Unilateral versus bilateral robot-assisted rehabilitation on arm-trunk control and functions post stroke: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Although the effects of robot-assisted arm training after stroke are promising, the relative effects of unilateral (URT) vs. bilateral (BRT) robot-assisted arm training remain uncertain. This study compared the effects of URT vs. BRT on upper extremity (UE) control, trunk compensation, and function in patients with chronic stroke.This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The intervention was implemented at 4 hospitals. Fifty-three patients with stroke were randomly assigned to URT, BRT, or control treatment (CT). Each group received UE training for 90 to 105 min/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. The kinematic variables for arm motor control and trunk compensation included normalized movement time, normalized movement units, and the arm-trunk contribution slope in unilateral and bilateral tasks. Motor function and daily function were measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and ABILHAND Questionnaire.The BRT and CT groups elicited significantly larger slope values (i.e., less trunk compensation) at the start of bilateral reaching than the URT group. URT led to significantly better effects on WMFT-Time than BRT. Differences in arm control kinematics and performance on the MAL and ABILHAND among the 3 groups were not significant.BRT and URT resulted in differential improvements in specific UE/trunk performance in patients with stroke. BRT elicited larger benefits than URT on reducing compensatory trunk movements at the beginning of reaching. In contrast, URT produced better improvements in UE temporal efficiency. These relative effects on movement kinematics, however, did not translate into differential benefits in daily functions.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00917605.
Project description:The effect of rehabilitative training after stroke is dose-dependent. Out-patient rehabilitation training is often limited by transport logistics, financial resources and a lack of motivation/compliance. We studied the feasibility of an unsupervised arm therapy for self-directed rehabilitation therapy in patients' homes.An open-label, single group study involving eleven patients with hemiparesis due to stroke (27?±?31.5 months post-stroke) was conducted. The patients trained with an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based virtual reality system (ArmeoSenso) in their homes for six weeks. The self-selected dose of training with ArmeoSenso was the principal outcome measure whereas the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and IMU-derived kinematic metrics were used to assess arm function, training intensity and trunk movement. Repeated measures one-way ANOVAs were used to assess differences in training duration and clinical scores over time.All subjects were able to use the system independently in their homes and no safety issues were reported. Patients trained on 26.5?±?11.5 days out of 42 days for a duration of 137?±?120 min per week. The weekly training duration did not change over the course of six weeks (p?=?0.146). The arm function of these patients improved significantly by 4.1 points (p?=?0.003) in the FMA-UE. Changes in the WMFT were not significant (p?=?0.552). ArmeoSenso based metrics showed an improvement in arm function, a high number of reaching movements (387 per session), and minimal compensatory movements of the trunk while training.Self-directed home therapy with an IMU-based home therapy system is safe and can provide a high dose of rehabilitative therapy. The assessments integrated into the system allow daily therapy monitoring, difficulty adaptation and detection of maladaptive motor patterns such as trunk movements during reaching.Unique identifier: NCT02098135 .
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Bilateral upper limb training (BULT) and unilateral upper limb training (UULT) are two effective strategies for the recovery of upper limb motor function after stroke. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the improvements in motor impairment and functional performances of people with stroke after BULT and UULT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This systematic review and meta-analysis identified 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the eligibility criteria from CINAHL, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and PubMed. The outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and Box and Block Test (BBT), which are validated measures of upper limb function. RESULTS:Twenty-one studies involving 842 subjects with stroke were included. Compared with UULT, BULT yielded a significantly greater mean difference (MD) in the FMA-UE (MD = 2.21, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.12 to 4.30, p = 0.04; I2 = 86%, p<0.001). However, a comparison of BULT and UULT yielded insignificant mean difference (MD) in terms of the time required to complete the WMFT (MD = 0.44; 95%CI, -2.22 to 3.10, p = 0.75; I2 = 55%, p = 0.06) and standard mean difference (SMD) in terms of the functional ability scores on the WMFT, ARAT and BBT (SMD = 0.25; 95%CI, -0.02 to 0.52, p = 0.07; I2 = 54%, p = 0.02). DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Compared to UULT, BULT yielded superior improvements in the improving motor impairment of people with stroke, as measured by the FMA-UE. However, these strategies did not yield significant differences in terms of the functional performance of people with stroke, as measured by the WMFT, ARAT and BBT. More comparative studies of the effects of BULT and UULT are needed to increase the reliability of these conclusions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Robot-based rehabilitation for persons post-stroke may improve arm function and daily-life activities as measured by clinical scales, but its effects on motor strategies during functional tasks are still poorly investigated. This study aimed at assessing the effects of robot-therapy versus arm-specific physiotherapy in persons post-stroke on motor strategies derived from upper body instrumented kinematic analysis, and on arm function measured by clinical scales. METHODS:Forty persons in the sub-acute and chronic stage post-stroke were recruited. This sample included all those subjects, enrolled in a larger bi-center study, who underwent instrumented kinematic analysis and who were randomized in Center 2 into Robot (R_Group) and Control Group (C_Group). R_Group received robot-assisted training. C_Group received arm-specific treatment delivered by a physiotherapist. Pre- and post-training assessment included clinical scales and instrumented kinematic analysis of arm and trunk during a virtual untrained task simulating the transport of an object onto a shelf. Instrumented outcomes included shoulder/elbow coordination, elbow extension and trunk sagittal compensation. Clinical outcomes included Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment of Upper Extremity (FM-UE), modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). RESULTS:R_Group showed larger post-training improvements of shoulder/elbow coordination (Cohen's d?=?-?0.81, p?=?0.019), elbow extension (Cohen's d?=?-?0.71, p?=?0.038), and trunk movement (Cohen's d?=?-?1.12, p?=?0.002). Both groups showed comparable improvements in clinical scales, except proximal muscles MAS that decreased more in R_Group (Cohen's d?=?-?0.83, p?=?0.018). Ancillary analyses on chronic subjects confirmed these results and revealed larger improvements after robot-therapy in the proximal portion of FM-UE (Cohen's d?=?1.16, p?=?0.019). CONCLUSIONS:Robot-assisted rehabilitation was as effective as arm-specific physiotherapy in reducing arm impairment (FM-UE) in persons post-stroke, but it was more effective in improving motor control strategies adopted during an untrained task involving vertical movements not practiced during training. Specifically, robot therapy induced larger improvements of shoulder/elbow coordination and greater reduction of abnormal trunk sagittal movements. The beneficial effects of robot therapy seemed more pronounced in chronic subjects. Future studies on a larger sample should be performed to corroborate present findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03530358. Registered 21 May 2018. Retrospectively registered.
Project description:The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649.
Project description:We investigated the training effects of interlimb force coupling training on paretic upper extremity outcomes in patients with chronic stroke and analyzed the relationship between motor recovery of the paretic hand, arm and functional performances on paretic upper limb.A randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention.Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University.Thirty-three subjects with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to training (n = 16) and control groups (n = 17).The computer-aided interlimb force coupling training task with visual feedback included different grip force generation methods on both hands.The Barthel Index (BI), the upper extremity motor control Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE), the Motor Assessment Score (MAS), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). All assessments were executed by a blinded evaluator, and data management and statistical analysis were also conducted by a blinded researcher.The training group demonstrated greater improvement on the FMA-UE (p<.001), WMFT (p<.001), MAS (p = .004) and BI (p = .037) than the control group after 4 weeks of intervention. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the improvement of scores for hand scales of the FMA and other portions of the FMA UE (r = .528, p = .018) or MAS (r = .596, p = .015) in the training group.Computer-aided interlimb force coupling training improves the motor recovery of a paretic hand, and facilitates motor control and enhances functional performance in the paretic upper extremity of people with chronic stroke.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247674.
Project description:Hemiparesis is one of the most prevalent chronic disabilities after stroke. Biochemical and structural magnetic resonance imaging approaches may be employed to study the neural substrates underpinning upper-extremity (UE) recovery after chronic stroke.The purposes of this study were to 1) quantify anatomical and metabolic differences in the precentral gyrus, and 2) test the relationships between anatomical and metabolic differences, and hemiparetic arm function in individuals in the chronic stage of stroke recovery. Our hypotheses were: 1) the Stroke group would exhibit reduced precentral gyrus cortical thickness and lower concentrations of total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the ipsilesional motor cortex; and 2) that each of these measures would be associated with UE motor function after stroke.Seventeen individuals with chronic (>6 months) subcortical ischemic stroke and eleven neurologically healthy controls were recruited. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1MRS) was performed to measure metabolite concentrations of tNAA and Glx in the precentral gyrus in both ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Surface-based cortical morphometry was used to quantify precentral gyral thickness. Upper-extremity motor function was assessed using the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT).Results demonstrated significantly lower ipsilesional tNAA and Glx concentrations and precentral gyrus thickness in the Stroke group. Ipsilesional tNAA and Glx concentration and precentral gyrus thickness was significantly lower in the ipsilesional hemisphere in the Stroke group. Parametric correlation analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between precentral gyrus thickness and tNAA concentration bilaterally. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that ipsilesional concentrations of tNAA and Glx predicted the largest amount of variance in WMFT scores. Cortical thickness measures alone did not predict a significant amount of variance in WMFT scores.While stroke impairs both structure and biochemistry in the ipsilesional hemisphere our data suggest that tNAA has the strongest relationship with motor function.
Project description:Studies demonstrate that most arm motor recovery occurs within three months after stroke, when measured with standard clinical scales. Improvements on these measures, however, reflect a combination of recovery in motor control, increases in strength, and acquisition of compensatory strategies.To isolate and characterize the time course of recovery of arm motor control over the first year poststroke.Longitudinal study of 18 participants with acute ischemic stroke. Motor control was evaluated using a global kinematic measure derived from a 2-dimensional reaching task designed to minimize the need for antigravity strength and prevent compensation. Arm impairment was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), activity limitation with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and strength with biceps dynamometry. Assessments were conducted at: 1.5, 5, 14, 27, and 54 weeks poststroke.Motor control in the paretic arm improved up to week 5, with no further improvement beyond this time point. In contrast, improvements in the FMA-UE, ARAT, and biceps dynamometry continued beyond 5 weeks, with a similar magnitude of improvement between weeks 5 and 54 as the one observed between weeks 1.5 and 5.Recovery after stroke plateaued much earlier for arm motor control, isolated with a global kinematic measure, compared to motor function assessed with clinical scales. This dissociation between the time courses of kinematic and clinical measures of recovery may be due to the contribution of strength improvement to the latter. Novel interventions, focused on the first month poststroke, will be required to exploit the narrower window of spontaneous recovery for motor control.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke.<h4>Method</h4>Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge.<h4>Results</h4>Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles.<h4>Conclusion</h4>UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Affordable, quantitative methods to screen children for developmental delays are needed. Motor milestones can be an indicator of developmental delay and may be used to track developmental progress. Accelerometry offers a way to gather real-world information about pediatric motor behavior.<h4>Objective</h4>To develop a referent cohort of pediatric accelerometry from bilateral upper extremities (UEs) and determine whether movement can accurately distinguish those with and without motor deficits.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Children aged 0 to 17 years participated in a prospective cohort from December 8, 2014, to December 29, 2017. Children were recruited from Ranken Jordan Pediatric Bridge Hospital, Maryland Heights, Missouri, and Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri. Typically developing children were included as a referent cohort if they had no history of motor or neurological deficit; consecutive sampling and matching ensured equal representation of sex and age. Children with diagnosed asymmetric motor deficits were included in the motor impaired cohort.<h4>Exposures</h4>Bilateral UE motor activity was measured using wrist-worn accelerometers for a total of 100 hours in 25-hour increments.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>To characterize bilateral UE motor activity in a referent cohort for the purpose of detecting irregularities in the future, total activity and the use ratio between UEs were used to describe typically developing children. Asymmetric impairment was classified using the mono-arm use index (MAUI) and bilateral-arm use index (BAUI) to quantify the acceleration of unilateral movements.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 216 children enrolled, and 185 children were included in analysis. Of these, 156 were typically developing, with mean (SD) age 9.1 (5.1) years and 81 boys (52.0%). There were 29 children in the motor impaired cohort, with mean (SD) age 7.4 (4.4) years and 16 boys (55.2%). The combined MAUI and BAUI (mean [SD], 0.86 [0.005] and use ratio (mean [SD], 0.90 [0.008]) had similar F1 values. The area under the curve was also similar between the combined MAUI and BAUI (mean [SD], 0.98 [0.004]) and the use ratio (mean [SD], 0.98 [0.004]).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Bilateral UE movement as measured with accelerometry may provide a meaningful metric of real-world motor behavior across childhood. Screening in early childhood remains a challenge; MAUI may provide an effective method for clinicians to measure and visualize real-world motor behavior in children at risk for asymmetrical deficits.
Project description:Robot-assisted therapy (RT) is a widely used intervention approach to enhance motor recovery in patients after stroke, but its effects on functional improvement remained uncertain. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is one potential adjuvant intervention approach to RT that could directly activate the stimulated muscles and improve functional use of the paretic hand.This was a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Thirty-nine individuals with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to the RT combined with NMES (RT?+?ES) or to RT with sham stimulation (RT?+?Sham) groups. The participants completed the intervention 90 to 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures included the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UE-FMA), modified Ashworth scale (MAS), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 (SIS). All outcome measures were assessed before and after intervention, and the UE-FMA, MAL, and SIS were reassessed at 3 months of follow-up.Compared with the RT?+?Sham group, the RT?+?ES group demonstrated greater improvements in wrist flexor MAS score, WMFT quality of movement, and the hand function domain of the SIS. For other outcome measures, both groups improved significantly after the interventions, but no group differences were found.RT?+?ES induced significant benefits in reducing wrist flexor spasticity and in hand movement quality in patients with chronic stroke.ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01655446.