Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba).
ABSTRACT: The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation.
Project description:In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral transition and an increased expression in C18 with continuous vegetative growth. These results offer a case study for Chrysanthemum, showing an altered cytokinin to auxin balance and differential gene expression between vegetative growth with apical dominance and transition to generative growth with loss of apical dominance and axillary bud outgrowth. This suggests a conservation of several aspects of the hormonal and genetical regulation of bud outgrowth in Chrysanthemum. Furthermore, 15 previously uncharacterised genes in chrysanthemum, were described in this study. Of those genes involved in axillary bud outgrowth we identified CmDRM1, CmBRC1 and CmMAX1 as having an altered expression preceding axillary bud outgrowth, which could be useful as markers for bud activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In saffron (Crocus sativus), new corms develop at the base of every shoot developed from the maternal corm, a globular underground storage stem. Since the degree of bud sprouts influences the number and size of new corms, and strigolactones (SLs) suppress growth of pre-formed axillary bud, it was considered appropriate to investigate SL involvement in physiology and molecular biology in saffron. We focused on two of the genes within the SL pathway, CCD7 and CCD8, encoding carotenoid cleavage enzymes required for the production of SLs. RESULTS: The CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 genes are the first ones isolated and characterized from a non-grass monocotyledonous plant. CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 expression showed some overlapping, although they were not identical. CsCCD8 was highly expressed in quiescent axillary buds and decapitation dramatically reduced its expression levels, suggesting its involvement in the suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed also the involvement of auxin, cytokinin and jasmonic acid on the sprouting of axillary buds from corms in which the apical bud was removed. In addition, CsCCD8 expression, but not CsCCD7, was higher in the newly developed vascular tissue of axillary buds compared to the vascular tissue of the apical bud. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that production and transport of auxin in saffron corms could act synergistically with SLs to arrest the outgrowth of the axillary buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching. In addition, jasmonic acid seems to play a prominent role in bud dormancy in saffron. While cytokinins from roots promote bud outgrowth. In addition the expression results of CsCCD8 suggest that SLs could positively regulate procambial activity and the development of new vascular tissues connecting leaves with the mother corm.
Project description:Cremastra appendiculata has become endangered due to reproductive difficulties. Specifically, vegetative reproduction is almost its only way to reproduce, and, under natural conditions, it cannot grow branches, resulting in an extremely low reproductive coefficient (reproductive percentage). Here, we performed RNA-Seq and a differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of the three stages of lateral bud development in C. appendiculata after decapitation-dormancy (D2), transition (TD2), and emergence (TG2)-and the annual axillary bud natural break (G1) to gain insight into the molecular regulatory network of shoot branching in this plant. Additionally, we applied the auxin transport inhibitors N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodibenzoic acid (TIBA) to a treated pseudobulb string of C. appendiculata to verify the conclusions obtained by the transcriptome. RNA-Seq provided a wealth of valuable information. Successive pairwise comparative transcriptome analyses revealed 5988 genes as DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) analyses of DEGs showed significant enrichments in phytohormone biosynthesis and metabolism, regulation of hormone levels, and a hormone-mediated signaling pathway. qRT-PCR validation showed a highly significant correlation (p < 0.01) with the RNA-Seq generated data. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and qRT-PCR results showed that, after decapitation, the NPA- and TIBA-induced lateral buds germinated due to rapidly decreasing auxin levels, caused by upregulation of the dioxygenase for auxin oxidation gene (DAO). Decreased auxin levels promoted the expression of isopentenyl transferase (IPT) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, family 735, subfamily A (CYP735A) genes and inhibited two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD7 and CCD8). Zeatin levels significantly increased after the treatments. The increased cytokinin levels promoted the expression of WUSCHEL (WUS) and inhibited expression of BRANCHED1 (BRC1) in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway and initiated lateral bud outgrowth. Our data suggest that our theories concerning the regulation of shoot branching and apical dominance is really similar to those observed in annual plants. Auxin inhibits bud outgrowth and tends to inhibit cytokinin levels. The pseudobulb in the plant behaves in a similar manner to that of a shoot above the ground.
Project description:For almost a century the plant hormone auxin has been central to theories on apical dominance, whereby the growing shoot tip suppresses the growth of the axillary buds below. According to the classic model, the auxin indole-3-acetic acid is produced in the shoot tip and transported down the stem, where it inhibits bud growth. We report here that the initiation of bud growth after shoot tip loss cannot be dependent on apical auxin supply because we observe bud release up to 24 h before changes in auxin content in the adjacent stem. After the loss of the shoot tip, sugars are rapidly redistributed over large distances and accumulate in axillary buds within a timeframe that correlates with bud release. Moreover, artificially increasing sucrose levels in plants represses the expression of BRANCHED1 (BRC1), the key transcriptional regulator responsible for maintaining bud dormancy, and results in rapid bud release. An enhancement in sugar supply is both necessary and sufficient for suppressed buds to be released from apical dominance. Our data support a theory of apical dominance whereby the shoot tip's strong demand for sugars inhibits axillary bud outgrowth by limiting the amount of sugar translocated to those buds.
Project description:Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.
Project description:Recent studies of highly branched mutants of pea, Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that strigolactones (SLs) act as hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The identification of genes that work downstream of SLs is required for a better understanding of how SLs control the growth of axillary buds. We found that the increased tillering phenotype of fine culm1 (fc1) mutants of rice is not rescued by the application of 1 microM GR24, a synthetic SL analog. Treatment with a high concentration of GR24 (10 microM) causes suppression of tiller growth in wild-type plants, but is not effective on fc1 mutants, implying that proper FC1 functioning is required for SLs to inhibit bud growth. Overexpression of FC1 partially rescued d3-2 defects in the tiller growth and plant height. An in situ hybridization analysis showed that FC1 mRNA accumulates in axillary buds, the shoot apical meristem, young leaves, vascular tissues and the tips of crown roots. FC1 mRNA expression was not significantly affected by GR24, suggesting that transcriptional induction may not be the mechanism by which SLs affect FC1 functioning. On the other hand, the expression level of FC1 is negatively regulated by cytokinin treatment. We propose that FC1 acts as an integrator of multiple signaling pathways and is essential to the fine-tuning of shoot branching in rice.
Project description:The shoot systems of plants are built by the action of the primary shoot apical meristem, established during embryogenesis. In the axil of each leaf produced by the primary meristem, secondary axillary shoot apical meristems are established. The dynamic regulation of the activity of these axillary meristems gives shoot systems their extraordinary plasticity of form. The ability of plants to activate or repress these axillary meristems appropriately requires communication between meristems that is environmentally sensitive. The transport network of the plant hormone auxin has long been implicated as a central player in this tuneable communication system, with other systemically mobile hormones, such as strigolactone and cytokinin, acting in part by modulating auxin transport. Until recently, the polar auxin transport stream, which provides a high conductance auxin transport route down stems dominated by the auxin export protein PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), has been the focus for understanding long range auxin transport in the shoot. However, recently additional auxin exporters with important roles in the shoot have been identified, including PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7. These proteins contribute to a wider less polar stem auxin transport regime, which we have termed connective auxin transport (CAT), because of its role in communication across the shoot system. Here we present a genetic analysis of the role of CAT in shoot branching. We demonstrate that in Arabidopsis, CAT plays an important role in strigolactone-mediated shoot branching control, with the triple pin3pin4pin7 mutant able to suppress partially the highly branched phenotype of strigolactone deficient mutants. In contrast, the branchy phenotype of mutants lacking the axillary meristem-expressed transcription factor, BRANCHED1 (BRC1) is unaffected by pin3pin4pin7. We further demonstrate that mutation in the ABCB19 auxin export protein, which like PIN3 PIN4 and PIN7 is widely expressed in stems, has very different effects, implicating ABCB19 in auxin loading at axillary bud apices.
Project description:Previous studies of highly branched mutants in pea (rms1-rms5), Arabidopsis thaliana (max1-max4), petunia (dad1-dad3), and rice (d3, d10, htd1/d17, d14, d27) identified strigolactones or their derivates (SLs), as shoot branching inhibitors. This recent discovery offers the possibility of using SLs to regulate branching commercially, for example, in chrysanthemum, an important cut flower crop. To investigate this option, SL physiology and molecular biology were studied in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum), focusing on the CCD8/MAX4/DAD1/RMS1/D10 gene. Our results suggest that, as has been proposed for Arabidopsis, the ability of SLs to inhibit bud activity depends on the presence of a competing auxin source. The chrysanthemum SL biosynthesis gene, CCD8 was cloned, and found to be regulated in a similar, but not identical way to known CCD8s. Expression analyses revealed that DgCCD8 is predominantly expressed in roots and stems, and is up-regulated by exogenous auxin. Exogenous SL can down-regulate DgCCD8 expression, but this effect can be overridden by apical auxin application. This study provides evidence that SLs are promising candidates to alter the shoot branching habit of chrysanthemum.
Project description:Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture and is regulated by both endogenous and environmental factors. BRANCHED1 (BRC1) is a central local regulator that integrates signals controlling shoot branching. So far, the regulation of BRC1 activity at the protein level is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that TIE1 (TCP interactor containing EAR motif protein 1), a repressor previously identified as an important factor in the control of leaf development, also regulates shoot branching by repressing BRC1 activity. TIE1 is predominantly expressed in young axillary buds. The gain-of-function mutant tie1-D produced more branches and the overexpression of TIE1 recapitulated the increased branching of tie1-D, while disruption of TIE1 resulted in lower bud activity and fewer branches. We also demonstrated that the TIE1 protein interacts with BRC1 in vitro and in vivo. Expression of BRC1 fused with the C-terminus of the TIE1 protein in wild type caused excessive branching similar to that observed in tie1-D and brc1 loss-of-function mutants. Transcriptome analyses revealed that TIE1 regulated about 30% of the BRC1-dependent genes, including the BRC1 direct targets HB21, HB40 and HB53. These results indicate that TIE1 acts as a positive regulator of shoot branching by directly repressing BRC1 activity. Thus, our results reveal that TIE1 is an important shoot branching regulator, and provide new insights in the post-transcriptional regulation of the TCP transcription factor BRC1.
Project description:Sylleptic branches grow out from lateral buds during the same growing season in which the buds are formed. This type of branching is present in poplar and in many tropical species. It results in the production of more branches, more leaves and expanded photosynthetic capacity and is thought to assist in increasing the overall growth and biomass of the tree at a young age. However, very little is known about the physiology of sylleptic branching in poplar, which is an extremely important source of fibre and fuel. In the present study of three hybrid poplar clones (11-11, 47-174 and 49-177) of Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides exhibiting contrasting degrees of sylleptic branching, an analysis was carried out on parent shoot elongation and sylleptic branching, together with a preliminary comparison of the parent shoots' sensitivity to auxin (naphthaleneacetic acid) as a repressor of lateral bud outgrowth, and cytokinin (benzyladenine) as a promoter. Suggestive evidence was found for an inverse correlation between parent shoot sensitivity to auxin and the degree of sylleptic branching, as well as a partially positive correlation with respect to sensitivity to cytokinin. The present data are consistent with the hypothesis that auxin and cytokinin may play repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the sylleptic branching of hybrid poplar.