Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness.
ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that duration of delirium in the intensive care unit is an independent predictor of long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation.Prospective cohort study.Medical intensive care unit in a large community hospital in the United States.Mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients who were assessed daily for delirium while in the intensive care unit and who underwent comprehensive cognitive assessments 3 and 12 mos after discharge.Of 126 eligible patients, 99 survived>or=3 months after critical illness; long-term cognitive outcomes were obtained for 77 (78%) patients. Median age was 61 yrs, 51% were admitted with sepsis/acute respiratory distress syndrome, and median duration of delirium was 2 days. At 3-mo and 12-mo follow-up, 79% and 71% of survivors had cognitive impairment, respectively (with 62% and 36% being severely impaired). After adjusting for age, education, preexisting cognitive function, severity of illness, severe sepsis, and exposure to sedative medications in the intensive care unit, increasing duration of delirium was an independent predictor of worse cognitive performance-determined by averaging age-adjusted and education-adjusted T-scores from nine tests measuring seven domains of cognition-at 3-mo (p=.02) and 12-mo follow-up (p=.03). Duration of mechanical ventilation, alternatively, was not associated with long-term cognitive impairment (p=.20 and .58).In this study of mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients, duration of delirium (which is potentially modifiable) was independently associated with long-term cognitive impairment, a common public health problem among intensive care unit survivors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Delirium is common in intensive care patients and is associated with short- and long-term adverse outcomes. We investigated the long-term risk of cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in intensive care patients with and without delirium. METHODS:This is a prospective cohort study in ICUs in two Australian university-affiliated hospitals. Patients were eligible if they were older than 18 years, mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h and did not meet exclusion criteria. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit. Variables assessing cognitive function and PTSD symptoms were collected at ICU discharge, after 6 and 12 months: Mini-Mental State Examination, Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, Impact of Events Scale-Revised and Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline (caregiver). RESULTS:103 participants were included of which 36% developed delirium in ICU. Patients with delirium were sicker and had longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay. After 12 months, 41/60 (68.3%) evaluable patients were cognitively impaired, with 11.6% representing the presence of symptoms consistent with dementia. When evaluated by the patient's caregiver, the patient's cognitive function was found to be severely impaired in a larger proportion of patients (14/60, 23.3%). Delirium was associated with worse cognitive function at ICU discharge, but not with long-term cognitive function. IES-R scores, measuring PTSD symptoms, were significantly higher in patients who had delirium compared to patients without delirium. In regression analysis, delirium was independently associated with cognitive function at ICU discharge and PTSD symptoms at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:Intensive care survivors have significant rates of long-term cognitive decline and PTSD symptoms. Delirium in ICU was independently associated with short-term but not long-term cognitive function, and with long-term PTSD symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001116415, 15/8/2016 retrospectively registered, https://www.anzctr.org.au.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To characterise the clinical course of delirium for patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, including postdischarge neuropsychological outcomes.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective chart review and prospective survey study.<h4>Setting</h4>Intensive care units, large academic tertiary-care centre (USA).<h4>Participants</h4>Patients (n=148) with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit at Michigan Medicine between 1 March 2020 and 31 May 2020 were eligible for inclusion.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Delirium was the primary outcome, assessed via validated chart review method. Secondary outcomes included measures related to delirium, such as delirium duration, antipsychotic use, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, inflammatory markers and final disposition. Neuroimaging data were also collected. Finally, a telephone survey was conducted between 1 and 2 months after discharge to determine neuropsychological function via the following tests: Family Confusion Assessment Method, Short Blessed Test, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Cognitive Abilities 4a and Patient-Health Questionnaire-9.<h4>Results</h4>Delirium was identified in 108/148 (73%) patients, with median (IQR) duration lasting 10 (4-17) days. In the delirium cohort, 50% (54/108) of patients were African American and delirious patients were more likely to be female (76/108, 70%) (absolute standardised differences >0.30). Sedation regimens, inflammation, delirium prevention protocol deviations and hypoxic-ischaemic injury were likely contributing factors, and the most common disposition for delirious patients was a skilled care facility (41/108, 38%). Among patients who were delirious during hospitalisation, 4/17 (24%) later screened positive for delirium at home based on caretaker assessment, 5/22 (23%) demonstrated signs of questionable cognitive impairment or cognitive impairment consistent with dementia and 3/25 (12%) screened positive for depression within 2 months after discharge.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients with COVID-19 commonly experience a prolonged course of delirium in the intensive care unit, likely with multiple contributing factors. Furthermore, neuropsychological impairment may persist after discharge.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the relation between delirium in critically ill patients and their outcomes in the short term (in the intensive care unit and in hospital) and after discharge from hospital.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies.<h4>Data sources</h4>PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO, with no language restrictions, up to 1 January 2015.<h4>Eligibility criteria for selection studies</h4>Reports were eligible for inclusion if they were prospective observational cohorts or clinical trials of adults in intensive care units who were assessed with a validated delirium screening or rating system, and if the association was measured between delirium and at least one of four clinical endpoints (death during admission, length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and any outcome after hospital discharge). Studies were excluded if they primarily enrolled patients with a neurological disorder or patients admitted to intensive care after cardiac surgery or organ/tissue transplantation, or centered on sedation management or alcohol or substance withdrawal. Data were extracted on characteristics of studies, populations sampled, identification of delirium, and outcomes. Random effects models and meta-regression analyses were used to pool data from individual studies.<h4>Results</h4>Delirium was identified in 5280 of 16,595 (31.8%) critically ill patients reported in 42 studies. When compared with control patients without delirium, patients with delirium had significantly higher mortality during admission (risk ratio 2.19, 94% confidence interval 1.78 to 2.70; P<0.001) as well as longer durations of mechanical ventilation and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and in hospital (standard mean differences 1.79 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 3.27; P<0.001), 1.38 (0.99 to 1.77; P<0.001), and 0.97 (0.61 to 1.33; P<0.001), respectively). Available studies indicated an association between delirium and cognitive impairment after discharge.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nearly a third of patients admitted to an intensive care unit develop delirium, and these patients are at increased risk of dying during admission, longer stays in hospital, and cognitive impairment after discharge.
Project description:We face a profound and emerging public health problem in the form of acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This affects both young and elderly intensive care unit survivors and is altering the landscape of society. Two-thirds of intensive care unit patients develop delirium, and this is associated with longer stays, increased costs, and excess mortality. In addition, over half of intensive care unit survivors suffer a dementia-like illness that impacts their physical and cognitive functional abilities and which appears to be related to the duration of their intensive care unit delirium. A new paradigm of how intensivists handle the brain is required. We propose a three-step approach to address this emerging epidemic, which includes Screening, Prevention, and Restoration of brain function (SPR). Screening combines risk factor identification and delirium assessment using validated instruments. Prevention of acute and chronic brain dysfunction requires implementation of a core model of care that combines evidence-based practices: awakening and breathing, coordination with target-based sedation, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility (ABCDE). Restoration introduces strategies of ongoing screening and treatment for intensive care unit survivors at high risk of ongoing brain dysfunction. This practical system applying many evidence-based concepts incorporates personalized medicine, systems-based practice, and continuing research and development toward improving acute and chronic cognitive outcomes.
Project description:Survivors of critical illness often have a prolonged and disabling form of cognitive impairment that remains inadequately characterized.We enrolled adults with respiratory failure or shock in the medical or surgical intensive care unit (ICU), evaluated them for in-hospital delirium, and assessed global cognition and executive function 3 and 12 months after discharge with the use of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (population age-adjusted mean [±SD] score, 100±15, with lower values indicating worse global cognition) and the Trail Making Test, Part B (population age-, sex-, and education-adjusted mean score, 50±10, with lower scores indicating worse executive function). Associations of the duration of delirium and the use of sedative or analgesic agents with the outcomes were assessed with the use of linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders.Of the 821 patients enrolled, 6% had cognitive impairment at baseline, and delirium developed in 74% during the hospital stay. At 3 months, 40% of the patients had global cognition scores that were 1.5 SD below the population means (similar to scores for patients with moderate traumatic brain injury), and 26% had scores 2 SD below the population means (similar to scores for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease). Deficits occurred in both older and younger patients and persisted, with 34% and 24% of all patients with assessments at 12 months that were similar to scores for patients with moderate traumatic brain injury and scores for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, respectively. A longer duration of delirium was independently associated with worse global cognition at 3 and 12 months (P=0.001 and P=0.04, respectively) and worse executive function at 3 and 12 months (P=0.004 and P=0.007, respectively). Use of sedative or analgesic medications was not consistently associated with cognitive impairment at 3 and 12 months.Patients in medical and surgical ICUs are at high risk for long-term cognitive impairment. A longer duration of delirium in the hospital was associated with worse global cognition and executive function scores at 3 and 12 months. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; BRAIN-ICU ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00392795.).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the frequency of co-occurring newly acquired cognitive impairment, disability in activities of daily livings, and depression among survivors of a critical illness and to evaluate predictors of being free of post-intensive care syndrome problems. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Medical and surgical ICUs from five U.S. centers. PATIENTS:Patients with respiratory failure or shock, excluding those with preexisting cognitive impairment or disability in activities of daily livings. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:At 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge, we assessed patients for cognitive impairment, disability, and depression. We categorized patients into eight groups reflecting combinations of cognitive, disability, and mental health problems. Using multivariable logistic regression, we modeled the association between age, education, frailty, durations of mechanical ventilation, delirium, and severe sepsis with the odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free. We analyzed 406 patients with a median age of 61 years and an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II of 23. At 3 and 12 months, one or more post-intensive care syndrome problems were present in 64% and 56%, respectively. Nevertheless, co-occurring post-intensive care syndrome problems (i.e., in two or more domains) were present in 25% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Post-intensive care syndrome problems in all three domains were present in only 6% at 3 months and 4% at 12 months. More years of education was associated with greater odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free (p < 0.001 at 3 and 12 mo). More severe frailty was associated with lower odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free (p = 0.005 at 3 mo and p = 0.048 at 12 mo). CONCLUSIONS:In this multicenter cohort study, one or more post-intensive care syndrome problems were present in the majority of survivors, but co-occurring problems were present in only one out of four. Education was protective from post-intensive care syndrome problems and frailty predictive of the development of post-intensive care syndrome problems. Future studies are needed to understand better the heterogeneous subtypes of post-intensive care syndrome and to identify modifiable risk factors.
Project description:RATIONALE:Cognitive impairment is common among older adults, yet little is known about the association of pre-intensive care unit cognitive status with outcomes relevant to older adults maintaining independence after a critical illness. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate whether pre-intensive care unit cognitive status is associated with post-intensive care unit disability, new nursing home admission, and mortality after a critical illness among older adults. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, 754 persons aged 70 years or more were monitored from March 1998 to December 2013 with monthly assessments of disability. Cognitive status was assessed every 18 months, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (range, 0-30), with scores classified as 28 or higher (cognitively intact), 24-27 (minimal impairment), and less than 24 (moderate impairment). The primary outcome was disability count (range, 0-13), assessed monthly over 6 months after an intensive care unit stay. The secondary outcomes were incident nursing home admission and time to death after intensive care unit admission. The analytic sample included 391 intensive care unit admissions. RESULTS:The mean age was 83.5 years. The prevalence of moderate impairment, minimal impairment, and intact cognition (the comparison group) was 17.3, 46.2, and 36.5%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, moderate impairment was associated with nearly a 20% increase in disability over the 6-month follow-up period (adjusted relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.36), and minimal impairment was associated with a 16% increase in post-intensive care unit disability (adjusted relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.32). Moderate impairment was associated with more than double the likelihood of a new nursing home admission (adjusted odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.55). Survival differed significantly across the three cognitive groups (log-rank P = 0.002), but neither moderate impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.19) nor minimal impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.62) was significantly associated with mortality in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Among older adults, any impairment (even minimal) in pre-intensive care unit cognitive status was associated with an increase in post-intensive care unit disability over the 6 months after a critical illness; moderate cognitive impairment doubled the likelihood of a new nursing home admission. Pre-intensive care unit cognitive impairment was not associated with mortality from intensive care unit admission through 6 months of follow-up. Pre-intensive care unit cognitive status may provide prognostic information about the likelihood of older adults maintaining independence after a critical illness.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Hospital mortality for critically ill patients has decreased significantly throughout the developed world over the past two decades, attributable to improvements in the quality of intensive care, advances in critical care medicine and technologies that provide long-term multiorgan support. However, the long-term outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors is emerging as a real issue. Cognitive and physical impairments suffered by ICU survivors are common including profound weakness, pain and delirium which are inextricably linked. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Assess, prevent and manage pain; Both spontaneous awakening and spontaneous breathing trials; Choice of sedation and analgesia; Delirium: assess, prevent and manage; Early mobility and exercise; Family engagement and empowerment (ABCDEF) bundle in reducing ICU-related short-term and long-term consequences of critical illness through a randomised controlled trial (RCT).<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>The study will be a single-centre, prospective RCT. A total of 150 participants will be recruited and randomised to either receive the ABCDEF bundle protocol or non-protocolised standard care for the duration of the participant's admission in the ICU. The primary outcome is delirium status measured using the Confusion Assessment Measure for ICU (CAM-ICU). Secondary outcomes include physical function measured by the Functional Independence Measure and quality of life measured by the European Quality of Life five dimensions, five-level questionnaire. A mixed-method process evaluation will contribute to understanding the experience of health teams who implement the ABCDEF bundle into practice.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Ethics approval was provided by the Metro South Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (EC00167) and the Griffith University's HREC prior to study commencement.Study results will be disseminated by presentations at conferences and via publications to peer-review journals.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>ACTRN12620000736943; Pre-results.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the attributable mortality caused by delirium in critically ill patients.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>32 mixed bed intensive care unit in the Netherlands, January 2011 to July 2013.<h4>Participants</h4>1112 consecutive adults admitted to an intensive care unit for a minimum of 24 hours.<h4>Exposures</h4>Trained observers evaluated delirium daily using a validated protocol. Logistic regression and competing risks survival analyses were used to adjust for baseline variables and a marginal structural model analysis to adjust for confounding by evolution of disease severity before the onset of delirium.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Mortality during admission to an intensive care unit.<h4>Results</h4>Among 1112 evaluated patients, 558 (50.2%) developed at least one episode of delirium, with a median duration of 3 days (interquartile range 2-7 days). Crude mortality was 94/558 (17%) in patients with delirium compared with 40/554 (7%) in patients without delirium (P<0.001). Delirium was significantly associated with mortality in the multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.72) and survival analysis (subdistribution hazard ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 3.09). However, the association disappeared after adjustment for time varying confounders in the marginal structural model (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.89). Using this approach, only 7.2% (95% confidence interval -7.5% to 19.5%) of deaths in the intensive care unit were attributable to delirium, with an absolute mortality excess in patients with delirium of 0.9% (95% confidence interval -0.9% to 2.3%) by day 30. In post hoc analyses, however, delirium that persisted for two days or more remained associated with a 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 2.8%) absolute mortality increase. Furthermore, competing risk analysis showed that delirium of any duration was associated with a significantly reduced rate of discharge from the intensive care unit (cause specific hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.76).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, delirium prolongs admission in the intensive care unit but does not cause death in critically ill patients. Future studies should focus on episodes of persistent delirium and its long term sequelae rather than on acute mortality.Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01905033.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the delirium severity (DS), its risk factors and association with adverse patient outcomes in chronically critically ill (CCI) patients. DESIGN:A prospective cohort study. SETTING:A tertiary care hospital with postacute intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. PARTICIPANTS:N=267?CCI patients with critical illness polyneuropathy and/or critical illness myopathy, aged 18-75 years, who had undergone elective tracheotomy for weaning failure. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASURES:Primary outcomes: DS was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit-7 delirium severity score, within 4?weeks (t1) after the transfer to a tertiary care hospital. In post hoc analyses, univariate linear regressions were employed, examining the relationship of DS with clinical, sociodemographic and psychological variables. Secondary outcomes: additionally, correlations of DS with fatigue (using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20), quality of life (using the Euro-Quality of Life) and institutionalisation/mortality at 3 (t2) and 6 (t3) months follow-up were computed. RESULTS:Of the N=267 patients analysed, 9.4% showed severe or most severe delirium symptoms. 4.1% had a full-syndromal delirium. DS was significantly associated with the severity of illness (p=0.016, 95%?CI -0.1 to -0.3), number of medical comorbidities (p<0.001, 95%?CI .1 to .3) and sepsis (p<0.001, 95%?CI .3 to 1.0). Patients with a higher DS at postacute ICU (t1), showed a higher mental fatigue at t2 (p=0.008, 95%?CI .13 to .37) and an increased risk for institutionalisation/mortality (p=0.043, 95%?CI 1.1 to 28.9/p=0.015, 95%?CI 1.5 to 43.2). CONCLUSIONS:Illness severity is positively associated with DS during postacute care in CCI patients. An adequate management of delirium is essential in order to mitigate functional and cognitive long-term sequelae following ICU. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:DRKS00003386.