Sp100A promotes chromatin decondensation at a cytomegalovirus-promoter-regulated transcription site.
ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs)/nuclear domain 10s (ND10s) are nuclear structures that contain many transcriptional and chromatin regulatory factors. One of these, Sp100, is expressed from a single-copy gene and spliced into four isoforms (A, B, C, and HMG), which differentially regulate transcription. Here we evaluate Sp100 function in single cells using an inducible cytomegalovirus-promoter-regulated transgene, visualized as a chromatinized transcription site. Sp100A is the isoform most strongly recruited to the transgene array, and it significantly increases chromatin decondensation. However, Sp100A cannot overcome Daxx- and ?-thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked (ATRX)-mediated transcriptional repression, which indicates that PML-NB/ND10 factors function within a regulatory hierarchy. Sp100A increases and Sp100B, which contains a SAND domain, decreases acetyl-lysine regulatory factor levels at activated sites, suggesting that Sp100 isoforms differentially regulate transcription by modulating lysine acetylation. In contrast to Daxx, ATRX, and PML, Sp100 is recruited to activated arrays in cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0, which degrades all Sp100 isoforms except unsumoylated Sp100A. The recruitment Sp100A(K297R), which cannot be sumoylated, further suggests that sumoylation plays an important role in regulating Sp100 isoform levels at transcription sites. This study provides insight into the ways in which viruses may modulate Sp100 to promote their replication cycles.
Project description:Histone H3.3 is a constitutively expressed H3 variant implicated in the epigenetic inheritance of chromatin structures. Recently, the PML-nuclear body (PML-NB)/Nuclear Domain 10 (ND10) proteins, Daxx and ATRX, were found to regulate replication-independent histone H3.3 chromatin assembly at telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin. As it is not completely understood how PML-NBs/ND10s regulate transcription and resistance to viral infection, we have used a CMV-promoter-regulated inducible transgene array, at which Daxx and ATRX are enriched, to delineate the mechanisms through which they regulate transcription. When integrated into HeLa cells, which express both Daxx and ATRX, the array is refractory to activation. However, transcription can be induced when ICP0, the HSV-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase required to reverse latency, is expressed. As ATRX and Daxx are depleted from the activated array in ICP0-expressing HeLa cells, this suggests that they are required to maintain a repressed chromatin environment. As histone H3.3 is strongly recruited to the ICP0-activated array but does not co-localize with the DNA, this also suggests that chromatin assembly is blocked during activation. The conclusion that the Daxx and ATRX pathway is required for transcriptional repression and chromatin assembly at this site is further supported by the finding that an array integrated into the ATRX-negative U2OS cell line can be robustly activated and that histone H3.3 is similarly recruited and unincorporated into the chromatin. Therefore, this study has important implications for understanding gene silencing, viral latency and PML-NB/ND10 function.
Project description:The incorporation of the histone H3 variant, H3.3, into chromatin by the H3.3-specific chaperone DAXX and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor ATRX is a critical mechanism for silencing repetitive DNA. DAXX and ATRX are also components of promyelocytic nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), which have been identified as sites of H3.3 chromatin assembly. Here, we use a transgene array that can be visualized in single living cells to investigate the mechanisms that recruit PML-NB proteins (i.e. PML, DAXX, ATRX, and SUMO-1, SUMO-2 and SUMO-3) to heterochromatin and their functions in H3.3 chromatin assembly. We show that DAXX and PML are recruited to the array through distinct SUMOylation-dependent mechanisms. Additionally, PML is recruited during S phase and its depletion increases H3.3 deposition. Since this effect is abrogated when PML and DAXX are co-depleted, it is likely that PML represses DAXX-mediated H3.3 chromatin assembly. Taken together, these results suggest that, at heterochromatin, PML-NBs coordinate H3.3 chromatin assembly with DNA replication, which has important implications for understanding how transcriptional silencing is established and maintained.
Project description:Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components are restriction factors that inhibit herpesviral replication. Effector proteins of different herpesviruses can antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. We investigated the interplay of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and cellular defense by nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components. Knock-down experiments in primary human cells show that KSHV-infection is restricted by the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but not by ATRX. After KSHV infection, ATRX is efficiently depleted and Daxx is dispersed from ND10, indicating that these two ND10 components can be antagonized by KSHV. We then identified the ORF75 tegument protein of KSHV as the viral factor that induces the disappearance of ATRX and relocalization of Daxx. ORF75 belongs to a viral protein family (viral FGARATs) that has homologous proteins in all gamma-herpesviruses. Isolated expression of ORF75 in primary cells induces a relocalization of PML and dispersal of Sp100, indicating that this viral effector protein is able to influence multiple ND10 components. Moreover, by constructing a KSHV mutant harboring a stop codon at the beginning of ORF75, we could demonstrate that ORF75 is absolutely essential for viral replication and the initiation of viral immediate-early gene expression. Using recombinant viruses either carrying Flag- or YFP-tagged variants of ORF75, we could further corroborate the role of ORF75 in the antagonization of ND10-mediated intrinsic immunity, and show that it is independent of the PML antagonist vIRF3. Members of the viral FGARAT family target different ND10 components, suggesting that the ND10 targets of viral FGARAT proteins have diversified during evolution. We assume that overcoming ND10 intrinsic defense constitutes a critical event in the replication of all herpesviruses; on the other hand, restriction of herpesviral replication by ND10 components may also promote latency as the default outcome of infection.
Project description:The Sp100 component of ND10/PML bodies is a potent tumor suppressor: accelerated senescence and rapid malignant transformation of human fibroblasts through modulation of an embryonic stem cell program. Identifying the functions of proteins, which define specific subnuclear structures and territories, is important for understanding eukaryotic nuclear dynamics. Sp100 is a prototypical protein of ND10/PML bodies and colocalizes with the proto-oncogenic protein PML and Daxx, proteins with critical roles in oncogenic transformation, interferon-mediated viral resistance and response to PML-directed cancer therapeutics. Sp100 isoforms contain PHD, Bromo and HMG domains and are highly sumoylated at ND10/PML bodies, all characteristics suggestive of a role in chromatin mediated gene regulation. However, a clear role for Sp100 in oncogenesis has not been defined. Using isoform-specific knockdown techniques, we show that most human diploid fibroblasts, which lack Sp100, rapidly senesce. microarray analysis of mRNAs expression in BJV (collected at passage 47) and BJ-S (collected at passage 35). In addition, samples were treated for 24 h with 1000 U/ml IFNB. All RNAs were collected in triplicates of biological samples.
Project description:Productive infection by herpesviruses involve the disabling of host-cell intrinsic defenses by viral encoded tegument proteins. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) typically establishes a non-productive, latent infection and it remains unclear how it confronts the host-cell intrinsic defenses that restrict viral gene expression. Here, we show that the EBV major tegument protein BNRF1 targets host-cell intrinsic defense proteins and promotes viral early gene activation. Specifically, we demonstrate that BNRF1 interacts with the host nuclear protein Daxx at PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and disrupts the formation of the Daxx-ATRX chromatin remodeling complex. We mapped the Daxx interaction domain on BNRF1, and show that this domain is important for supporting EBV primary infection. Through reverse transcription PCR and infection assays, we show that BNRF1 supports viral gene expression upon early infection, and that this function is dependent on the Daxx-interaction domain. Lastly, we show that knockdown of Daxx and ATRX induces reactivation of EBV from latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), suggesting that Daxx and ATRX play a role in the regulation of viral chromatin. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of BNRF1 in supporting EBV early infection by interacting with Daxx and ATRX; and suggest that tegument disruption of PML-NB-associated antiviral resistances is a universal requirement for herpesvirus infection in the nucleus.
Project description:Nuclear domain 10 (ND10s), or promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies, are spherical nuclear structures that require PML proteins for their formation. Many viruses target these structures during infection. The E4 Orf3 protein of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) rearranges ND10s, causing PML to colocalize with Orf3 in nuclear tracks or fibers. There are six different PML isoforms (I to VI) present at ND10s, all sharing a common N terminus but with structural differences at their C termini. In this study, PML II was the only one of these six isoforms that was found to interact directly and specifically with Ad5 E4 Orf3 in vitro and in vivo; these results define a new Orf3 activity. Three of a series of 18 mutant Orf3 proteins were unable to interact with PML II; these were also unable to cause ND10 rearrangement. Moreover, in PML-null cells that contained neoformed ND10s comprising a single PML isoform, only ND10s formed of PML II were rearranged by Orf3. These data show that the interaction between Orf3 and PML II is necessary for ND10 rearrangement to occur. Finally, Orf3 was shown to self-associate in vitro. This activity was absent in mutant Orf3 proteins that were unable to form tracks and to bind PML II. Thus, Orf3 oligomerization may mediate the formation of nuclear tracks in vivo and may also be important for PML II binding.
Project description:Many tumors maintain chromosome-ends through a telomerase-independent, DNA-templated mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). While ALT occurs in only a subset of tumors, it is strongly associated with mutations in the genes ATRX and DAXX, which encode components of an H3.3 histone chaperone complex. The role of ATRX and DAXX mutations in potentiating the mechanism of ALT remains incompletely understood. Here we characterize an osteosarcoma cell line, G292, with wild-type ATRX but a unique chromosome translocation resulting in loss of DAXX function. While ATRX and DAXX form a complex in G292, this complex fails to localize to nuclear PML bodies. We demonstrate that introduction of wild type DAXX suppresses the ALT phenotype and restores the localization of ATRX/DAXX to PML bodies. Using an inducible system, we show that ALT-associated PML bodies are disrupted rapidly following DAXX induction and that ALT is again restored following withdrawal of DAXX.
Project description:Identifying the functions of proteins, which associate with specific subnuclear structures, is critical to understanding eukaryotic nuclear dynamics. Sp100 is a prototypical protein of ND10/PML nuclear bodies, which colocalizes with Daxx and the proto-oncogenic PML. Sp100 isoforms contain SAND, PHD, Bromo, and HMG domains and are highly sumoylated, all characteristics suggestive of a role in chromatin-mediated gene regulation. A role for Sp100 in oncogenesis has not been defined previously. Using selective Sp100 isoform-knockdown approaches, we show that normal human diploid fibroblasts with reduced Sp100 levels rapidly senesce. Subsequently, small rapidly dividing Sp100 minus cells emerge from the senescing fibroblasts and are found to be highly tumorigenic in nude mice. The derivation of these tumorigenic cells from the parental fibroblasts is confirmed by microsatellite analysis. The small rapidly dividing Sp100 minus cells now also lack ND10/PML bodies, and exhibit genomic instability and p53 cytoplasmic sequestration. They have also activated MYC, RAS, and TERT pathways and express mesenchymal to epithelial transdifferentiation (MET) markers. Reintroduction of expression of only the Sp100A isoform is sufficient to maintain senescence and to inhibit emergence of the highly tumorigenic cells. Global transcriptome studies, quantitative PCR, and protein studies, as well as immunolocalization studies during the course of the transformation, reveal that a transient expression of stem cell markers precedes the malignant transformation. These results identify a role for Sp100 as a tumor suppressor in addition to its role in maintaining ND10/PML bodies and in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
Project description:Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a crucial component of PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs). PML and PML-NBs are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, including the antiviral immune response. The human <i>PML</i> gene can generate several different isoforms through alternative splicing. However, little is known about the porcine PML alternative splicing isoforms and their expression profiles during Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. In the present study, we cloned seven mature transcripts of porcine PML, all of which contained the same N-terminal sequence but differed in the C-terminal sequences due to alternative splicing. These seven transcripts encoded five proteins all of which had the RBCC motif and sumoylation sites. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that porcine PML-1 had relatively high levels of identity with human, cattle, and goat homologs (76.21, 77.17, and 77.05%, respectively), and low identity with the mouse homolog (61.78%). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the typical PML-NBs could be observed after overexpression of the five PML isoforms in PK15 cells. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed significant upregulation of PML isoforms and PML-NB-associated genes (<i>Daxx</i> and <i>SP100</i>) at 36 and 48 h post-infection (hpi). Western blotting analysis indicated that the PML isoforms were upregulated during the late stage of infection. Moreover, the number of PML-NBs was increased after JEV infection. These results suggest that porcine PML isoforms may play essential roles in JEV infection.
Project description:Whereas the PML protein has been reported to have both transcriptional coactivator and corepressor potential, the contribution of the PML nuclear body (PML NB) itself to transcriptional regulation is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that plasmid DNA artificially tethered to PML or the PML NB-targeting domain of Sp100 is preferentially localized to PML NBs. Using the tethering technique, we targeted a simian virus 40 promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PML NBs, resulting in the repression of the transgene transcriptional activity. Conversely, the tethering of a cytomegalovirus promoter-containing reporter plasmid resulted in activation. Targeting a minimal eukaryotic promoter did not affect its activity. The expression of targeted promoters could be modulated by altering the cellular concentration of PML NB components, including Sp100 and isoforms of the PML protein. Finally, we demonstrate that ICP0, the promiscuous herpes simplex virus transactivator, increases the level of transcriptional activation of plasmid DNA tethered to the PML NB. We conclude that when PML NB components are artificially tethered to reporter plasmids, the PML NB contributes to the regulation of the tethered DNA in a promoter-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that transient transcription assays are sensitive to the subnuclear localization of the transgene plasmid.