Cooperativity of imprinted genes inactivated by acquired chromosome 20q deletions.
ABSTRACT: Large regions of recurrent genomic loss are common in cancers; however, with a few well-characterized exceptions, how they contribute to tumor pathogenesis remains largely obscure. Here we identified primate-restricted imprinting of a gene cluster on chromosome 20 in the region commonly deleted in chronic myeloid malignancies. We showed that a single heterozygous 20q deletion consistently resulted in the complete loss of expression of the imprinted genes L3MBTL1 and SGK2, indicative of a pathogenetic role for loss of the active paternally inherited locus. Concomitant loss of both L3MBTL1 and SGK2 dysregulated erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis, 2 lineages commonly affected in chronic myeloid malignancies, with distinct consequences in each lineage. We demonstrated that L3MBTL1 and SGK2 collaborated in the transcriptional regulation of MYC by influencing different aspects of chromatin structure. L3MBTL1 is known to regulate nucleosomal compaction, and we here showed that SGK2 inactivated BRG1, a key ATP-dependent helicase within the SWI/SNF complex that regulates nucleosomal positioning. These results demonstrate a link between an imprinted gene cluster and malignancy, reveal a new pathogenetic mechanism associated with acquired regions of genomic loss, and underline the complex molecular and cellular consequences of "simple" cancer-associated chromosome deletions.
Project description:L3MBTL1, the human homolog of the Drosophila L(3)MBT polycomb group tumor suppressor gene, is located on chromosome 20q12, within the common deleted region identified in patients with 20q deletion-associated polycythemia vera, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. L3MBTL1 is expressed within hematopoietic CD34(+) cells; thus, it may contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders. To define its role in hematopoiesis, we knocked down L3MBTL1 expression in primary hematopoietic stem/progenitor (ie, CD34(+)) cells isolated from human cord blood (using short hairpin RNAs) and observed an enhanced commitment to and acceleration of erythroid differentiation. Consistent with this effect, overexpression of L3MBTL1 in primary hematopoietic CD34(+) cells as well as in 20q- cell lines restricted erythroid differentiation. Furthermore, L3MBTL1 levels decrease during hemin-induced erythroid differentiation or erythropoietin exposure, suggesting a specific role for L3MBTL1 down-regulation in enforcing cell fate decisions toward the erythroid lineage. Indeed, L3MBTL1 knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to erythropoietin (Epo), with increased Epo-induced phosphorylation of STAT5, AKT, and MAPK as well as detectable phosphorylation in the absence of Epo. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of L3MBTL1 contributes to some (20q-) myeloproliferative neoplasms, especially polycythemia vera, by promoting erythroid differentiation.
Project description:The l3mbtl1 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 20 (q12), within a region commonly deleted in several myeloid malignancies. L3MBTL1 is a human homolog of the Drosophila polycomb L(3)MBT tumor suppressor protein and thus a candidate tumor suppressor in del(20q12) myeloid disorders. We used the loss-of-function approach to explore the possible tumor suppressive mechanism of L3MBTL1 and found that depletion of L3MBTL1 from human cells causes replicative stress, DNA breaks, activation of the DNA damage response, and genomic instability. L3MBTL1 interacts with Cdc45, MCM2-7 and PCNA, components of the DNA replication machinery, and is required for normal replication fork progression, suggesting that L3MBTL1 causes DNA damage, at least in part, by perturbing DNA replication. An activated DNA damage response and genomic instability are common features in tumorigenesis and a consequence of overexpression of many oncogenes. We propose that the loss of L3MBTL1 contributes to the development of 20q(-) hematopoietic malignancies by inducing replicative stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development, and, thus, aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knockdown of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia.
Project description:Heterozygous deletions within chromosome 20q, or del(20q), are frequent cytogenetic abnormalities detected in hematologic malignancies. To date, identification of genes in the del(20q) common deleted region that contribute to disease development have remained elusive. Through assessment of patient gene expression, we have identified STK4 (encoding Hippo kinase MST1) as a 20q gene that is downregulated below haploinsufficient amounts in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Hematopoietic-specific gene inactivation in mice revealed Hippo kinase loss to induce splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic dysplasia, and a propensity for chronic granulocytosis; phenotypes that closely resemble those observed in patients harboring del(20q). In a JAK2-V617F model, heterozygous Hippo kinase inactivation led to accelerated development of lethal myelofibrosis, recapitulating adverse MPN disease progression and revealing a novel genetic interaction between these 2 molecular events. Quantitative serum protein profiling showed that myelofibrotic transformation in mice was associated with cooperative effects of JAK2-V617F and Hippo kinase inactivation on innate immune-associated proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1? and IL-6. Mechanistically, MST1 interacted with IRAK1, and shRNA-mediated knockdown was sufficient to increase IRAK1-dependent innate immune activation of NF-?B in human myeloid cells. Consistent with this, treatment with a small molecule IRAK1/4 inhibitor rescued the aberrantly elevated IL-1? production in the JAK2-V617F MPN model. This study identified Hippo kinase MST1 (STK4) as having a central role in the biology of del(20q)-associated hematologic malignancies and revealed a novel molecular basis of adverse MPN progression that may be therapeutically exploitable via IRAK1 inhibition.
Project description:Deletions on the long-arm of chromosome 20, del(20q), are common karyotypic abnormalities in myeloid disorders. Bioinformatic analyses of the B-allele frequency and log R ratio values from genome-wide association data have identified individuals who are mosaic for large structural abnormalities (>2 Mb). We investigated the most common autosomal event, namely mosaic del(20q), in 46?254 nonhematologic cancer cases and 36?229 cancer-free controls. We detected 91 mosaic del(20q) in leukocytes (80%) and buccal material (20%). The mosaic del(20q) mapped to a well-characterized minimally deleted region (MDR) reported in myeloid disorders. Common breakpoint clusters map to the coordinates of 29.9 to 31.5 Mb on the centromeric side of mosaic del(20q), and 42.0 to 45.4 Mb and 48.1 to 50.7 Mb on the telomeric end (GRCh36). Multivariate analyses suggest del(20q) increases with age, and is more common in males but less common in individuals of African ancestry. No conclusive associations were noted between the presence of mosaic del(20q) and subsequent solid tumor risk. Our observations demonstrate that the MDR of del(20q) is the most common large scale mosaic autosomal abnormality in whole blood and has a frequency of ?1 in every 1000 adults over the age of 50, which exceeds the expected incidence of myeloid leukemia in the population. Our results indicate that subclonal mosaic events of a region implicated in myeloid disorders on 20q are more frequent than the predicted population-estimated incidence of myeloid diseases, and thus suggest that these events can be tolerated until additional events accumulate that drive myeloid disorders.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development and thus aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knock-down of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia. The Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, plays a regulatory role during differentiation of human iPS cells. Upon lentiviral knock-down of L3MBTL1, iPS cells stay poised for hematopoietic development and up-regulate expression of BMP/SMAD targets, which may also mediate impaired neural development. Overall design: Human iPS cells at an undifferentiated stage of differentiation were lentivirally infected to express shRNAs targeting L3MBTL1. GFP+ cells were FACS sorted and subjected to RNA extraction and hybridized to Affymetrix U133plus 2.0 arrays, scanned, and subjected to quality control parameters. The data were normalized using MAS5.0.
Project description:Deletion 20q (Del(20q)), a common cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms, is rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report 64 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and del(20q), as the sole abnormality in 40, a stemline abnormality in 21, and a secondary abnormality in 3 cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed an additional high-risk abnormality, del(11q) or del(17p), in 25/64 (39%) cases. In most cases, the leukemic cells showed atypical cytologic features, unmutated IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region) genes, and ZAP70 positivity. The del(20q) was detected only after chemotherapy in all 27 cases with initial karyotypes available. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 30 patients (47%) died, most as a direct consequence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eight patients developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, seven with a complex karyotype. Combined morphologic and FISH analysis for del(20q) performed in 12 cases without morphologic evidence of a myeloid neoplasm localized the del(20q) to the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in 5 (42%) cases, and to myeloid/erythroid cells in 7 (58)% cases. The del(20q) was detected in myeloid cells in all 4 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome. In aggregate, these data indicate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia with del(20q) acquired after therapy is heterogeneous. In cases with morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) likely resides in the myeloid lineage. However, in cases without morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) may represent clonal evolution and disease progression. Combining morphologic analysis with FISH for del(20q) or performing FISH on immunomagnetically selected sub-populations to localize the cell population with this abnormality may help guide patient management.
Project description:Deletion of long arm of chromosome 20 [del(20q)] is the second most frequent recurrent chromosomal abnormality in hematological malignancies. It is detected in 10% of myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4-5% of myelodysplastic syndromes, and 1-2% of acute myeloid leukaemia. Recurrent, non-random occurrence of del(20q) indicates that it is a pathogenic driver in myeloid malignancies. Genetic mapping of patient samples has identified two regions of interest on 20q - the "Common Deleted Region" (CDR) and "Common Retained Region" (CRR), which was often amplified. We proposed that the CDR contained tumor suppressor gene(s) (TSG) and the CRR harbored oncogene(s); loss of a TSG together with over-expression of an oncogene favored development of myeloid malignancies. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor T (PTPRT) and Hemopoietic cell kinase (HCK) were identified to be the likely candidate TSG and oncogene respectively. Retroviral transduction of HCK into PTPRT-null murine LKS+ stem and progenitor cells resulted in hyperproliferation in colony forming assays and hyperphosphorylation of intracellular STAT3. Furthermore, over half of the murine recipients of these transduced cells developed erythroid hyperplasia, polycythemia and splenomegaly at 12 months, although no leukemic phenotype was observed. The findings suggested that HCK amplification coupled with PTPRT loss in del(20q) leads to development of a myeloproliferative phenotype.
Project description:Patients with a sole del(20q) chromosomal abnormality and without morphologic features of a myeloid neoplasm (MN) have shown variable clinical outcomes. To explore the potential risk stratification markers in this group of patients, we evaluated their genetic mutational landscape by a 35-gene MN-focused next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel and examined the association of mutations to progression of MNs. Our study included 56 patients over a 10-year period with isolated del(20q), of whom 23 (41.1%) harbored at least one mutation. With a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range: 0.1-159.1), 9 of 23 patients with mutation(s) progressed to MNs, while all 33 patients without mutations did not progress to MN. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated the presence of mutation(s) as a significant risk factor for progression to MN (P?<?0.0001). MN progression was strongly associated with the presence of non-DNMT3A/TET2/ASXL1 epigenetic modifiers and nonspliceosome mutations (P?=?0.003). There was no significant difference among patients with and without MN progression with respect to the number of mutations, variant allele frequency, percentage of del(20q), and other clinical/laboratory variables. This study illustrates the underlying genetic heterogeneity and complexity of isolated del(20q), and underscores the prognostic value of NGS mutational analysis in these cases.
Project description:Duplication of chromosomal arm 20q occurs in prostate, cervical, colon, gastric, bladder, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, suggesting that 20q amplification may play a causal role in tumorigenesis. According to an alternative view, chromosomal imbalance is mainly a common side effect of cancer progression. To test whether a specific genomic aberration might serve as a cancer initiating event, we established an in vitro system that models the evolutionary process of early stages of prostate tumor formation; normal prostate cells were immortalized by the over-expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT, and cultured for 650 days till several transformation hallmarks were observed. Gene expression patterns were measured and chromosomal aberrations were monitored by spectral karyotype analysis at different times. Several chromosomal aberrations, in particular duplication of chromosomal arm 20q, occurred early in the process and were fixed in the cell populations, while other aberrations became extinct shortly after their appearance. A wide range of bioinformatic tools, applied to our data and to data from several cancer databases, revealed that spontaneous 20q amplification can promote cancer initiation. Our computational model suggests that 20q amplification induced deregulation of several specific cancer-related pathways including the MAPK pathway, the p53 pathway and Polycomb group factors. In addition, activation of Myc, AML, B-Catenin and the ETS family transcription factors was identified as an important step in cancer development driven by 20q amplification. Finally we identified 13 "cancer initiating genes", located on 20q13, which were significantly over-expressed in many tumors, with expression levels correlated with tumor grade and outcome suggesting that these genes induce the malignant process upon 20q amplification.