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Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 2-amino-3-carboxy-4-phenylthiophenes as novel atypical protein kinase C inhibitors.

ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms are required for both TNF- and VEGF-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and endothelial permeability to 70kDa dextran or albumin. A chemical library screen revealed a series of novel small molecule phenylthiophene based inhibitors of aPKC isoforms that effectively block permeability in cell culture and in vivo. In an effort to further elucidate the structural requirements of this series of inhibitors, we detail in this study a structure-activity relationship (SAR) built on screening hit 1, which expands on our initial pharmacophore model. The biological activity of our analogues was evaluated in models of bona fide aPKC-dependent signaling including NF?B driven-gene transcription as a marker for an inflammatory response and VEGF/TNF-induced vascular endothelial permeability. The EC50 for the most efficacious inhibitors (6, 32) was in the low nanomolar range in these two cellular assays. Our study demonstrates the key structural elements that confer inhibitory activity and highlights the requirement for electron-donating moieties off the C-4 aryl moiety of the 2-amino-3-carboxy-4-phenylthiophene backbone. These studies suggest that this class has potential for further development into small molecule aPKC inhibitors with therapeutic efficacy in a host of diseases involving increased vascular permeability and inflammation.

SUBMITTER: Titchenell PM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3634901 | BioStudies | 2013-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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