Use of the novel technique of analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescence detection system identifies a 77S monosomal translation complex.
ABSTRACT: A fundamental problem in proteomics is the identification of protein complexes and their components. We have used analytical ultracentrifugation with a fluorescence detection system (AU-FDS) to precisely and rapidly identify translation complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following a one-step affinity purification of either poly(A)-binding protein (PAB1) or the large ribosomal subunit protein RPL25A in conjunction with GFP-tagged yeast proteins/RNAs, we have detected a 77S translation complex that contains the 80S ribosome, mRNA, and components of the closed-loop structure, eIF4E, eIF4G, and PAB1. This 77S structure, not readily observed previously, is consistent with the monosomal translation complex. The 77S complex abundance decreased with translational defects and following the stress of glucose deprivation that causes translational stoppage. By quantitating the abundance of the 77S complex in response to different stress conditions that block translation initiation, we observed that the stress of glucose deprivation affected translation initiation primarily by operating through a pathway involving the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E whereas amino acid deprivation, as previously known, acted through the 43S complex. High salt conditions (1M KCl) and robust heat shock acted at other steps. The presumed sites of translational blockage caused by these stresses coincided with the types of stress granules, if any, which are subsequently formed.
Project description:We have previously identified 55 nonribosomal proteins in PAB1-mRNP complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mass spectrometric analysis. Because one of the inherent limitations of mass spectrometry is that it does not inform as to the size or type of complexes in which the proteins are present, we consequently used analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescent detection system (AU-FDS) to determine which proteins are present in the 77S monosomal translation complex that contains minimally the closed-loop structure components (eIF4E, eIF4G, and PAB1), mRNA, and the 40S and 60S ribosomes. We assayed by AU-FDS analysis 33 additional PAB1-mRNP factors but found that only five of these proteins were present in the 77S translation complex: eRF1, SLF1, SSD1, PUB1, and SBP1. eRF1 is involved in translation termination, SBP1 is a translational repressor, and SLF1, SSD1, and PUB1 are known mRNA binding proteins. Many of the known P body/stress granule proteins that associate with the PAB1-mRNP were not present in the 77S translation complex, implying that P body/stress granules result from significant protein additions after translational cessation. These data inform that AU-FDS can clarify protein complex identification that remains undetermined after typical immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analyses.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation the 60S ribosome subunit has not been proposed to interact with mRNA or closed-loop factors eIF4E, eIF4G, and PAB1. Using analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescent detection system, we have identified a 57S translation complex that contains the 60S ribosome, mRNA, and the closed-loop factors. Previously published data by others also indicate the presence of a 50S-60S translation complex containing these same components. We have found that the abundance of this complex increased upon translational cessation, implying formation after ribosomal dissociation. Stoichiometric analyses of the abundances of the closed-loop components in the 57S complex indicate this complex is most similar to polysomal and monosomal translation complexes at the end of translation rather than at the beginning or middle of translation. In contrast, a 39S complex containing the 40S ribosome bound to mRNA and closed-loop factors was also identified with stoichiometries most similar to polysomal complexes engaged in translation, suggesting that the 39S complex is the previously studied 48S translation initiation complex. These results indicate that the 60S ribosome can associate with the closed-loop mRNA structure and plays a previously undetected role in the translation process.
Project description:Dcp1 plays a key role in the mRNA decay process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cleaving off the 5' cap to leave an end susceptible to exonucleolytic degradation. The eukaryotic initiation factor complex eIF4F, which in yeast contains the core components eIF4E and eIF4G, uses the cap as a binding site, serving as an initial point of assembly for the translation apparatus, and also binds the poly(A) binding protein Pab1. We show that Dcp1 binds to eIF4G and Pab1 as free proteins, as well as to the complex eIF4E-eIF4G-Pab1. Dcp1 interacts with the N-terminal region of eIF4G but does not compete significantly with eIF4E or Pab1 for binding to eIF4G. Most importantly, eIF4G acts as a function-enhancing recruitment factor for Dcp1. However, eIF4E blocks this effect as a component of the high affinity cap-binding complex eIF4E-eIF4G. Indeed, cooperative enhancement of the eIF4E-cap interaction stabilizes yeast mRNAs in vivo. These data on interactions at the interface between translation and mRNA decay suggest how events at the 5' cap and 3' poly(A) tail might be coupled.
Project description:Cellular responses to stress stem from a variety of different mechanisms, including translation arrest and relocation of the translationally repressed mRNAs to ribonucleoprotein particles like stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs). Here, we examine the role of PKA in the S. cerevisiae heat shock response. Under mild heat stress Tpk3 aggregates and promotes aggregation of eIF4G, Pab1 and eIF4E, whereas severe heat stress leads to the formation of PBs and SGs that contain both Tpk2 and Tpk3 and a larger 48S translation initiation complex. Deletion of TPK2 or TPK3 impacts upon the translational response to heat stress of several mRNAs including CYC1, HSP42, HSP30 and ENO2. TPK2 deletion leads to a robust translational arrest, an increase in SGs/PBs aggregation and translational hypersensitivity to heat stress, whereas TPK3 deletion represses SGs/PBs formation, translational arrest and response for the analyzed mRNAs. Therefore, this work provides evidence indicating that Tpk2 and Tpk3 have opposing roles in translational adaptation during heat stress, and highlight how the same signaling pathway can be regulated to generate strikingly distinct physiological outputs.
Project description:Translation is a core cellular process carried out by a highly conserved macromolecular machine, the ribosome. There has been remarkable evolutionary adaptation of this machine through the addition of eukaryote-specific ribosomal proteins whose individual effects on ribosome function are largely unknown. Here we show that eukaryote-specific Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of mRNAs with short open reading frames that show greater than average translational efficiency in diverse eukaryotes. ASC1 mutants in S. cerevisiae display compromised translation of specific functional groups, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and display cellular phenotypes consistent with their gene-specific translation defects. Asc1-sensitive mRNAs are preferentially associated with the translational 'closed loop' complex comprised of eIF4E, eIF4G, and Pab1, and depletion of eIF4G mimics the translational defects of ASC1 mutants. Together our results reveal a role for Asc1/RACK1 in a length-dependent initiation mechanism optimized for efficient translation of genes with important housekeeping functions.
Project description:Stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs) are microscopically visible ribonucleoprotein granules that cooperatively regulate the translation and decay of messenger RNA. Using an RNA-mediated interference-based screen, we identify 101 human genes required for SG assembly, 39 genes required for PB assembly, and 31 genes required for coordinate SG and PB assembly. Although 51 genes encode proteins involved in mRNA translation, splicing and transcription, most are not obviously associated with RNA metabolism. We find that several components of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which reversibly modifies proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to stress, are required for SG and PB assembly. O-GlcNAc-modified proteins are prominent components of SGs but not PBs, and include RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1), prohibitin-2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and numerous ribosomal proteins. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAc modification of the translational machinery is required for aggregation of untranslated messenger ribonucleoproteins into SGs. The lack of enzymes of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in budding yeast may contribute to differences between mammalian SGs and related yeast EGP (eIF4E, 4G and Pab1 containing) bodies.
Project description:Cells respond to environmental stress by inducing translation of a subset of mRNAs important for survival or apoptosis. CHOP, a downstream transcriptional target of stress-induced ATF4, is also regulated translationally in a uORF-dependent manner under stress. Low concentration of anisomycin induces CHOP expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. To study specifically the translational aspect of CHOP expression, and further clarify the regulatory mechanisms underlying stress-induced translation initiation, we developed a CMV promoter-regulated, uORF(chop)-driven reporter platform. Here we show that anisomycin-induced CHOP expression depends on phosphorylated eIF4E/S209 and eIF2alpha/S51. Contrary to phospho-eIF2alpha/S51, phospho-eIF4E/S209 is not involved in thapsigargin-induced CHOP expression. Studies using various kinase inhibitors and mutants uncovered that both the p38MAPK-Mnk and mTOR signaling pathways contribute to stress-responsive reporter and CHOP expression. We also demonstrated that anisomycin-induced translation is tightly regulated by partner binding preference of eIF4E. Furthermore, mutating the uORF sequence abolished the anisomycin-induced association of chop mRNA with phospho-eIF4E and polysomes, thus demonstrating the significance of this cis-regulatory element in conferring on the transcript a stress-responsive translational inducibility. Strikingly, although insulin treatment activated ERK-Mnk and mTOR pathways, and consequently eIF4E/S209 phosphorylation, it failed to induce phospho-eIF2alpha/S51 and reporter translation, thus pinpointing a crucial determinant in stress-responsive translation.
Project description:To better understand a role of eIF4E S209 in oncogenic translation, we generated EIF4ES209A/+ heterozygous knockin (4EKI) HCT 116 human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. 4EKI had little impact on total eIF4E levels, cap binding or global translation, but markedly reduced HCT 116 cell growth in spheroids and mice, and CRC organoid growth. 4EKI strongly inhibited Myc and ATF4 translation, the integrated stress response (ISR)-dependent glutamine metabolic signature, AKT activation and proliferation in vivo. 4EKI inhibited polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice by suppressing Myc protein and AKT activation. Furthermore, p-eIF4E was highly elevated in CRC precursor lesions in mouse and human. p-eIF4E cooperated with mutant KRAS to promote Myc and ISR-dependent glutamine addiction in various CRC cell lines, characterized by increased cell death, transcriptomic heterogeneity and immune suppression upon deprivation. These findings demonstrate a critical role of eIF4E S209-dependent translation in Myc and stress-driven oncogenesis and as a potential therapeutic vulnerability.
Project description:RNA-binding protein Sbp1 facilitates the decapping pathway in mRNA metabolism and inhibits global mRNA translation by an unclear mechanism. Here we report molecular interactions responsible for Sbp1-mediated translation inhibition of mRNA encoding the polyadenosine-binding protein (Pab1), an essential translation factor that stimulates mRNA translation and inhibits mRNA decapping in eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate that the two distal RRMs of Sbp1 bind to the poly(A) sequence in the 5'UTR of the Pab1 mRNA specifically and cooperatively while the central RGG domain of the protein interacts directly with Pab1. Furthermore, methylation of arginines in the RGG domain abolishes the protein-protein interaction and the inhibitory effect of Sbp1 on translation initiation of Pab1 mRNA. Based on these results, the underlying mechanism for Sbp1-specific translational regulation is proposed. The functional differences of Sbp1 and RGG repeats alone on transcript-specific translation were observed, and a comparison of the results suggests the importance of remodeling the 5'UTR by RNA-binding proteins in mRNA translation.
Project description:Translational control of gene expression plays a key role in many biological processes. Consequently, the activity of the translation apparatus is under tight homeostatic control. eIF4E, the mRNA 5' cap-binding protein, facilitates cap-dependent translation and is a major target for translational control. eIF4E activity is controlled by a family of repressor proteins, termed 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Here, we describe the surprising finding that despite the importance of eIF4E for translation, a drastic knockdown of eIF4E caused only minor reduction in translation. This conundrum can be explained by the finding that 4E-BP1 is degraded in eIF4E-knockdown cells. Hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1, which binds to eIF4E, is degraded, whereas hyperphosphorylated 4E-BP1 is refractory to degradation. We identified the KLHL25-CUL3 complex as the E3 ubiquitin ligase, which targets hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1. Thus, the activity of eIF4E is under homeostatic control via the regulation of the levels of its repressor protein 4E-BP1 through ubiquitination.