Gold-Coated Iron Composite Nanospheres Targeted the Detection of Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: We report the preparation and characterization of spherical core-shell structured Fe3O4-Au magnetic nanoparticles, modified with two component self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) consisting of 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT). The rapid and room temperature synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles was achieved using the hydroxylamine reduction of HAuCl4 on the surface of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-immobilized iron (magnetite Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of an aqueous solution of hexadecyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a dispersant. The reduction of gold on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits a uniform, highly stable, and narrow particle size distribution of Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9 ± 2 nm. The saturation magnetization value for the resulting nanoparticles was found to be 15 emu/g at 298 K. Subsequent surface modification with SAMs against glucoside moieties on the surface of bacteria provided effective magnetic separation. Comparison of the bacteria capturing efficiency, by means of different molecular recognition agents 3-MBA, 1-DT and the mixed monolayer of 3-MBA and 1-DT was presented. The best capturing efficiency of E. coli was achieved with the mixed monolayer of 3-MBA and 1-DT-modified nanoparticles. Molecular specificity and selectivity were also demonstrated by comparing the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of E. coli-nanoparticle conjugates with bacterial growth media.
Project description:Magnetically recoverable noble metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for chemical reactions. However, the chemical synthesis of these nanocatalysts generally causes environmental concern due to usage of toxic chemicals under extreme conditions. Here, Pd/Fe3O4, Au/Fe3O4 and PdAu/Fe3O4 nanocomposites are biosynthesized under ambient and physiological conditions by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Microbial cells firstly transform akaganeite into magnetite, which then serves as support for the further synthesis of Pd, Au and PdAu nanoparticles from respective precursor salts. Surface-bound cellular components and exopolysaccharides not only function as shape-directing agent to convert some Fe3O4 nanoparticles to nanorods, but also participate in the formation of PdAu alloy nanoparticles on magnetite. All these three kinds of magnetic nanocomposites can catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and some other nitroaromatic compounds by NaBH4. PdAu/Fe3O4 demonstrates higher catalytic activity than Pd/Fe3O4 and Au/Fe3O4. Moreover, the magnetic nanocomposites can be easily recovered through magnetic decantation after catalysis reaction. PdAu/Fe3O4 can be reused in at least eight successive cycles of 4-nitrophenol reduction. The biosynthesis approach presented here does not require harmful agents or rigorous conditions and thus provides facile and environmentally benign choice for the preparation of magnetic noble metal nanocatalysts.
Project description:A novel carbon encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded in two-dimensional (2D) porous graphitic carbon nanocomposites (Fe3O4@C@PGC nanocomposites) were synthesized by situ synthesis strategy, which provided a sensor platform owing to a large aspect ratio and porous structure. Polydopamine (PDA) were modified on the surface of Fe3O4@C@PGC nanocomposites through self-polymerization of dopamine, acting as both the reductant and template for one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The prepared Au/PDA/Fe3O4@C@PGC nanocomposites show ferromagnetic features, extremely excellent electron transfer, large specific surface area and excellent dispersing property. These are conducive to the electrochemical signal output and the immobilization of antibody. In this work, a highly label-free sensitive magnetic immunosensor was developed based on Au/PDA/Fe3O4@C@PGC nanocomposites for the detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). The magnetic glassy carbon electrode was used to fix the Au/PDA/Fe3O4@C@PGC nanocomposites with the help of magnetic force. Under the optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range (0.001?ng/mL-20.0?ng/mL), a low detection limit (0.33?pg/mL), good reproducibility, selectivity and acceptable stability. The proposed sensing strategy may provide a potential application in the detection of other cancer biomarkers.
Project description:In this paper, a multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite catalyst with highly stabilized reactivity and magnetic recyclability was synthesized by a self-assembled method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of the SiO2 to obtain a negatively charged surface. Then positively charged poly(ethyleneimine) polymer (PEI) was self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2 by electrostatic interaction. Next, negatively charged glutathione capped gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs) were electrostatically self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI. After that, silver was grown on the surface of the nanocomposite due to the reduction of the dopamine in the alkaline solution. An about 5?nm thick layer of polydopamine (PDA) was observed to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was carefully characterized by the SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and so on. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite shows a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 48.9?emu/g, which allows it to be attracted rapidly to a magnet. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was used to catalyze the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP) as a model system. The reaction kinetic constant k was measured to be about 0.56?min(-1) (R(2)?=?0.974). Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for 8 times, which didn't show much decrease of the catalytic capability.
Project description:We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d?=?(6.9?±?1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5?nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB?=?59?K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40?K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.
Project description:Ligand exchange reactions are widely used for imparting new functionality on or integrating nanoparticles into devices. Thiolate-for-thiolate ligand exchange in monolayer protected gold nanoclusters has been used for over a decade; however, a firm structural basis of this reaction has been lacking. Herein, we present the first single-crystal X-ray structure of a partially exchanged Au(102)(p-MBA)(40)(p-BBT)(4) (p-MBA = para-mercaptobenzoic acid, p-BBT = para-bromobenzene thiol) with p-BBT as the incoming ligand. The crystal structure shows that 2 of the 22 symmetry-unique p-MBA ligand sites are partially exchanged to p-BBT under the initial fast kinetics in a 5 min timescale exchange reaction. Each of these ligand-binding sites is bonded to a different solvent-exposed Au atom, suggesting an associative mechanism for the initial ligand exchange. Density functional theory calculations modeling both thiol and thiolate incoming ligands postulate a mechanistic pathway for thiol-based ligand exchange. The discrete modification of a small set of ligand binding sites suggests Au(102)(p-MBA)(44) as a powerful platform for surface chemical engineering.
Project description:High-quality, 25?nm octahedral-shaped Fe3O4 magnetite nanocrystals are epitaxially grown on 9?nm Au seed nanoparticles using a modified wet-chemical synthesis. These Fe3O4-Au Janus nanoparticles exhibit bulk-like magnetic properties. Due to their high magnetization and octahedral shape, the hybrids show superior in vitro and in vivo T2 relaxivity for magnetic resonance imaging as compared to other types of Fe3O4-Au hybrids and commercial contrast agents. The nanoparticles provide two functional surfaces for theranostic applications. For the first time, Fe3O4-Au hybrids are conjugated with two fluorescent dyes or the combination of drug and dye allowing the simultaneous tracking of the nanoparticle vehicle and the drug cargo in vitro and in vivo. The delivery to tumors and payload release are demonstrated in real time by intravital microscopy. Replacing the dyes by cell-specific molecules and drugs makes the Fe3O4-Au hybrids a unique all-in-one platform for theranostics.
Project description:The integration of noble metal and magnetic nanoparticles with controlled structures that can couple various specific effects to the different nanocomposite in multifunctional nanosystems have been found interesting in the field of medicine. In this work, we show synthesis route to prepare small Au nanoparticles of sizes <d> = 3.9 ± 0.2 nm attached to Fe3O4 nanoparticle cores (<d> = 49.2 ± 3.5 nm) in aqueous medium for potential application as a nano-heater. Remarkably, the resulted Au decorated PEI-Fe3O4 (Au@PEI-Fe3O4) nanoparticles are able to retain bulk magnetic moment MS = 82-84 Am2/kgFe3O4, with the Verwey transition observed at TV = 98 K. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity analysis of the nanosystem microglial BV2 cells showed high viability (>97.5%) to concentrate up to 100 µg/mL in comparison to the control samples. In vitro heating experiments on microglial BV2 cells under an ac magnetic field (H0 = 23.87 kA/m; f = 571 kHz) yielded specific power absorption (SPA) values of SPA = 43 ± 3 and 49 ± 1 μW/cell for PEI-Fe3O4 and Au@PEI-Fe3O4 NPs, respectively. These similar intracellular SPA values imply that functionalization of the magnetic particles with Au did not change the heating efficiency, providing at the same time a more flexible platform for multifunctional functionalization.
Project description:A facile, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method was proposed to synthesize Fe3O4@tannic acid@Au nanocomposites (Fe3O4@TA@Au). First, Fe3O4 nanoparticles with diameters of 20 and 200 nm were synthesized by co-precipitation and solvothermal methods, respectively. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on magnetic Fe3O4 through tannic acid-metal-polymer intermediate-layer-mediated reductions. The catalytic activities of the as-prepared Fe3O4@TA@Au were investigated by spectroscopically monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), which could be achieved within several minutes with an excess of NaBH4. The impact of the Fe3O4 size on the overall catalytic ability of the Fe3O4@TA@Au was systematically studied. The reaction rate constants of the Fe3O4-20 nm@TA@Au for 4-NP and MB reduction were 0.432 and 0.543 min-1, respectively. For the Fe3O4-200 nm@TA@Au nanocomposite, the optimized reaction rate constants for 4-NP and MB reduction were 3.09 and 0.441 min-1, respectively. Due to magnetic separation, the Fe3O4@TA@Au could be easily harvested and recycled. After five recycling cycles, the catalytic ability remained over 90%, and the recycling process could be completed in several minutes, highlighting its potential as a catalyst for 4-NP and MB removal.
Project description:A sort of magnetical material named Fe3O4-NH2-Pd was prepared by loading varying amounts of immobilizing Pd on the surface of the magnetic Fe3O4-NH2 microspheres. This magnetical material was used firstly for capturing Hg° from coal derived fuel gas based on its recoverability. The experimental results showed that the loading Pd on the amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles can greatly improve the efficiency of removing Hg° at a high temperature range between 200 and 300 °C. The magnetic Fe3O4-NH2-Pd sorbent with 5% Pd loaded exhibited significantly high activity and stability in capturing Hg°, affording over 93% capture efficiency at 200 °C for more than 8 hrs. Compared to the Fe3O4-NH2 sorbent that converted the Hg° as HgS, this Fe3O4-NH2-Pd sorbent can remove the Hg° by forming Pd-Hg amalgam and HgS. In addition, the experimental tests indicated that the as-synthesized Fe3O4-NH2-Pd sorbent still showed stable magnetic properties after two regeneration cycles in removing Hg°, which provided the opportunity for preparing a recyclable sorbent which can be easily separated and recovered for Hg° removal.
Project description:Herein, a novel and ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was proposed for quantitative detection of human Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The amino functionalized magnetic graphenes nanocomposites (NH2-GS-Fe3O4) were prepared to bond gold and silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) by constructing stable Au-N and Ag-N bond between Au@Ag NPs and -NH2. Subsequently, the Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4 was applied to absorb cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) due to the large surface area, high conductivity and exceptional adsorption capability. The functional nanocomposites of gold and silver core-shell magnetic graphene loaded with cadmium ion (Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4/Cd(2+)) can not only increase the electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but also improve the effective immobilization of antibodies because of synergistic effect presented in Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4/Cd(2+), which greatly extended the scope of detection. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor was used for the detection of IgG with good linear relation in the range from 5?fg/mL to 50?ng/mL with a low detection limit of 2?fg/mL (S/N?=?3). Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor showed high sensitivity, special selectivity and long-term stability, which had promising application in bioassay analysis.