Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: Breakpoint Characterization of a Novel Large Deletion in ACVRL1 Suggests the Causing Mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular dysplasia. Mutations in either ENG or ACVRL1 account for around 85% of cases, and 10% are large deletions and duplications. Here we present a large novel deletion in ACVRL1 gene and its molecular characterization in a 3 generation Italian family. We employed short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis, direct sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA) analysis, and 'deletion-specific' PCR methods. STRs Analysis at ENG and ACVRL1 loci suggested a positive linkage for ACVRL1. Direct sequencing of this gene did not identify any mutations, while MLPA identified a large deletion. These results were confirmed and exactly characterized with a 'deletion-specific' PCR: the deletion size is 4,594 bp and breakpoints in exon 3 and intron 8 show the presence of short direct repeats of 7 bp [GCCCCAC]. We hypothesize, as causative molecular mechanism, the replication slippage model. Understanding the fine mechanisms associated with genomic rearrangements may indicate the nonrandomness of these events, highlighting hot spots regions. The complete concordance among MLPA, STRs analysis and 'deletion-specific PCR' supports the usefulness of MLPA in HHT molecular analysis.
Project description:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by vascular malformations (VMs) and caused by mutations in TGF?/BMP9 pathway genes, most commonly ENG or ACVRL1. Patients with HHT have diverse manifestations related to skin and mucosal telangiectases and organ VMs, including arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a role for genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that the ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G and ENG c.207G>A polymorphisms, previously associated with sporadic brain AVM, are associated with organ VM in HHT. We genotyped these variants in 716 patients with HHT and evaluated association of genotype with presence of any organ VM, and specifically with brain VM, liver VM and pulmonary AVM, by multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by HHT mutation. Among all patients with HHT, neither polymorphism was significantly associated with presence of any organ VM; ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G showed a trend toward association with pulmonary AVM (OR?=?1.48, P?=?0.062). ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was significantly associated with any VM among patients with HHT with ENG (OR?=?2.66, P?=?0.022), but not ACVRL1 (OR?=?0.79, P?=?0.52) mutations. ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was also associated with pulmonary AVM and liver VM among ENG mutation heterozygotes. There were no significant associations between ENG c.207G>A and any VM phenotype. These results suggest that common polymorphisms in HHT genes other than the mutated gene modulate phenotype severity of HHT disease, specifically presence of organ VM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple telangiectases and caused by germline disease-causing variants in the ENG (HHT1), ACVRL1 (HHT2) and, to a lesser extent MADH4 and GDF2, which encode proteins involved in the TGF-?/BMP9 signaling pathway. Common visceral complications of HHT are caused by pulmonary, cerebral, or hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs). There is large intrafamilial variability in the severity of visceral involvement, suggesting a role for modifier genes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of ENG, ACVRL1, and of other candidate genes belonging to the same biological pathway in the development of HAVMs. METHODS:We selected 354 patients from the French HHT patient database who had one disease causing variant in either ENG or ACVRL1 and who underwent hepatic exploration. We first compared the distribution of the different types of variants with the occurrence of HAVMs. Then, we genotyped 51 Tag-SNPs from the Hap Map database located in 8 genes that encode proteins belonging to the TGF-?/BMP9 pathway (ACVRL1, ENG, GDF2, MADH4, SMAD1, SMAD5, TGFB1, TGFBR1), as well as in two additional candidate genes (PTPN14 and ADAM17). We addressed the question of a possible genetic association with the occurrence of HAVMs. RESULTS:The proportion of patients with germline ACVRL1 variants and the proportion of women were significantly higher in HHT patients with HAVMs. In the HHT2 group, HAVMs were more frequent in patients with truncating variants. Six SNPs (3 in ACVRL1, 1 in ENG, 1 in SMAD5, and 1 in ADAM17) were significantly associated with HAVMs. After correction for multiple testing, only one remained significantly associated (rs2277383). CONCLUSIONS:In this large association study, we confirmed the strong relationship between ACVRL1 and the development of HAVMs. Common polymorphisms of ACVRL1 may also play a role in the development of HAVMs, as a modifying factor, independently of the disease-causing variants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a vascular dysplasia disorder characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. Recurrent epistaxis is the primary complaint in 90%-96% of HHT patients and the other symptoms come with age. The aim of this study was to analyze HHT-associated gene variant spectrum in Chinese HHT patients and to assess whether genetic testing could contribute to the early diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL:Thirty one HHT families including 62 individuals were recruited. Variants in the coding regions of four genes involved in HHT were amplified and analyzed using Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS:Twenty unique variants, including 8 novel variants were found in 24 of the 31 (77.4%) kindred. Diagnosis is confirmed for 7 possible individuals from 6 kindred. Thirteen ACVRL1 variants were detected from 17 isolated HHT families. Variants in ACVRL1 from 8/17 (47.1%) families were located in exon8. Seven ENG variants were found in 7 unrelated families throughout the coding region. CONCLUSION:We conclude that ACVRL1 gene variant is 2.4 times more prevalent than that in ENG in Chinese individuals with HHT, and exon8 of the ACVRL1 gene may be a hotspot region. Genetic testing could contribute to early diagnosis for HHT.
Project description:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a Mendelian disease characterized by vascular malformations (VMs) including visceral arteriovenous malformations and mucosal telangiectasia. HHT is caused by loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in one of three genes, ENG, ACVRL1, or SMAD4, and is inherited as an autosomal-dominant condition. Intriguingly, the constitutional mutation causing HHT is present throughout the body, yet the multiple VMs in individuals with HHT occur focally, rather than manifesting as a systemic vascular defect. This disconnect between genotype and phenotype suggests that a local event is necessary for the development of VMs. We investigated the hypothesis that local somatic mutations seed the formation HHT-related telangiectasia in a genetic two-hit mechanism. We identified low-frequency somatic mutations in 9/19 telangiectasia through the use of next-generation sequencing. We established phase for seven of nine samples, which confirms that the germline and somatic mutations in all seven samples exist in trans configuration; this is consistent with a genetic two-hit mechanism. These combined data suggest that bi-allelic loss of ENG or ACVRL1 may be a required event in the development of telangiectasia, and that rather than haploinsufficiency, VMs in HHT are caused by a Knudsonian two-hit mechanism.
Project description:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder which is clinically characterised by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arteriovenous malformations. Genetic linkage studies identified two genes primarily related to HHT: endoglin (ENG) on chromosome 9q33-34 and activin receptor-like kinase1 (ACVRL1) on chromosome 12q13. We have screened a total of 41 unselected German patients with the suspected diagnosis of HHT. Mutation analysis for the ENG and ACVRL1 genes in all patients was performed by PCR amplification. Sequences were then compared to the HHT database http://www.hhtmutation.org sequences of the ENG mRNA (accession no. BC014271.2) and the ACVRL1 mRNA (accession no. NM000020.1).We identified 15 different mutations in 18 cases by direct sequencing. Among these mutations, one novel ENG mutation could be detected which has not yet been described in the literature before. The genotype-phenotype correlation was consistent with a higher frequency of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with ENG mutations than in patients with ACVRL1 mutations in our collective.For rapid genotyping of mutations and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in ENG and ACVRL1, allele-specific PCR methods with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) were established and their value analysed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome (HHT), also known as the Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome is a multiorganic vascular disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Diagnostic clinical criteria include: epistaxis, telangiectases in mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal sites, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) most commonly found in pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral circulations, and familial inheritance. HHT is transmitted in 90% of the cases as an autosomal dominant condition due to mutations in either endoglin (ENG), or activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1) genes (HHT type 1 and 2, respectively).<h4>Methods</h4>We have carried out a genetic analysis of four independent Spanish families with HHT clinical criteria, which has permitted the identification of new large deletions in ENG. These mutations were first detected using the MLPA technique and subsequently, the deletion breakpoints were mapped using a customized copy number variation (CNV) microarray. The array was designed to cover the ENG gene and surrounding areas.<h4>Results</h4>All tested families carried large deletions ranging from 3-kb to 100-kb, involving the ENG gene promoter, several ENG exons, and the two downstream genes FGSH and CDK9. Interestingly, common breakpoints coincident with Alu repetitive sequences were found among these families.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The systematic hybridization of DNA from HHT families, with deletions or duplications, to custom designed microarrays, could allow the mapping of breakpoints, coincident with repetitive Alu sequences that might act as "hot spots" in the development of chromosomal anomalies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited vascular disorder characterized by recurrent epistaxis, skin/mucocutaneous telangiectasia, and organ/visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). HHT is mostly caused by mutations either in the ENG or ACVRL1 genes, and there are regional differences in the breakdown of causative genes. The clinical presentation is also variable between populations suggesting the influence of environmental or genetic backgrounds. In this study, we report the largest series of mutational and clinical analyses for East Asians.<h4>Methods</h4>Using DNAs derived from peripheral blood leukocytes of 281 Japanese HHT patients from 150 families, all exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4 genes were sequenced either by Sanger sequencing or by the next-generation sequencing. Deletions/amplifications were analyzed by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses. Clinical information was obtained by chart review.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 80 and 59 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in the ENG and ACVRL1 genes, respectively. No pathogenic variants were identified in the SMAD4 gene. In the ENG gene, the majority (60/80) of the pathogenic variants were private mutations unique to a single family, and the variants were widely distributed without any distinct hot spots. In the ACVRL1 gene, the variants were more commonly found in exons 5-10 which encompasses the serine/threonine kinase domain. Of these, 25/59 variants were unique to a single family while those in exons 8-10 tended to be shared by multiple (2-7) families. Pulmonary and cerebral AVMs were more commonly found in ENG-HHT (69.1 vs. 14.4%, 34.0 vs. 5.2%) while hepatic AVM was more common in ACVRL1-HHT (31.5 vs. 73.2%). Notable differences include an increased incidence of cerebral (34.0% in ENG-HHT and 5.2% in ACVRL1-HHT), spinal (2.5% in ENG-HHT and 1.0% in ACVL1-HHT), and gastric AVM (13.0% in ENG-HHT, 26.8% in ACVRL1-HHT) in our cohort. Intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity not related to the age of examination was observed in 71.4% and 24.1% of ENG- and ACVRL1-HHT, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a large Japanese cohort, ENG-HHT was 1.35 times more common than ACVRL1-HHT. The phenotypic presentations were similar to the previous reports although the cerebral, spinal, and gastric AVMs were more common.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder characterized by recurrent epistaxis, telangiectasia, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Activin A receptor-like type 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1) and endoglin (ENG) are the principal genes whose mutations cause HHT. No multicenter study has yet investigated correlations between genetic variations and clinical outcomes in Korean HHT patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Seventy-two members from 40 families suspected to have HHT based on symptoms were genetically screened for pathogenic variants of ACVRL1 and ENG. Patients with genetically diagnosed HHT were also evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>In the HHT genetic screening, 42 patients from 24 of the 40 families had genetic variants that met the pathogenic criteria (pathogenic very strong, pathogenic strong, pathogenic moderate, or pathogenic supporting) based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Standards and Guidelines for either ENG or ACVRL1: 26 from 12 families (50%) for ENG, and 16 from 12 families (50%) for ACVRL1. Diagnostic screening of 42 genetically positive HHT patients based on the Curaçao criteria revealed that 24 patients (57%) were classified as having definite HHT, 17 (41%) as having probable HHT, and 1 (2%) as unlikely to have HHT. Epistaxis was the most common clinical presentation (38/42, 90%), followed by visceral AVMs (24/42, 57%) and telangiectasia (21/42, 50%). Five patients (12%) did not have a family history of HHT clinical symptoms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Only approximately half of patients with ACVRL1 or ENG genetic variants could be clinically diagnosed as having definite HHT, suggesting that genetic screening is important to confirm the diagnosis.
Project description:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder, characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in various visceral organs. Endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1; ALK1), receptors for transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily, have been identified as the principal HHT-causing genes.Three unrelated Korean HHT patients and their asymptomatic as well as symptomatic family members were genetically diagnosed by sequencing whole exons and their flanking regions of ENG and ACVRL1. Functionality of an aberrant translation start codon, which is created by a substitution mutation at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of ENG found in a HHT family, was tested by transient in vitro transfection assay. Decay of the mutant transcripts was also assessed by allele-specific expression analysis.Two ENG and one ACVRL1 mutations were identified: a known ENG mutation (c.360+1G > A; p.Gly74_Tyr120del); a novel ENG mutation (c.1-127C > T); and a novel ACVRL1 mutation (c.252_253insC; p.Val85fsX168). We further validated that the 5'-UTR ENG mutation prevents translation of ENG from the biological translation initiation site of the mutant allele, and leads to degradation of the mutant transcripts.This is the first experimental demonstration that a 5'-UTR mutation can prevent translation of ENG among HHT patients, and further supports the previous notion that haploinsufficiency is the primary mechanism of HHT1. Our data also underscore the importance of including exons encoding 5' UTR for HHT mutation screening.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by pathogenic blood vessel development and maintenance. HHT type 1 (HHT1) and type 2 (HHT2) are caused by variants in endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ACVRL1), respectively. The aim of this study was to identify the spectrum of pathogenic variants in ENG and ACVRL1 in Austrian HHT families. METHODS:In this prospective study, eight Austrian HHT families were screened for variants in ENG and ACVRL1 by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of DNA isolated from peripheral blood. RESULTS:Heterozygous variants were identified in all families under study. HHT1 was caused by a novel c.816+1G>A splice donor variant, a novel c.1479C>A nonsense (p.Cys493X) variant and a published c.1306C>T nonsense (p.Gln436X) variant in ENG. Variants found in ACVRL1 were novel c.200G>C (p.Arg67Pro) and known c.772G>A (p.Gly258Ser) missense variants in highly conserved residues, a known heterozygous c.100dupT frameshift (p.Cys34Leufs*4) and the known c.1204G>A missense (p.Gly402Ser) and c.1435C>T nonsense (p.Arg479X) variants as causes of HHT2. CONCLUSION:Novel and published variants in ENG (37.5%) and ACVRL1 (62.5%) were exclusively identified as the cause of HHT in an Austrian patient cohort. Identification of novel causative genetics variants should facilitate the development of tailored therapeutical applications in the future treatment of autosomal dominant HHT.