Genome-wide expression analysis of soybean MADS genes showing potential function in the seed development.
ABSTRACT: The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKC(C) subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKC(C) subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKC(C) genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKC(C) genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes play crucial roles in plant floral organ formation and plant reproductive development. However, there is still no information on genome-wide identification and classification of MADS-box genes in some representative plant species. A comprehensive investigation of MIKC-type genes in the orchid Dendrobium officinale is still lacking. RESULTS:Here we conducted a genome-wide analysis of MADS-box proteins from 29 species. In total, 1689 MADS-box proteins were identified. Two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and II, were found in land plants, but not in liverwort. The SQUA, DEF/GLO, AG and SEP subfamilies existed in all the tested flowering plants, while SQUA was absent in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, and no genes of the four subfamilies were found in a charophyte, liverwort, mosses, or lycophyte. This strongly corroborates the notion that clades of floral organ identity genes led to the evolution of flower development in flowering plants. Nine subfamilies of MIKCC genes were present in two orchids, D. officinale and Phalaenopsis equestris, while the TM8, FLC, AGL15 and AGL12 subfamilies may be lost. In addition, the four clades of floral organ identity genes in both orchids displayed a conservative and divergent expression pattern. Only three MIKC-type genes were induced by cold stress in D. officinale while 15 MIKC-type genes showed different levels of expression during seed germination. CONCLUSIONS:MIKC-type genes were identified from streptophyte lineages, revealing new insights into their evolution and development relationships. Our results show a novel role of MIKC-type genes in seed germination and provide a useful clue for future research on seed germination in orchids.
Project description:MADS-box transcription factors widely regulate all aspects of plant growth including development and reproduction. Although the MADS-box gene family genes have been extensively characterized in many plants, they have not been studied in closely related species. In this study, 73 and 74 MADS-box genes were identified in European pear (Pyrus communis) and Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), respectively. Based on the phylogenetic relationship, these genes could be clustered into five groups (M?, M?, Mr, MIKCC, MIKC*) and the MIKCC group was further categorized into 10 subfamilies. The distribution of MADS-box genes on each chromosome was significantly nonrandom. Thirty-seven orthologs, twenty-five PcpMADS (P. communis MADS-box) paralogs and nineteen PbrMADS (P. bretschneideri MADS-box) paralogs were predicted. Among these paralogous genes, two pairs arose from tandem duplications (TD), nineteen from segmental duplication (SD) events and twenty-three from whole genome duplication (WGD) events, indicating SD/WGD events led to the expansion of MADS-box gene family. The MADS-box genes expression profiles in pear fruits indicated functional divergence and neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization of some orthologous genes originated from a common ancestor. This study provided a useful reference for further analysis the mechanisms of species differentiation and biodiversity formation among closely related species.
Project description:Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses.
Project description:In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKC(C) and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKC(C)); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKC(C), and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKC(C) genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKC(C) genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKC(C) genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The classical (C) MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors comprise one gene family that plays diverse roles in the flowering process ranging from floral initiation to the development of floral organs. Despite their importance in regulating developmental processes that impact crop yield, they remain largely unexplored in the major legume oilseed crop, soybean.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 57 MIKC(c)-type transcription factors from soybean and determined the in silico gene expression profiles of the soybean MIKC(c)-type genes across different tissues. Our study implicates three MIKC(c)-type transcription factors as novel members of the AGAMOUS LIKE 6 (AGL6) subfamily of the MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes, and we named this sister clade PsMADS3. While similar genes were identified in other legume species, poplar and grape, no such gene is represented in Arabidopsis thaliana or rice. RT-PCR analysis on these three soybean PsMADS3 genes during early floral initiation processes revealed their temporal expression similar to that of APETALA1, a gene known to function as a floral meristem identity gene. However, RNA in situ hybridisation showed that their spatial expression patterns are markedly different from those of APETALA1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Legume flower development system differs from that in the model plant, Arabidopsis. There is an overlap in the initiation of different floral whorls in soybean, and inflorescent meristems can revert to leaf production depending on the environmental conditions. MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes have been shown to play key regulatory roles in different stages of flower development. We identified members of the PsMADS3 sub-clade in legumes that show differential spatial expression during floral initiation, indicating their potential novel roles in the floral initiation process. The results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of legume-specific floral developmental processes.
Project description:Cotton is one of the major world oil crops. Cottonseed oil meets the increasing demand of fried food, ruminant feed, and renewable bio-fuels. MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in various plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, this gene family has not been characterized, nor its functions investigated, in cotton. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of MIKC-type MADS genes in the tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., which is the most widely cultivated cotton species. In total, 110 GhMIKC genes were identified and phylogenetically classified into 13 subfamilies. The Flowering locus C (FLC) subfamily was absent in the Gossypium hirsutum L. genome but is found in Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera L. Among the genes, 108 were distributed across the 13 A and 12 of the D genome's chromosomes, while two were located in scaffolds. GhMIKCs within subfamilies displayed similar exon/intron characteristics and conserved motif compositions. According to RNA-sequencing, most MIKC genes exhibited high flowering-associated expression profiles. A quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that some crucial MIKC genes determined the identities of the five flower organs. Furthermore, the overexpression of GhAGL17.9 in Arabidopsis caused an early flowering phenotype. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO), LEAFY (LFY) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) were significantly increased in these lines. These results provide useful information for future studies of GhMIKCs' regulation of cotton flowering.
Project description:MADS-box genes are critical regulators of growth and development in flowering plants. Sequencing of the Musa balbisiana (B) genome has provided a platform for the systematic analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the important banana ancestor Musa balbisiana. Seventy-seven MADS-box genes, including 18 type I and 59 type II, were strictly identified from the banana (Pisang Klutuk Wulung, PKW, 2n?=?2x?=?22) B genome. These genes have been preferentially placed on the banana B genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that M. balbisiana MCM1-AGAMOUS-DEFICIENS-SRF (MbMADS) might be organized into the MIKC<sup>c</sup>, MIKC*, M?, M?, and M? groups according to the phylogeny. MIKC<sup>c</sup> was then further categorized into 10 subfamilies according to conserved motif and gene structure analyses. The well-defined MADS-box genes highlight gene birth and death in banana. MbMADSes originated from the same ancestor as MaMADSes. Transcriptome analysis in cultivated banana (ABB) revealed that MbMADSes were conserved and differentially expressed in several organs, in various fruit developing and ripening stages, and in stress treatments, indicating the participation of these genes in fruit development, ripening, and stress responses. Of note, SEP/AGL2 and AG, as well as other several type II MADS-box genes, including the STMADS11 and TM3/SOC1 subfamilies, indicated elevated expression throughout banana fruit development, ripening, and stress treatments, indicating their new parts in controlling fruit development and ripening. According to the co-expression network analysis, MbMADS75 interacted with bZIP and seven other transcription factors to perform its function. This systematic analysis reveals fruit development, ripening, and stress candidate MbMADSes genes for additional functional studies in plants, improving our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of MbMADSes genes and providing a base for genetic modification of MADS-mediated fruit development, ripening, and stress.
Project description:The repertoire and functions of MADS-box family transcription factors (TFs) largely remains unexplored with respect to floral organogenesis of Momordica dioica Roxb. Degenerative PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends was employed in the present study to clone and characterize 17 MADS-box genes (designated as MdMADS01 to MdMADS17) from the floral buds of M. dioica. The cloned genes were clustered into three subgroups (11 MIKCC, 4 MIKC* and 2 M?) based on phylogenetic relationships with the MADS-box genes from Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo and Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern hybridization showed that all the isolated genes were represented by single copy locus in the M. dioica genome. Gene structure analysis revealed 1-8 exons in MdMADS-box genes with the number of exons in MIKC greatly exceeding from that in M-type genes. Motif elicitation of the MdMADS-box genes indicated the presence of additional domains with MIKC type, suggesting that they had more complex structures. Expression analysis of MdMADS genes in six M. dioica transcriptome suggested that, 11 MIKCC-type genes are associated with floral homeotic functions, 4 MIKC*-type genes (MdMADS12 to MdMADS15) controlled the growth of male gametophyte, while the two M-type genes (MdMADS16 and MdMADS17) played significant role in female gametogenesis and seed development. Overall, these are the first set of MADS-box genes from M. dioica exhibiting a differential expression pattern during floral development. The results from this study will provide valuable information for further functional studies of candidate MADS-box genes in the sexual dimorphism of this economically important dioecious cucurbit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir), a member of the conifer family Cupressaceae, is one of the most popular cultivated trees for wood production in China. Continuous research is being performed to improve C. lanceolata breeding values. Given the high rate of seed abortion (one of the reasons being the failure of ovule and pollen development) in C. lanceolata, the proper formation of female/male cones could theoretically increase the number of offspring in future generations. MIKC MADS-box genes are well-known for their roles in the flower/cone development and comprise the typical/atypical floral development model for both angiosperms and gymnosperms. RESULTS:We performed a transcriptomic analysis to find genes differentially expressed between female and male cones at a single, carefully determined developmental stage, focusing on the MIKC MADS-box genes. We finally obtained 47 unique MIKC MADS-box genes from C. lanceolata and divided these genes into separate branches. 27 out of the 47 MIKC MADS-box genes showed differential expression between female and male cones, and most of them were not expressed in leaves. Out of these 27 genes, most B-class genes (AP3/PI) were up-regulated in the male cone, while TM8 genes were up-regulated in the female cone. Then, with no obvious overall preference for AG (class C?+?D) genes in female/male cones, it seems likely that these genes are involved in the development of both cones. Finally, a small number of genes such as GGM7, SVP, AGL15, that were specifically expressed in female/male cones, making them candidate genes for sex-specific cone development. CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified a number of MIKC MADS-box genes showing differential expression between female and male cones in C. lanceolata, illustrating a potential link of these genes with C. lanceolata cone development. On the basis of this, we postulated a possible cone development model for C. lanceolata. The gene expression library showing differential expression between female and male cones shown here, can be used to discover unknown regulatory networks related to sex-specific cone development in the future.
Project description:Plant life critically depends on the function of MADS-box genes encoding MADS-domain transcription factors, which are present to a limited extent in nearly all major eukaryotic groups, but constitute a large gene family in land plants. There are two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and type II, and in plants these groups are distinguished by exon-intron and domain structure, rates of evolution, developmental function and degree of functional redundancy. The type I genes are further subdivided into three groups - M alpha, M beta and M gamma - while the type II genes are subdivided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. The functional diversification of MIKCC genes is closely linked to the origin of developmental and morphological novelties in the sporophytic (usually diploid) generation of seed plants, most spectacularly the floral organs and fruits of angiosperms. Functional studies suggest different specializations for the different classes of genes; whereas type I genes may preferentially contribute to female gametophyte, embryo and seed development and MIKC*-group genes to male gametophyte development, the MIKCC-group genes became essential for diverse aspects of sporophyte development. Beyond the usual transcriptional regulation, including feedback and feed-forward loops, various specialized mechanisms have evolved to control the expression of MADS-box genes, such as epigenetic control and regulation by small RNAs. In future, more data from genome projects and reverse genetic studies will allow us to understand the birth, functional diversification and death of members of this dynamic and important family of transcription factors in much more detail.