Association of anthracycline-related cardiac histological lesions with NADPH oxidase functional polymorphisms.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Treatment with anthracyclines may cause cardiac dysfunction, but the sequence of anthracycline-induced heart lesions has been incompletely characterized. NADPH oxidase, a key mediator of oxidative cardiac damage and remodeling, modulates anthracycline clinical cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to determine which cardiac histological lesions are specifically induced by anthracycline treatment and to investigate the role of NADPH functional genetic polymorphisms in their development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective case-control design, we evaluated cardiac histological lesions and NADPH genotype (polymorphisms rs1883112, rs4673, and rs13058338) in 97 consecutive decedents with a cancer diagnosis (48 treated with anthracyclines). RESULTS: Myocytolysis (60%), patched myocardial necrosis (19%), and myocardial fibrosis (diffuse and patched; 62% and 23%, respectively) were associated with anthracycline treatment. In patients receiving anthracyclines, NADPH oxidase polymorphism rs4673 protected against focal myocardial necrosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.63) whereas rs1883112 was strongly associated with cardiac fibrosis (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.59-16.43), which was present in all homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Anthracyclines induce a cardiac remodeling pattern characterized by interstitial or patched fibrosis. The contribution of the functionally relevant NADPH polymorphisms rs1883112 and rs4673 to anthracycline-related heart lesions provides a plausible explanation for their modulation of cardiotoxicity. If confirmed, these findings may lead to better individualized strategies for early detection and prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
Project description:Cardiotoxicity is a feared side effect that may limit the clinical use of anthracyclines. It may indeed affect the quality of life and survival of patients with cancer, regardless of oncological prognosis. This paper provides an overview of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in terms of definition, classification, incidence, risk factors, possible mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment. We also report effective strategies for preventing cardiotoxicity. In addition, we discuss limiting current approaches, the need for a new classification, and early cardiotoxicity detection and treatment. Probably, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a continuous phenomenon that starts from myocardial cell injury; it is followed by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and, if not diagnosed and cured early, progressively leads to symptomatic heart failure. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity can be detected at a preclinical phase. The role of biomarkers, in particular troponins, in identifying subclinical cardiotoxicity and its therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (mainly enalapril) to prevent LVEF reduction is a recognized and effective strategy. If cardiac dysfunction has already occurred, partial or complete LVEF recovery may still be obtained in case of early detection of cardiotoxicity and prompt heart failure treatment.
Project description:Background Anthracycline chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin, are used widely in the treatment of numerous malignancies. The primary dose-limiting adverse effect of anthracyclines is cardiotoxicity that often presents as heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy years after anthracycline exposure. Recent data from animal studies indicate that anthracyclines cause cardiac atrophy. The timing of onset and underlying mechanisms are not well defined, and the relevance of these findings to human disease is unclear. Methods and Results Wild-type mice were sacrificed 1 week after intraperitoneal administration of doxorubicin (1-25 mg/kg), revealing a dose-dependent decrease in cardiac mass ( R2=0.64; P<0.0001) and a significant decrease in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (336±29 versus 188±14 µm2; P<0.0001). Myocardial tissue analysis identified a dose-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin ligase, MuRF1 (muscle ring finger-1; R2=0.91; P=0.003) and a molecular profile of muscle atrophy. To investigate the determinants of doxorubicin-induced cardiac atrophy, we administered doxorubicin 20 mg/kg to mice lacking MuRF1 (MuRF1-/-) and wild-type littermates. MuRF1-/- mice were protected from cardiac atrophy and exhibited no reduction in contractile function. To explore the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data from 70 patients in the DETECT-1 cohort and found that anthracycline exposure was associated with decreased cardiac mass evident within 1 month and persisting to 6 months after initiation. Conclusions Doxorubicin causes a subacute decrease in cardiac mass in both mice and humans. In mice, doxorubicin-induced cardiac atrophy is dependent on MuRF1. These findings suggest that therapies directed at preventing or reversing cardiac atrophy might preserve the cardiac function of cancer patients receiving anthracyclines.
Project description:Anthracyclines play an important role in the management of patients with cancer but the development of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) remains a significant concern for most clinicians. Recently, genetic approach has been used to identify patients at increased risk of ACT. This systematic review assessed the association between genomic markers and ACT. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Studies, CINAHL Plus, AMED, EMBASE and HuGE Navigator from inception until May 2016. Twenty-eight studies examining the association of genetic variants and ACT were identified. These studies examined 84 different genes and 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Meta-analyses showed 3 risk variants significantly increased the risk for ACT; namely ABCC2 rs8187710 (pooled odds ratio: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.36-3.54), CYBA rs4673 (1.55; 1.05-2.30) and RAC2 rs13058338 (1.79; 1.27-2.52). The current evidence remains unclear on the potential role of pharmacogenomic screening prior to anthracycline therapy. Further research is needed to improve the diagnostic and prognostic role in predicting ACT.
Project description:Anthracyclines are highly effective chemotherapeutic agents which may cause long-term cardiac damage (chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity) and heart failure. The pathogenesis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity remains incompletely understood and individual susceptibility difficult to predict. We sought clinical features which might contribute to improved risk assessment.Subjects were women with early breast cancer, free of pre-existing cardiac disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance before and >12 months after anthracycline-based chemotherapy (>3 months post-Trastuzumab). Variables associated with subclinical cardiotoxicity (defined as a fall in left ventricular ejection fraction of ?5%) were identified by logistic regression.One hundred and sixty-five women (mean age 48.3 years at enrollment) completed the study 21.7 months [IQR 18.0-26.8] after starting chemotherapy. All received anthracyclines (98.8% epirubicin, cumulative dose 400 [300-450] mg/m2); 18% Trastuzumab. Baseline blood pressure was elevated (?140/90mmHg, mean 147.3/86.1mmHg) in 18 subjects. Thirty-four subjects (20.7%) were identified with subclinical cardiotoxicity, independent predictors of which were the number of anthracycline cycles (odds ratio, OR 1.64 [1.17-2.30] per cycle), blood pressure ?140/90mmHg (OR 5.36 [1.73-17.61]), body surface area (OR 2.08 [1.36-3.20] per standard deviation (0.16m2) increase), and Trastuzumab therapy (OR 3.35 [1.18-9.51]). The resultant predictive-model had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.78 [0.70-0.86].We found subclinical cardiotoxicity to be common even within this low risk cohort. Risk of cardiotoxicity was associated with modestly elevated baseline blood pressure-indicating that close attention should be paid to blood pressure in patients considered for anthracycline based chemotherapy. The association with higher body surface area suggests that indexing of anthracycline doses to surface area may not be appropriate for all, and points to the need for additional research in this area.
Project description:Background:Anthracyclines are a mainstay of chemotherapy. However, a relatively frequent adverse outcome of anthracycline treatment is cardiomyopathy. Multiple genetic studies have begun to dissect the complex genetics underlying cardiac sensitivity to the anthracycline drug class. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to be in linkage disequilibrium with anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity in paediatric populations. Methods:Here we screened for the presence of SNPs resulting in a missense coding change in a cohort of children with early onset chemotherapy related cardiomyopathy. The SNP identity was evaluated by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons from genomic DNA of patients with anthracycline related cardiac dysfunction. Results:All of the published SNPs were observed within our patient group. There was no correlation between the number of missense variants an individual carried with severity of disease. Furthermore, the time to cardiac disease onset post-treatment was not greater in those individuals carrying a high load of SNPs resulting from missense variants. Conclusions:We conclude that previously identified missense SNPs are present within a paediatric cohort with early onset heart damage induced by anthracyclines. However, these SNPs require further replication cohorts and functional validation before being deployed to assess anthracycline cardiotoxicity risk in the clinic.
Project description:Anthracyclines are commonly used anticancer drugs with well?known and extensively studied cardiotoxic effects in humans. In the clinical setting guidelines for assessing cardiotoxicity are well?established with important therapeutic implications. Cardiotoxicity in terms of impairment of cardiac function is largely diagnosed by echocardiography and based on objective metrics of cardiac function. Until this day, cardiotoxicity is not an endpoint in the current general toxicology and safety pharmacology preclinical studies, although other classes of drugs apart from anthracyclines, along with everyday chemicals have been shown to manifest cardiotoxic properties. Also, in the relevant literature there are not well?established objective criteria or reference values in order to uniformly characterize cardiotoxic adverse effects in animal models. This in depth review focuses on the evaluation of two important echocardiographic indices, namely ejection fraction and fractional shortening, in the literature concerning anthracycline administration to rats as the reference laboratory animal model. The analysis of the gathered data gives promising results and solid prospects for both, defining anthracycline cardiotoxicity objective values and delineating the guidelines for assessing cardiotoxicity as a separate hazard class in animal preclinical studies for regulatory purposes.
Project description:Anthracyclines are key chemotherapeutic agents used in various adult and pediatric cancers, however, their clinical use is limited due to possible congestive heart failure (HF) caused by acute and irreversible cardiotoxicity. Currently, there is no method to predict the future development of the HF in these patients. In order to identify early biomarkers to predict anthracycline cardiotoxicity in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, this longitudinal study aimed to analyze early and late in-vivo regional myocardial anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, related to in-vitro cardiac myocytes dysfunction, in a juvenile rat model. Methods: Young male Wistar rats (4 weeks-old) were treated with different cumulative doses of doxorubicin (7.5, 10 or 12.5 mg/kg) or NaCl (0.9%) once a week for 6 weeks by intravenous injection. Cardiac function was evaluated in-vivo by conventional (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF) and regional two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography over the 4 months after the last injection. The animals were assigned to preserved (pEF) or reduced EF (rEF) groups at the end of the protocol and were compared to controls. Results: We observed a preferential contractile dysfunction of the base of the heart, further altered in the posterior segment, even in pEF group. The first regional alterations appeared 1 month after chemotherapy. Functional investigation of cardiomyocytes isolated from the LV base 1 month after doxorubicin treatment showed that early in-vivo contractile alterations were associated with both decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and length-dependent activation. Changes in post-translational modifications (phosphorylation; S-glutathionylation) and protein degradation of the cardiac myosin binding protein-C may contribute to these alterations. Conclusion: Our data suggest that screening of the contractile defaults of the base of the heart by regional 2D strain echocardiography is useful to detect subclinical myocardial dysfunction prior to the development of delayed anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in pediatric onco-cardiology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anthracycline agents can cause cardiotoxicity. We used multivariable risk prediction models to identify a subset of patients with breast cancer at high risk of cardiotoxicity, for whom the harms of anthracycline chemotherapy may balance or exceed the benefits. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A clinical prediction model for anthracycline cardiotoxicity was created in 967 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative breast cancer treated with doxorubicin in the ECOG-ACRIN study E5103. Cardiotoxicity was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline of ? 10% to < 50% and/or a centrally adjudicated clinical heart failure diagnosis. Patient-specific incremental absolute benefit of anthracyclines (compared with non-anthracycline taxane chemotherapy) was estimated using the PREDICT model to assess breast cancer mortality risk. RESULTS:Of the 967 women who initiated therapy, 51 (5.3%) developed cardiotoxicity (12 with clinical heart failure). In a multivariate model, increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08), higher body mass index (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10), and lower baseline LVEF (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98) at baseline were significantly associated with cardiotoxicity. The concordance statistic of the risk model was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.63-0.77). In patients with low anticipated treatment benefit (n = 176) from the addition of anthracycline (< 2% absolute risk difference of breast cancer mortality at 10 years), 16 (9%) of 176 had a > 10% risk of cardiotoxicity and 61 (35%) of 176 had a 5% to 10% risk of cardiotoxicity at 1 year. CONCLUSION:Older age, higher body mass index, and lower baseline LVEF were associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity. We identified a subgroup with low predicted absolute benefit of anthracyclines but with high predicted risk of cardiotoxicity. Additional studies are needed incorporating long-term cardiac outcomes and cardiotoxicity model external validation prior to implementation in routine clinical practice.
Project description:Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with dose-dependent, irreversible damage to the heart. Childhood cancer survivors with hypertension after anthracycline exposure are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity, leading to the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility loci for hypertension may serve as predictors for development of late cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we determined the association between 12 GWAS-identified hypertension-susceptibility loci and cardiotoxicity in a cohort of long-term childhood cancer survivors (N?=?108) who received anthracyclines and were screened for cardiac function via echocardiograms. Hypertension-susceptibility alleles of PLCE1:rs9327264 and ATP2B1:rs17249754 were significantly associated with cardiotoxicity risk conferring a protective effect with a 64% (95% CI: 0.18-0.76, P?=?0.0068) and 74% (95% CI: 0.07-0.96, P?=?0.040) reduction in risk, respectively. In RNAseq experiments of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin, both PLCE1 and ATP2B1 displayed anthracycline-dependent gene expression profiles. In silico functional assessment further supported this relationship - rs9327264 in PLCE1 (P?=?0.0080) and ATP2B1 expression (P?=?0.0079) were both significantly associated with daunorubicin IC50 values in a panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that the hypertension-susceptibility variants in PLCE1 and ATP2B1 confer a protective effect on risk of developing anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity, and functional analyses suggest that these genes are influenced by exposure to anthracyclines.
Project description:Trastuzumab is associated with cardiotoxicity, manifesting as a decrease of the left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Administration of anthracyclines prior to trastuzumab increases risk of cardiotoxicity. High-sensitive troponin T and N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are molecular markers that may allow earlier detection of drug-induced cardiotoxicity. In this analysis we aimed to quantify the kinetics and exposure-response relationships of LVEF, troponin T and NT-proBNP measurements, in patients receiving anthracycline and trastuzumab. Repeated measurements of LVEF, troponin T and NT-proBNP and dosing records of anthracyclines and trastuzumab were available from a previously published clinical trial. This trial included 206 evaluable patients with early breast cancer. Exposure to anthracycline and trastuzumab was simulated based on available dosing records and by using a kinetic-pharmacodynamic (K-PD) and a fixed pharmacokinetic (PK) model from literature, respectively. The change from baseline troponin T was described with a direct effect model, affected by simulated anthracycline concentrations, representing myocyte damage. The relationship between trastuzumab and LVEF was described by an indirect effect compartment model. The EC50 for LVEF decline was significantly affected by the maximum troponin T concentration after anthracycline treatment, explaining 15.1% of inter-individual variability. In this cohort, NT-proBNP changes could not be demonstrated to be related to anthracycline or trastuzumab treatment. Pharmacodynamic models for troponin T and LVEF were successfully developed, identifying maximum troponin T concentration after anthracycline treatment as a significant determinant for trastuzumab-induced LVEF decline. These models can help identify patients at risk of drug-induced cardiotoxicity and optimize cardiac monitoring strategies.