
Project description:Background:Previous work has validated consumer-grade electroencephalography (EEG) systems for use in research. Systems in this class are cost-effective and easy to set up and can facilitate neuroscience outside of the laboratory. The aim of the current study was to determine if a new consumer-grade system, the Emotiv EPOC Saline Flex, was capable of capturing research-quality data. Method:The Emotiv system was used simultaneously with a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan Synamps2, to collect EEG data across 16 channels during five well-established paradigms: (1) a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm that involved a passive listening task in which rare deviant (1,500 Hz) tones were interspersed amongst frequent standard tones (1,000 Hz), with instructions to ignore the tones while watching a silent movie; (2) a P300 paradigm that involved an active listening task in which participants were asked to count rare deviant tones presented amongst frequent standard tones; (3) an N170 paradigm in which participants were shown images of faces and watches and asked to indicate whether the images were upright or inverted; (4) a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm in which participants passively viewed a flickering screen (15 Hz) for 2 min; and (5) a resting state paradigm in which participants sat quietly with their eyes open and then closed for 3 min each. Results:The MMN components and P300 peaks were equivalent between the two systems (BF10 = 0.25 and BF10 = 0.26, respectively), with high intraclass correlations (ICCs) between the ERP waveforms (>0.81). Although the N170 peak values recorded by the two systems were different (BF10 = 35.88), ICCs demonstrated that the N170 ERP waveforms were strongly correlated over the right hemisphere (P8; 0.87-0.97), and moderately-to-strongly correlated over the left hemisphere (P7; 0.52-0.84). For the SSVEP, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was larger for Neuroscan than Emotiv EPOC Flex (19.94 vs. 8.98, BF10 = 51,764), but SNR z-scores indicated a significant brain response at the stimulus frequency for both Neuroscan (z = 12.47) and Flex (z = 11.22). In the resting state task, both systems measured similar alpha power (BF10 = 0.28) and higher alpha power when the eyes were closed than open (BF10 = 32.27). Conclusions:The saline version of the Emotiv EPOC Flex captures data similar to that of a research-grade EEG system. It can be used to measure reliable auditory and visual research-quality ERPs. In addition, it can index SSVEP signatures and is sensitive to changes in alpha oscillations.
Project description:Prior research suggests that event-related potentials (ERP) obtained during active and passive auditory paradigms, which have demonstrated abnormal neurocognitive function in schizophrenia, may provide helpful tools in predicting transition to psychosis. In addition to ERP measures, reduced modulations of EEG alpha, reflecting top-down control required to inhibit irrelevant information, have revealed attentional deficits in schizophrenia and its prodromal stage. Employing a three-stimulus novelty oddball task, nose-referenced 48-channel ERPs were recorded from 22 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients and 20 healthy controls detecting target tones (12% probability, 500Hz; button press) among nontargets (76%, 350Hz) and novel sounds (12%). After current source density (CSD) transformation of EEG epochs (-200 to 1000ms), event-related spectral perturbations were obtained for each site up to 30Hz and 800ms after stimulus onset, and simplified by unrestricted time-frequency (TF) principal components analysis (PCA). Alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) as measured by TF factor 610-9 (spectral peak latency at 610ms and 9Hz; 31.9% variance) was prominent over right posterior regions for targets, and markedly reduced in CHR patients compared to controls, particularly in three patients who later developed psychosis. In contrast, low-frequency event-related synchronization (ERS) distinctly linked to novels (260-1; 16.0%; mid-frontal) and N1 sink across conditions (130-1; 3.4%; centro-temporoparietal) did not differ between groups. Analogous time-domain CSD-ERP measures (temporal PCA), consisting of N1 sink, novelty mismatch negativity (MMN), novelty vertex source, novelty P3, P3b, and frontal response negativity, were robust and closely comparable between groups. Novelty MMN at FCz was, however, absent in the three converters. In agreement with prior findings, alpha ERD and MMN may hold particular promise for predicting transition to psychosis among CHR patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments) and MMN type (frequency vs. duration) as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.
Project description:Mismatch negativity (MMN) and visual P1 are established event-related potential (ERP) markers of impaired auditory and visual sensory function in schizophrenia. Differential relationships of these measures with premorbid and present function and with clinical course have been noted previously in independent cohorts, but measures have not yet been compared within the same patient group.Twenty-six schizophrenia patients and 19 control subjects participated in a simultaneous visual and auditory ERPs experiment. Attended visual ERPs were obtained to low- and high-spatial frequency stimuli. Simultaneously, MMN was obtained to unattended pitch, duration, and intensity deviant stimuli. Premorbid function, symptom, and global outcome measures were obtained as correlational measures.Patients showed substantial P1 reductions to low- but not high-spatial frequency stimuli, unrelated to visual acuity. Patients also exhibited reduced MMN to all deviant types. No significant correlations were observed between visual ERPs and premorbid or global outcome measures or illness duration. In contrast, MMN amplitude correlated significantly and independently with premorbid educational achievement, cognitive symptoms, global function, and illness duration. The MMN to duration versus other deviants was differentially reduced in individuals with poor premorbid function.Visual and auditory ERP measures are differentially related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Visual deficits correlate poorly with functional measures and illness duration and serve primarily as trait vulnerability markers. The MMN deficits are independently related to premorbid function and illness duration, suggesting independent neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative contributions. The lack of correlation between auditory and visual ERPs in schizophrenia suggests contributions from divergent underlying neurophysiological processes.
Project description:Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i.e., N1 and P3a change over time) in response to a passive auditory oddball task. Individuals with ASD showed an overall heightened sensitivity to change as exhibited by greater P3a amplitude to novel sounds. Moreover, youth with ASD showed dynamic ERP differences, including slower attenuation of the N1 response to infrequent tones and the P3a response to novel sounds. Dynamic ERP responses were related to parent ratings of auditory sensory-seeking behaviors, but not general cognition. As the first large-scale study to characterize temporal dynamics of auditory ERPs in ASD, our results provide compelling evidence that heightened response to auditory deviance in ASD is largely driven by early sensitivity and prolonged processing of auditory deviance.
Project description:Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant-Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs) across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz) scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the auditory discriminatory process reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN), using time-frequency analysis of single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs). METHODS:Two auditory tones of different probabilities (oddball paradigm) and the same probability (control paradigm) were used. The average dynamic changes in amplitude were evaluated, and the in-phase consistency of the EEG spectrum at each frequency and time window across trials, event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs), and inter-trial phase coherence (ITC) were computed. RESULTS:Subtraction of the ERPs of standard stimuli from the ERPs of deviant stimuli revealed a clear MMN component in the oddball paradigm. However, no discernible MMN component was observed in the control paradigm. Statistical tests showed that in the oddball paradigm, deviant tones produced significant increases of theta ERSPs and ITC at around 250 ms as compared with the standard tone, while no significant difference between the two stimuli was observed in the control paradigm. CONCLUSIONS:Our results confirm that the auditory discriminatory process reflected in MMN is accompanied by phase resetting and power modulation at the theta frequency.
Project description:Examining visual word recognition memory (WRM) with nose-referenced EEGs, we reported a preserved ERP 'old-new effect' (enhanced parietal positivity 300-800 ms to correctly-recognized repeated items) in schizophrenia ([Kayser, J., Bruder, G.E., Friedman, D., Tenke, C.E., Amador, X.F., Clark, S.C., Malaspina, D., Gorman, J.M., 1999. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in schizophrenia during a word recognition memory task. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 34(3), 249-265.]). However, patients showed reduced early negative potentials (N1, N2) and poorer WRM. Because group differences in neuronal generator patterns (i.e., sink-source orientation) may be masked by choice of EEG recording reference, the current study combined surface Laplacians and principal components analysis (PCA) to clarify ERP component topography and polarity and to disentangle stimulus- and response-related contributions. To investigate the impact of stimulus modality, 31-channel ERPs were recorded from 20 schizophrenic patients (15 male) and 20 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy adults during parallel visual and auditory continuous WRM tasks. Stimulus- and response-locked reference-free current source densities (spherical splines) were submitted to unrestricted Varimax-PCA to identify and measure neuronal generator patterns underlying ERPs. Poorer (78.2+/-18.7% vs. 87.8+/-11.3% correct) and slower (958+/-226 vs. 773+/-206 ms) performance in patients was accompanied by reduced stimulus-related left-parietal P3 sources (150 ms pre-response) and vertex N2 sinks (both overall and old/new effects) but modality-specific N1 sinks were not significantly reduced. A distinct mid-frontal sink 50-ms post-response was markedly attenuated in patients. Reductions were more robust for auditory stimuli. However, patients showed increased lateral-frontotemporal sinks (T7 maximum) concurrent with auditory P3 sources. Electrophysiologic correlates of WRM deficits in schizophrenia suggest functional impairments of posterior cortex (stimulus representation) and anterior cingulate (stimulus categorization, response monitoring), primarily affecting memory for spoken words.
Project description:The amyloid-? (A?) oligomer is considered one of the major pathogens responsible for neuronal and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Although the neurotoxic mechanisms of A? have been widely investigated, experimental evidence for the direct linkage between neural signaling and cognitive impairments in association with peptide oligomers is lacking. Here, we conducted an auditory oddball paradigm utilizing an A?-infused Alzheimer's disease mouse model and interpreted the results based on Y-maze behavioral tests. We acutely injected A? oligomers into the intracerebroventricular brain region of normal mice to induce A?-associated cognitive impairments. During the auditory oddball paradigm, electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded from frontal and parietal cortex of A?-infused and control mice. The event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory stimuli showed no significant difference in A?-infused mice compared to control mice. On the other hand, the differential ERP signature elicited by oddball sound stimuli was destructed in the A?-infused mice group. We noticed that ERP traces to standard and deviant tones were not significantly different in the A? group, while the control group showed differences in the amplitude of ERP components. In particular, the difference in the first negative component (N1) between standard and deviant tone, which indexes the sensory memory system, was significantly reduced in the parietal cortex of A?-infused mice. These findings demonstrate the direct influence of A? oligomers on the functional integrity of cortical areas in vivo. Furthermore, the N1 amplitude difference may provide a potential marker of sensory memory deficits in a mouse model of AD and yield additional targets for drug assessment in AD.