Inherited variant on chromosome 11q23 increases susceptibility to IDH-mutated but not IDH-normal gliomas regardless of grade or histology.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Recent discoveries of inherited glioma risk loci and acquired IDH mutations are providing new insights into glioma etiology. IDH mutations are common in lower grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and uncommon in primary glioblastomas. Because the inherited variant in 11q23 has been associated with risk of lower grade glioma and not with glioblastomas, we hypothesized that this variant increases susceptibility to IDH-mutated gliomas, but not to IDH-wild-type gliomas. METHODS:We tested this hypothesis in patients with glioma and controls from the San Francisco Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic, and Illumina controls (1102 total patients, 5299 total controls). Case-control additive associations of 11q23 risk alleles (rs498872, T allele) were calculated using logistic regression, stratified by tumor IDH status (mutated or wild-type) and by histology and grade. We also adjusted for the recently discovered 8q24 glioma risk locus rs55705857 G allele. RESULTS:The 11q23 glioma risk locus was associated with increased risk of IDH-mutated gliomas of all histologies and grades (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.74; P = 1.3X10(-7)) but not with IDH-wild-type gliomas of any histology or grade (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.81-1.03; P = 0.14). The associations were independent of the rs55705857 G allele. CONCLUSION:A variant at the 11q23 locus increases risk for IDH-mutated but not IDH-wild-type gliomas, regardless of grade or histology.
Project description:Diagnosis of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas does not always correspond to its clinical outcome because of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene status. Anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation result in a poor prognosis, similar to grade IV glioblastomas. However, the malignant features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine anaplastic gliomas, in particular those without IDH mutation, with regard to their malignant features, recurrence patterns, and association with glioma stem cells.We retrospectively analyzed 86 cases of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas. Data regarding patient characteristics, recurrence pattern, and prognosis were obtained from medical records. We examined molecular alterations such as IDH mutation, 1p19q loss, TP53 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation, Ki67 labeling index, and CD133, SOX2, and NESTIN expression.Of the 86 patients with anaplastic gliomas, 58 carried IDH mutation, and 40 experienced recurrence. The first recurrence was local in 25 patients and distant in 15. Patients without IDH mutation exhibited significantly higher CD133 and SOX2 expression (P = .025 and .020, respectively) and more frequent distant recurrence than those with IDH mutation (P = .022).Patients with anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation experienced distant recurrence and exhibited glioma stem cell markers, indicating that this subset may share some malignant characteristics with glioblastomas.
Project description:The single nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, located in a non-coding but evolutionarily conserved region at 8q24.21, is strongly associated with IDH-mutant glioma development and was suggested to be a causal variant. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has remained unknown. With a case control study in 285 gliomas, 316 healthy controls, 380 systemic cancers, 31 other CNS-tumors, and 120 IDH-mutant cartilaginous tumors, we identified that the association was specific to IDH-mutant gliomas. Odds-ratios were 9.25 (5.17-16.52; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated gliomas and 12.85 (5.94-27.83; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted gliomas. Decreasing strength with increasing anaplasia implied a modulatory effect. No somatic mutations were noted at this locus in 114 blood-tumor pairs, nor was there a copy number difference between risk-allele and only-ancestral allele carriers. CCDC26 RNA-expression was rare and not different between the two groups. There were only minor subtype-specific differences in common glioma driver genes. RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS comparisons pointed to significantly altered MYC-signaling. Baseline enhancer activity of the conserved region specifically on the MYC promoter and its further positive modulation by the SNP risk-allele was shown in vitro. Our findings implicate MYC deregulation as the underlying cause of the observed association.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:Highlights • MRI derived total 23Na concentration differs significantly in glioma subregions.• Total 23Na concentration could reflect IDH mutation status and tumor grade.• 23Na MRI yields potential non-invasive biomarkers for the treatment of gliomas. Purpose This prospective clinical trial investigated sodium (23Na) MRI at 7 Tesla (T) field strength as biomarker for tumor extent, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promotor methylation in glioma patients. Methods 28 glioma patients underwent 23Na MRI on a 7T scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) parallel to standard 3T MRI before chemoradiation. Areas of Gadolinium-contrast enhancement (gdce), non-enhancing T2-hyperintensity (regarded as edema), necrosis, and normal-appearing white matter (nawm) were segmented on 3T MRI imaging and were co-registered with the 23Na images. The median total 23Na concentrations of all areas were compared by pairwise t-tests. Furthermore, areas of gdce and edema were merged to yield the whole tumor area without necrosis. Subsequently, the difference in median of the 23Na concentration of this whole tumor area was compared between IDH-mutated and IDH wild-type gliomas as well as MGMT methylated and MGMT not-methylated glioblastomas using Whitney-Mann U-tests. All p-values were corrected after the Bonferroni-Holm procedure. Results The 23Na concentration increased successively from nawm to necrotic areas (mean ± sd: nawm = 37.84 ± 5.87 mM, edema = 54.69 ± 10.64 mM, gdce = 61.72 ± 12.95 mM, necrosis = 81.88 ± 17.53 mM) and the concentrations differed statistically significantly between all regarded areas (adjusted p-values for all pairwise comparisons < 0.05). Furthermore, IDH-mutated gliomas showed significantly higher 23Na concentrations than IDH wild-type gliomas (median [interquartile range]: IDH wild-type = 52.37 mM [45.98 – 58.56 mM], IDH mutated = 65.02 mM [58.87–67.05 mM], p = 0.039). Among the glioblastomas, there was a trend towards increased 23Na concentration in MGMT methylated tumors that did not reach statistical significance (median [interquartile range]: MGMT methylated = 57.59 mM [50.70 – 59.17 mM], MGMT not methylated = 48.78 mM [45.88 – 53.91 mM], p = 1.0). Conclusions 23Na MRI correlates with the IDH mutation status and could therefore enhance image guidance towards biopsy sites as wells as image-guided surgery and radiotherapy. Furthermore, the successive decrease of 23Na concentration from central necrosis to normal-appearing white matter suggests a correlation with tumor infiltration.
Project description:IDH-mutant gliomas are classified into astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors by 1p/19q status in the WHO 2016 classification, with the latter presenting with characteristic morphology and better prognosis in general. However, the morphological and genetic features within each category are varied, and there might be distinguishable subtypes. We analyzed 170 WHO grade II-IV gliomas resected in our institution. 1p/19q status was analyzed by microsatellite analysis, and genetic mutations were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. For validation, the Brain Lower Grade Glioma dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed. Of the 42 grade III IDH-mutated gliomas, 12 were 1p-intact/19q-intact (anaplastic astrocytomas [AA]), 7 were 1p-intact/19q-loss (AA), and 23 showed 1p/19q-codeletion (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). Of the 88 IDH-wild type glioblastomas (GBMs), 14 showed 1p-intact/19q-loss status. All of the seven 1p-intact/19q-loss AAs harbored TP53 mutation, but no TERT promotor mutation. All 19q-loss AAs had regions presenting oligodendroglioma-like morphology, and were associated with significantly longer overall survival compared to 19q-intact AAs (P = .001). This tendency was observed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Lower Grade Glioma dataset. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival between the 19q-loss GBM and 19q-intact GBM (P = .4). In a case of 19q-loss AA, both oligodendroglial morphology and 19q-loss disappeared after recurrence, possibly indicating correlation between 19q-loss and oligodendroglial morphology. We showed that there was a subgroup, although small, of IDH-mutated astrocytomas harboring 19q-loss that present oligodendroglial morphology, and also were associated with significantly better prognosis compared to other 19q-intact astrocytomas.
Project description:Central nervous system tumors are classified based on an integrated diagnosis combining histology and molecular characteristics, including IDH1/2 and H3-K27M mutations, as well as 1p/19q codeletion. Here, we aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of a glioma-tailored 48-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel for integrated glioma diagnosis. We designed a glioma-tailored 48-gene NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH1/2, TP53, PTEN, PDGFRA, NF1, RB1, CDKN2A/B, CDK4, and the TERT promoter (TERTp). We analyzed 106 glioma patients (grade II: 19 cases, grade III: 23 cases, grade IV: 64 cases) using this system. The 1p/19q codeletion was detected precisely in oligodendroglial tumors using our NGS panel. In a cohort of 64 grade ? gliomas, we identified 56 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Within these IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, 33 samples (58.9%) showed a mutation in TERTp. Notably, PDGFRA mutations and their amplification were more commonly seen in TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas (43%) than in TERTp-mutant glioblastomas (6%) (P = .001). Hierarchical molecular classification of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas revealed 3 distinct groups of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. One major cluster was characterized by mutations in PDGFRA, amplification of CDK4 and PDGFRA, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B, and absence of TERTp mutations. This cluster was significantly associated with older age (P = .021), higher Ki-67 score (P = .007), poor prognosis (P = .012), and a periventricular tumor location. We report the development of a glioma-tailored NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and driver gene mutations on a single platform. Our panel identified distinct subtypes of IDH- and TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas with frequent PDGFRA alterations.
Project description:The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of a subset of adult gliomas and better definition of Hh-responsive subtypes could enhance the clinical utility of monitoring and targeting this pathway in patients. Somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes occur frequently in WHO grades II and III gliomas and WHO grade IV secondary glioblastomas. Hh pathway activation in WHO grades II and III gliomas suggests that it might also be operational in glioblastomas that developed from lower-grade lesions. To evaluate this possibility and to better define the molecular and histopathological glioma subtypes that are Hh-responsive, IDH genes were sequenced in adult glioma specimens assayed for an operant Hh pathway. The proportions of grades II-IV specimens with IDH mutations correlated with the proportions that expressed elevated levels of the Hh gene target PTCH1. Indices of an operational Hh pathway were measured in all primary cultures and xenografts derived from IDH-mutant glioma specimens, including IDH-mutant glioblastomas. In contrast, the Hh pathway was not operational in glioblastomas that lacked IDH mutation or history of antecedent lower-grade disease. IDH mutation is not required for an operant pathway however, as significant Hh pathway modulation was also measured in grade III gliomas with wild-type IDH sequences. These results indicate that the Hh pathway is operational in grades II and III gliomas and glioblastomas with molecular or histopathological evidence for evolvement from lower-grade gliomas. Lastly, these findings suggest that gliomas sharing this molecularly defined route of progression arise in Hh-responsive cell types.
Project description:Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes occur in ~80% of lower-grade (WHO grade II and grade III) gliomas. Mutant IDH produces (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, which induces DNA hypermethylation and presumably drives tumorigenesis. Interestingly, IDH mutations are associated with improved survival in glioma patients, but the underlying mechanism for the difference in survival remains unclear. Through comparative analyses of 286 cases of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma from a TCGA data set, we report that IDH-mutant gliomas have increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Furthermore, each of these genes is prognostic in overall gliomas; however, within the IDH-mutant group, none remains prognostic except IGFBP2 (encodinginsulin-like growth factor binding protein 2). Through validation in an independent cohort, we show that patients with low IGFBP2 expressiondisplay a clear advantage in overall and disease-free survival, whereas those with high IGFBP2 expressionhave worse median survival than IDH-wildtype patients. These observations hold true across different histological and molecular subtypes of lower-grade glioma. We propose therefore that an unexpected biological consequence of IDH mutations in glioma is to ameliorate patient survival by promoting tumor-suppressor signaling while inhibiting that of oncogenes, particularly IGFBP2.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Specific germline alterations within TERT, EGFR, CCDC26, CDKN2A/B, PHLDB1, TP53 and RTEL1 are associated with development of glioma. While germline variants in TERT are associated with all gliomas, others are associated with specific morphologic and/or molecular subtypes. For example, the RTEL1 region variants are associated with primary glioblastoma and rs55705857 in CCDC26 is associated with 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas and with IDH mutant astrocytic gliomas. We hypothesize that germline variants will be associated with specific molecular glioma subtypes recently defined by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other groups. In this study we grouped Mayo Clinic and TCGA high- and low-grade glioma patients into somatic mutation-defined molecular subgroups, regardless of grade, based on three molecular alterations. We then determined if germline polymorphisms are associated with these mutation-based molecular subtypes. METHODS: Five molecular subtypes were defined based on combinations of the following molecular alterations: TERT promoter mutation (TERT mut vs. TERT wt), IDH1/2 mutation (IDH mut vs. IDH wt) and 1p/19q co-deletion (1p19q codel vs. 1p19q noncodel). Germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated by array analysis of blood-derived DNA (Mayo) and 1K genome imputation (TCGA). RESULTS: 207 Mayo Clinic and 402 TCGA gliomas had both germline SNP and mutation data available. The acquired mutation data defined five molecular subgroups (Table). The prevalence of each of these subtypes were very similar in the Mayo and TCGA cohorts, (Table). In both the Mayo Clinic and TCGA cohorts various SNPs were associated with the development of specific subtypes (Table). Further validation using a UCSF cohort, as well as analyses of grade, subtype and survival are underway.TablePrevalence of Mutation-based Acquired Molecular Glioma Subtypes and Their Germline SNP AssociationsMolecular SubtypePrevalence (%)TERTIDH1p/19q codelMayoTCGAAssociated Germline SNP(s)MutMutYes2117CCDC26 (rs55705857)MutMutNo42CCDC26 (rs55705857)WTMutNo3635CCDC26 (rs55705857), TP53 (rs7837822), PHLDB1 (rs498872)MutWTNo3137RTEL1 (rs6010620), CDKN2A/B (rs4977756)WTWTNo810CDKN2A/B (rs4977756)CONCLUSIONS: Glioma can be meaningfully classified according to acquired mutation subtype. We show that there are significant associations between germline polymorphisms and mutation-based molecular subtypes. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that there are important mechanistic relationships between germline risk patterns, acquired somatic mutations, and functional biology. Mutation-based diagnostic classification for glioma will likely have important implications for prognosis and treatment. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Neuropathology & Tumor Biomarkers.
Project description:World Health Organization grade IV diffuse gliomas, known as glioblastomas, are the most common malignant brain tumors, and they show poor prognosis. Multimodal treatment of surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy is not sufficient to increase patient survival, which is 12 to 18 months after diagnosis. Despite extensive research, patient life expectancy has not significantly improved over the last decade. Previously, we identified FREM2 and SPRY1 as genes with differential expression in glioblastoma cell lines compared to nonmalignant astrocytes. In addition, the FREM2 and SPRY1 proteins show specific localization on the surface of glioblastoma cells. In this study, we explored the roles of the FREM2 and SPRY1 genes and their proteins in glioblastoma pathology using human tissue samples. We used proteomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformatics approaches to detect changes at different molecular levels. We demonstrate increased FREM2 protein expression levels in glioblastomas compared to reference samples. At the transcriptomic level, both FREM2 and SPRY1 show increased expression in tissue samples of different glioma grades compared to nonmalignant brain tissue. To broaden our experimental findings, we analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma patient datasets. We discovered higher FREM2 and SPRY1 gene expression levels in glioblastomas compared to lower grade gliomas and reference samples. In addition, we observed that low FREM2 expression was associated with progression of IDH-mutant low-grade glioma patients. Multivariate analysis showed positive association between FREM2 and favorable prognosis of IDH-wild type glioblastoma. We conclude that FREM2 has an important role in malignant progression of glioblastoma, and we suggest deeper analysis to determine its involvement in glioblastoma pathology.