Phase III randomized study of rituximab/carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) compared with iodine-131 tositumomab/BEAM with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from the BMT CTN 0401 trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m(2) (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM). RESULTS:Two hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) for R-BEAM and 47.9% (95% CI, 38.2% to 57%; P = .94) for B-BEAM, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65.6% (95% CI, 55.3% to 74.1%) for R-BEAM and 61% (95% CI, 50.9% to 69.9%; P = .38) for B-BEAM. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 4.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 8.0%) for R-BEAM and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8% to 9.0%; P = .97) for B-BEAM. The maximum mucositis score was higher in the B-BEAM arm (0.72) compared with the R-BEAM arm (0.31; P < .001). CONCLUSION:The B-BEAM and R-BEAM regimens produced similar 2-year PFS and OS rates for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed DLBCL. No differences in toxicities other than mucositis were noted.
Project description:We sought to develop a safe and effective outpatient salvage regimen by replacing ifosfamide within the (R)ICE (rituximab, ifosfomide, carboplatin, etoposide) regimen with bendamustine (T(R)EC) via a multicentre phase I/II study for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Therapy consisted of 60-120 mg/m2 per day bendamustine on days 1 and 2 in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and rituximab (only for CD20+ lymphoma) used in the (R)ICE regimen for up to 2 cycles. The objectives were to define a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of bendamustine, determine safety and toxicity, assess efficacy, and evaluate impact on stem cell collection. Forty-eight patients were treated of which 71% had refractory disease. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase II dose of bendamustine was 120 mg/m2 per day on days 1 and 2. Response rates were 85% (70% complete response, CR) in HL, and 65% (40% CR) in DLBCL. Stem cell collection was successful in 30 of 32 patients. The most common non-haematological toxicities ?grade 3 were febrile neutropenia (8%) and dehydration (8%). The T(R)EC regimen safely yields high response rates, successfully mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells and compares favourably to RICE, offering an effective outpatient treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and HL.
Project description:The outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor, particularly in patients ineligible for stem cell transplantation or who fail induction therapy or salvage therapy. The phase 1b portion of this open-label, dose-escalation (3+3+3 design) study examined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary safety and activity of the regimen in transplant-ineligible adults with histologically confirmed relapsed/refractory DLBCL after at least 1 prior therapy. Patients received once-daily 560 mg ibrutinib, 375 mg/m2 intravenous rituximab day 1 of cycles 1 to 6, and 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg lenalidomide days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle. Forty-five patients were treated; median time since diagnosis was 14.1 months, and 51% of the patients had non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) DLBCL, 33% had transformed DLBCL, 60% were refractory, and 27% were primary refractory. Because of dose-limiting toxicities, a de-escalation cohort (10 mg lenalidomide) was initiated, and with subsequent re-escalation up to 25 mg lenalidomide, the MTD was not reached. In response-evaluable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 44% (complete response [CR], 28%); among them, the ORR was 65% (CR, 41%) in non-GCB and 69% and 56% in relapsed (n = 16) and secondary refractory (n = 27) disease, respectively. Overall and for non-GCB, median response duration was 15.9 months, with 2 patients receiving therapy beyond 3 years. Phase 2 was initiated with 20 mg lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory non-GCB, whereas the phase 1b 25-mg lenalidomide cohort was being completed; an additional 25-mg cohort in phase 2 is currently ongoing. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02077166.
Project description:Standard-dose 90yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan (.4 mci/kg) together with high-dose BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) (Z-BEAM) has been shown to be a well-tolerated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation preparative regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the outcomes of a single-center, single-arm phase II trial of Z-BEAM conditioning in high-risk CD20+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma histologic strata: diffuse large B cell (DLBCL), mantle cell, follicular, and transformed. Robust overall survival and notably low nonrelapse mortality rates (.9% at day +100 for the entire cohort), with few short- and long-term toxicities, confirm the safety and tolerability of the regimen. In addition, despite a high proportion of induction failure patients (46%), the promising response and progression-free survival (PFS) rates seen in DLBCL (3-year PFS: 71%; 95% confidence interval, 55 to 82%), support the premise that the Z-BEAM regimen is particularly effective in this histologic subtype. The role of Z-BEAM in other strata is less clear in the context of the emergence of novel agents.
Project description:This randomized, phase III, open-label, multicenter study compared carfilzomib monotherapy against low-dose corticosteroids and optional cyclophosphamide in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients were randomized (1:1) to receive carfilzomib (10-min intravenous infusion; 20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 of cycle 1; 27 mg/m2 thereafter) or a control regimen of low-dose corticosteroids (84 mg of dexamethasone or equivalent corticosteroid) with optional cyclophosphamide (1400 mg) for 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Three-hundred and fifteen patients were randomized to carfilzomib (n=157) or control (n=158). Both groups had a median of five prior regimens. In the control group, 95% of patients received cyclophosphamide. Median OS was 10.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.4-14.4) vs 10.0 months (95% CI 7.7-12.0) with carfilzomib vs control (hazard ratio=0.975; 95% CI 0.760-1.249; P=0.4172). Progression-free survival was similar between groups; overall response rate was higher with carfilzomib (19.1 vs 11.4%). The most common grade ⩾3 adverse events were anemia (25.5 vs 30.7%), thrombocytopenia (24.2 vs 22.2%) and neutropenia (7.6 vs 12.4%) with carfilzomib vs control. Median OS for single-agent carfilzomib was similar to that for an active doublet control regimen in heavily pretreated RRMM patients.
Project description:Relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with a poor prognosis. Outcomes are particularly poor following immunochemotherapy failure or relapse within 12 months of induction. We conducted a Phase I/II trial of lenalidomide plus RICE (rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) (RICER) as a salvage regimen for first-relapse or primary refractory DLBCL. Dose-escalated lenalidomide was combined with RICE every 14 d. After three cycles of RICER, patients with chemosensitive disease underwent stem cell collection and consolidation with BEAM [BCNU (carmustine), etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan] followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT). Patients who recovered from autoSCT toxicities within 90 d initiated maintenance treatment with lenalidomide 25 mg daily for 21 d every 28 d for 12 months. No dose-limiting or unexpected toxicities occurred with lenalidomide 25 mg plus RICE. Grade 3/4 haematological toxicities resolved appropriately, and planned dose density and dose intensity of RICER were preserved. No lenalidomide or RICE dose reductions were required in any of the three cycles. After two cycles of RICER, nine of 15 patients (60%) achieved a complete response, and two achieved a partial response (13%). Combining lenalidomide with RICE is feasible, and results in promising response rates (particularly complete response rates) in high-risk DLBCL patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The Intergroup 0116 study has demonstrated a significant survival benefit for completely resected (R0) gastric cancer patients treated with a fluorouracil/leucovorin chemoradiotherapy regimen. However, this regimen is also toxic and less effective in terms of distant disease control. Therefore, a more efficacious and safer regimen is urgently needed. METHODS:Patients with R0 resected gastric carcinoma received up to two 21-day cycles of postoperative adjuvant preradiation and postradiation DCF chemotherapy (docetaxel 37.5 mg/m on days 1 and 8, cisplatin 25 mg/m on days 1 to 3, and a continuous infusion of fluorouracil 750 mg/m on days 1 to 5), respectively. Chemoradiotherapy between preradiation and postradiation chemotherapy was initiated on day 43 and consisted of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (45 Gy) plus concurrent docetaxel 20 mg/m weekly for 5 weeks. RESULTS:A total of 55 patients were evaluated and 76% (42) of patients completed the prescribed therapy. With a median follow-up of 61 months, the 3- and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54%-80%) and 59% (95% CI, 46%-72%), respectively; and the 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 72% (95% CI, 60%-84%) and 61% (95% CI, 48%-74%), respectively. The most common grade 3 or greater toxicity, during the chemotherapy phase, was neutropenia (24%). Common grade 3/4 toxicities during concurrent chemoradiotherapy were nausea (32%), vomiting (26%), fatigue (15%), and anorexia (19%). CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that this adjuvant regimen is active with an acceptable toxicity profile. A randomized phase 3 trial comparing the Intergroup 0116 chemoradiotherapy regimen with this regimen is underway.
Project description:This two-stage, multi-institutional, randomized phase 2 trial assessed the toxicity and response rate associated with two treatment schedules of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; SAHA) in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and in selected untreated patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.Patients with relapsed or untreated acute myeloid leukemia who were not candidates for chemotherapy entered one of the two treatment arms. In both arms a total dose of 8400 mg of vorinostat was delivered in each 21-day cycle of treatment: in arm A the dose regimen was 400 mg daily whereas in arm B the dose regimen was 200 mg three times daily for 14 days followed by 1 week rest.Data from all 37 patients were used for the analyses. In arm A (n=15), the confirmed complete remission rate was 0% (95% CI, 0% to 23%); this arm was closed at the planned interim analysis. In arm B (n=22), the confirmed complete remission rate was 4.5% (1 response; 95% CI, 0.4% to 24%), with a duration of response exceeding 398 days. The median time to treatment failure in arm A was 42 days (95% CI, 26 to 57); although a minimum of four cycles of treatment were planned, 11 patients (79%) received no more than two cycles. The median time to treatment failure in arm B was 46 days (95% CI, 20 to 71); 13 patients (59%) received no more than two cycles of treatment.Vorinostat monotherapy demonstrated minimal activity in this group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Therapy was discontinued in many patients before the planned four cycles had been administered, either because of failure of vorinostat to control the leukocyte count or patients' and physicians' preference. Future studies of vorinostat in acute myeloid leukemia should focus on combinations with other drugs with which it might interact pharmacodynamically. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00305773.
Project description:Afamitresgene autoleucel, an HLA-restricted autologous specific peptide enhanced affinity receptor (SPEAR) T-cell therapy targeting MAGE-A4, was developed to treat HLA-A*02 positive patients with MAGE-A4 expressing solid tumors. A multicenter, dose-escalation, Phase 1 trial (NCT03132922) was conducted evaluating afamitresgene autoleucel in patients with relapsed or refractory (≥1 prior line of therapy) metastatic solid tumors. The primary endpoint was safety. The secondary endpoint was anti-tumor activity including overall response rate, best overall response, time to response, duration of response, duration of stable disease, progression-free survival and overall survival. Thirty-eight patients were treated with afamitresgene autoleucel across 9 tumor types, including 16 with synovial sarcoma (SS). Overall, afamitresgene autoleucel was well tolerated. The most common adverse events were cytopenias. Cytokine release syndrome occurred in 55% of all patients with severity grade ≤2 in 90% of reported cases. Overall response rate (ORR) was 24% and disease control rate (DCR) was 74% with objective responses in 7 patients with SS, 1 patient with non-small cell lung cancer, and 1 patient with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. ORR in patients with SS, all prior treated with ifosfamide chemotherapy, was 44%, and DCR was 94%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 20.4 weeks (95% CI: 10.0, 52.1) and 58.1 weeks (95% CI: 36.3,-), respectively, for patients with SS and 12.3 weeks (95% CI: 10.857, 19.1) and 42.9 weeks (95% CI: 20.7, -), respectively, for the overall population. Translational findings demonstrated that afamitresgene autoleucel infiltrates into tumors, has an IFNγ-driven mechanism-of-action, and triggers adaptive immune responses. Overall, afamitresgene autoleucel has an acceptable safety profile with early and durable responses in HLA-A*02 positive patients with MAGE-A4 expressing solid tumors, especially in patients with metastatic SS. The recommended treatment regimen for Phase 2 evaluation involves lymphodepleting chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 x 3 days and fludarabine 30 mg/m2 x 4 days followed by afamitresgene autoleucel at a dose range of 1 to 10 billion transduced T-cells. Overall design: Expression of several gene groups and gene set enrichment analysis using NanoString PanCancer Immune Profiling panel was done. Pre- and post-treatment biopsies from three Synovial sarcoma and a single ovarian tumor patients were compared.
Project description:Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are treated with salvage regimens and may be considered for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation if disease is chemosensitive. Bendamustine is active in indolent B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia but has not been extensively studied in aggressive lymphomas. This trial examines the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with relapsed and refractory DLBCL. Patients received bendamustine at 90 mg/m² (n?=?2) or 120 mg/m² (n?=?57) on days 1 and 2 and rituximab at 375 mg/m² on day 1 every 28 days for up to 6 cycles. The study evaluated objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and treatment safety. Fifty-nine patients were treated, and 48 were evaluable for response. Median age was 74; 89 % had stage III or IV disease, and 63 % had high revised International Prognostic Index scores; the median number of prior therapies was 1. Based on analysis using the intent-to-treat population, the ORR was 45.8 % (complete response, 15.3 %; partial response, 30.5 %). The median DOR was 17.3 months, and the median PFS was 3.6 months. Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities included neutropenia (36 %), leukopenia (29 %), thrombocytopenia (22 %), and anemia (12 %). The combination of bendamustine and rituximab showed modest activity in patients with relapsed and refractory DLBCL and has an acceptable toxicity profile.