Hyaluronic acid based self-assembling nanosystems for CD44 target mediated siRNA delivery to solid tumors.
ABSTRACT: Anticancer therapeutics employing RNA interference mechanism holds promising potentials for sequence-specific silencing of target genes. However targeted delivery of siRNAs to tumor tissues and cells and more importantly, their intracellular release at sites of interest still remains a major challenge that needs to be addressed before this technique could become a clinically viable option. In the current study, we have engineered and screened a series of CD44 targeting hyaluronic acid (HA) based self-assembling nanosystems for targeted siRNA delivery. The HA polymer was functionalized with lipids of varying carbon chain lengths/nitrogen content, as well as polyamines for assessing siRNA encapsulation. From the screens, several HA-derivatives were identified that could stably encapsulate/complex siRNAs and form self-assembled nanosystems, as determined by gel retardation assays and dynamic light scattering. Many HA derivatives could transfect siRNAs into cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Interestingly, blocking the CD44 receptors on the cells using free excess soluble HA prior to incubation of cy3-labeled-siRNA loaded HA nano-assemblies resulted in >90% inhibition of the receptor mediated uptake, confirming target specificity. In addition, SSB/PLK1 siRNA encapsulated in HA-PEI/PEG nanosystems demonstrated dose dependent and target specific gene knockdown in both sensitive and resistant A549 lung cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. More importantly, these siRNA encapsulated nanosystems demonstrated tumor selective uptake and target specific gene knock down in vivo in solid tumors as well as in metastatic tumors. The HA based nanosystems thus portend to be promising siRNA delivery vectors for systemic targeting of CD44 overexpressing cancers including tumor initiating (stem-) cells and metastatic lesions.
Project description:One of the most challenging aspects of lung cancer therapy is the rapid acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype. One effective approach would be to identify and downregulate resistance-causing genes in tumors using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic challenge. After identifying the overexpressed resistance-related antiapoptotic genes (survivin and bcl-2) in cisplatin-resistant cells, the siRNA sequences were designed and screened to select the most efficacious candidates. Modifications were introduced in them to minimize off-target effects. Subsequently, the combination of siRNA and cisplatin that gave the maximum synergy was identified in resistant cells. We then demonstrated that the combination treatment of the selected siRNAs and cisplatin encapsulated in CD44-targeting hyaluronic acid (HA)-based self-assembling nanosystems reversed the resistance to cisplatin and delayed the tumor growth significantly (growth inhibition increased from 30 to 60%) in cisplatin-resistant tumors. In addition, no abnormalities in body weights, liver enzyme levels or histopathology of liver/spleen tissues were observed in any of the treatment groups during the study period. Overall, we demonstrate that the combination of siRNA-mediated gene-silencing strategy with chemotherapeutic agents constitutes a valuable and safe approach for the treatment of MDR tumors.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e110; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.29; published online 30 July 2013.
Project description:Approaches for the synthesis of biomaterials to facilitate the delivery of "biologics" is a major area of research in cancer therapy. Here we designed and characterized a hyaluronic acid (HA) based self-assembling nanoparticles that can target CD44 receptors overexpressed on multidrug resistance (MDR) ovarian cancer. The nanoparticle system is composed of HA-poly(ethyleneimine)/HA-poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEI/HA-PEG) designed to deliver MDR1 siRNA for the treatment of MDR in an ovarian cancer model.HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized, then the cellular uptake and knockdown efficiency of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles was further determined. A human xenograft MDR ovarian cancer model was established to evaluate the effects of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles and paclitaxel on MDR tumor growth.Our results demonstrated that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles successfully targeted CD44 and delivered MDR1 siRNA into OVCAR8TR (established paclitaxel resistant) tumors. Additionally, HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with MDR1 siRNA efficiently down-regulated the expression of MDR1 and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), inhibited the functional activity of Pgp, and subsequently increased cell sensitivity to paclitaxel. HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticle therapy followed by paclitaxel treatment inhibited tumor growth in MDR ovarian cancer mouse models.These findings suggest that this CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticle platform may be a clinicaly relevant gene delivery system for systemic siRNA-based anticancer therapeutics for the treatment of MDR cancers.
Project description:The CD44 protein, as a predominant receptor for hyaluronan (HA), is highly expressed on the surface of multiple tumor cells. HA, as a targeting molecule for a CD44-contained delivery system, increases intracellular drug concentration in tumor tissue. However, due to the weak binding ability of hyaluronan oligosaccharide to CD44, targeting for tumor drug delivery has been restricted. In this study, we first use a HA tetrasaccharide cluster as the target ligand to enhance the binding ability to CD44. A polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was modified by a HA tetrasaccharide cluster as a nonviral vector for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. The dendrimer/siRNA nanocomplexes increased the cellular uptake capacity of siRNA through the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, allowing the siRNA to successfully escape the endosome/lysosome. Compared with the control group, nanocomplexes effectively reduced the expression of GFP protein and mRNA in MDA-MB-231-GFP cells. This delivery system provides a foundation to increase the clinical applications of PAMAM nanomaterials.
Project description:Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA(+)) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA(+) nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA(+) relies on the capability of the conjugated HA(+) to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA(+)-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.
Project description:Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor subtype, lacking estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) receptors. Thus, early detection and targeted therapy of TNBC is an urgent need. Herein, we have developed a CD44 targeting Hyaluronic Acid (HA) decorated biocompatible oligomer, containing FDA approved vitamin E TPGS and Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA) (HA-SMA-TPGS) for targeting TNBC. The self-assembling HA-SMA-TPGS was encapsulated with poorly water soluble, potent curcumin analogue (CDF) to form nanomicelles (NM), HA-SMA-TPGS-CDF has demonstrated excellent nanoparticle characteristics for parenteral delivery. The targeted NM can selectively kill TNBC cells through CD44 mediated apoptosis pathway. Tumor imaging using phase-2 clinical trial near infrared (NIR)-fluorescent dye (S0456) conjugate, HA-SMA-TPGS-S0456 showed excellent TNBC tumor accumulation with minimum liver and spleen uptake. To our best of knowledge, for the first time, we are reporting a promising platform for CD44 mediated multimodal NIR imaging and cytotoxin delivery to TNBC.
Project description:Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and the modulation of angiogenesis can be an effective approach for cancer therapy. We focused on silencing the angiogenic gene PLXDC1 as an important factor for anti-angiogenesis tumor therapy. Herein, we developed PLXDC1 small interfering siRNA (siRNA)-incorporated chitosan nanoparticle (CH-NP/siRNA) coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) to target the CD44 receptor on tumor endothelial cells. This study aimed to improve targeted delivery and enhance therapeutic efficacy for tumor anti-angiogenesis. The HA-CH-NP/siRNA was 200?±?10?nm in size with a zeta potential of 26.4?mV. The loading efficiency of siRNA to the HA-CH-NP/siRNA was up to 60%. The selective binding of HA-CH-NP/siRNA to CD44-positive tumor endothelial cells increased by 2.1-fold compared with that of the CD44 nontargeted CH-NP/siRNA. PLXDC1 silencing by the HA-CH-NP/siRNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in A2780 tumor-bearing mice compared with that in the control group (p?<?.01), and mRNA expression of PLXDC1 was significantly reduced in the HA-CH-NP/siRNA-treated group. Furthermore, treatment with HA-CH-NP/siRNA resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation (p?<?.001), reduced microvessel density (p?<?.001), and increased cell apoptosis (p?<?.001). This study demonstrates that HA-CH-NP/siRNA is a highly selective delivery platform for siRNA, and has broad potential to be used in anti-angiogenesis tumor therapy.
Project description:More than two thirds of Lysosomal Storage Diseases (LSDs) present central nervous system involvement. Nevertheless, only one of the currently approved therapies has an impact on neuropathology. Therefore, alternative approaches are under development, either addressing the underlying enzymatic defect or its downstream consequences. Also under study is the possibility to block substrate accumulation upstream, by promoting a decrease of its synthesis. This concept is known as substrate reduction therapy and may be triggered by several molecules, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). siRNAs promote RNA interference, a naturally occurring sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism, and may target virtually any gene of interest, inhibiting its expression. Still, naked siRNAs have limited cellular uptake, low biological stability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Thus, their translation into clinics requires proper delivery methods. One promising platform is a special class of liposomes called stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), which are characterized by high cargo encapsulation efficiency and may be engineered to promote targeted delivery to specific receptors. Here, we review the concept of SNALPs, presenting a series of examples on their efficacy as siRNA nanodelivery systems. By doing so, we hope to unveil the therapeutic potential of these nanosystems for targeted brain delivery of siRNAs in LSDs.
Project description:Given the maturation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) techniques with nanotechnology, and because overexpression of human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is crucial for T cell inactivation and immunosuppression of the tumor microenvironment, application of siRNA-PD-L1 has demonstrated positive progress in preclinical studies; however, the limited penetration of this compound into solid tumors remains a challenge. To decrease PD-L1 expression and increase the penetration efficacy of solid tumors, we synthesized a novel tumor-microenvironment-sensitive delivery polymer by conjugating hyaluronic acid (HA) to polyethyleneimine (PEI), with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-sensitive peptide acting as the linker (HA-P-PEI), for use in delivery of PD-L1-siRNA. Concurrent synthesis of a linker-less HA-PEI compound allowed confirmation that negatively charged siRNA can be complexed onto the positively charged HA-PEI and HA-P-PEI compounds to form nanoparticles with the same particle size and uniform distribution with serum stability. We found that the size of the HA-P-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles decreased to <10 nm upon addition of MMP-2, and that H1975 cells overexpressing CD44, PD-L1, and MMP-2 aided confirmation of the delivery efficacy of the HA-P-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes. Additionally, the use of HA-P-PEI caused less cytotoxicity than PEI alone, demonstrating its high cellular uptake. Moreover, pretreatment with MMP-2 increased nanocomplex tumor permeability, and western blot showed that HA-P-PEI/PD-L1-siRNA efficiently downregulated the PD-L1 expression in H1975 cells. These results demonstrated a novel approach for siRNA delivery and tumor penetration for future clinical applications in cancer treatment.
Project description:IKBKE is an oncogene in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and we demonstrate that IKBKE small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells. Despite the recent success of siRNA therapeutics targeting to the liver, there still remains a great challenge to deliver siRNAs to solid tumors. Here, we report a hybrid nanocomplex to co-deliver the IKBKE siRNA and cabazitaxel to TNBC to achieve an optimal antitumor effect. The nanocomplex is modified with hyaluronic acid to target CD44 on TNBC cells. The nanocomplex shows higher cellular uptake and better tumor penetration of the encapsulated cargos. The nanocomplex also exhibits high tumor accumulation and antitumor activity in an orthotopic TNBC mouse model. Encapsulation of cabazitaxel in the nanocomplex enhances the activity of the IKBKE siRNA. The hybrid nanocomplex provides a novel and versatile platform for combination therapies using siRNAs and chemotherapy.