Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.
ABSTRACT: Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.
Project description:Database screening using receptor-based pharmacophores is a computer-aided drug design technique that uses the structure of the target molecule (i.e. protein) to identify novel ligands that may bind to the target. Typically receptor-based pharmacophore modeling methods only consider a single or limited number of receptor conformations and map out the favorable binding patterns in vacuum or with a limited representation of the aqueous solvent environment, such that they may suffer from neglect of protein flexibility and desolvation effects. Site-Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) is an approach that takes into account these, as well as other, properties to determine 3-dimensional maps of the functional group-binding patterns on a target receptor (i.e. FragMaps). In this study, a method to use the FragMaps to automatically generate receptor-based pharmacophore models is presented. It converts the FragMaps into SILCS pharmacophore features including aromatic, aliphatic, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor chemical functionalities. The method generates multiple pharmacophore hypotheses that are then quantitatively ranked using SILCS grid free energies. The pharmacophore model generation protocol is validated using three different protein targets, including using the resulting models in virtual screening. Improved performance and efficiency of the SILCS derived pharmacophore models as compared to published docking studies, as well as a recently developed receptor-based pharmacophore modeling method is shown, indicating the potential utility of the approach in rational drug design.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected tropical disease that causes severe human health problems. To develop a new chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of Chagas disease, we predicted a pharmacophore model for T. cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (TcDHODH) by fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculation for orotate, oxonate, and 43 orotate derivatives.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Intermolecular interactions in the complexes of TcDHODH with orotate, oxonate, and 43 orotate derivatives were analyzed by FMO calculation at the MP2/6-31G level. The results indicated that the orotate moiety, which is the base fragment of these compounds, interacts with the Lys43, Asn67, and Asn194 residues of TcDHODH and the cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN), whereas functional groups introduced at the orotate 5-position strongly interact with the Lys214 residue.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>FMO-based interaction energy analyses revealed a pharmacophore model for TcDHODH inhibitor. Hydrogen bond acceptor pharmacophores correspond to Lys43 and Lys214, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor pharmacophores correspond to Asn67 and Asn194, and the aromatic ring pharmacophore corresponds to FMN, which shows important characteristics of compounds that inhibit TcDHODH. In addition, the Lys214 residue is not conserved between TcDHODH and human DHODH. Our analysis suggests that these orotate derivatives should preferentially bind to TcDHODH, increasing their selectivity. Our results obtained by pharmacophore modeling provides insight into the structural requirements for the design of TcDHODH inhibitors and their development as new anti-Chagas drugs.
Project description:AIM: To construct a quantitative pharmacophore model of tubulin inhibitors and to discovery new leads with potent antitumor activities. METHODS: Ligand-based pharmacophore modeling was used to identify the chemical features responsible for inhibiting tubulin polymerization. A set of 26 training compounds was used to generate hypothetical pharmacophores using the HypoGen algorithm. The structures were further validated using the test set, Fischer randomization method, leave-one-out method and a decoy set, and the best model was chosen to screen the Specs database. Hit compounds were subjected to molecular docking study using a Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software and to biological evaluation in vitro. RESULTS: Hypo1 was demonstrated to be the best pharmacophore model that exhibited the highest correlation coefficient (0.9582), largest cost difference (70.905) and lowest RMSD value (0.6977). Hypo1 consisted of one hydrogen-bond acceptor, a hydrogen-bond donor, a hydrophobic feature, a ring aromatic feature and three excluded volumes. Hypo1 was validated with four different methods and had a goodness-of-hit score of 0.81. When Hypo1 was used in virtual screening of the Specs database, 952 drug-like compounds were revealed. After docking into the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, 5 drug-like compounds with the required interaction with the critical amino acid residues and the binding free energies < -4 kcal/mol were selected as representative leads. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: Hypo1 is a quantitative pharmacophore model for tubulin inhibitors, which not only provides a better understanding of their interaction with tubulin, but also assists in discovering new potential leads with antitumor activities.
Project description:Pharmacophore models are widely used for the identification of promising primary hits in compound large libraries. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacophores retrieved from protein-ligand molecular dynamic trajectories outperform pharmacophores retrieved from a single crystal complex structure. However, the number of retrieved pharmacophores can be enormous, thus, making it computationally inefficient to use all of them for virtual screening. In this study, we proposed selection of distinct representative pharmacophores by the removal of pharmacophores with identical three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore hashes. We also proposed a new conformer coverage approach in order to rank compounds using all representative pharmacophores. Our results for four cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) complexes with different ligands demonstrated that the proposed selection and ranking approaches outperformed the previously described common hits approach. We also demonstrated that ranking, based on averaged predicted scores obtained from different complexes, can outperform ranking based on scores from an individual complex. All developments were implemented in open-source software pharmd.
Project description:The programmed cell death ligand protein 1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 protein family and consists of 290 amino acid residues. The blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway is effective in tumor treatment. Results: Two pharmacophore models were generated based on peptides and small molecules. Hypo 1A consists of one hydrogen bond donor, one hydrogen bond acceptor, two hydrophobic points and one aromatic ring point. Hypo 1B consists of one hydrogen bond donor, three hydrophobic points and one positive ionizable point. Conclusions: The pharmacophore model consisting of a hydrogen bond donor, hydrophobic points and a positive ionizable point may be helpful for designing small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-L1.
Project description:The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 ?M for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.
Project description:A combined ligand and structure-based drug design approach provides a synergistic advantage over either methods performed individually. Present work bestows a good assembly of ligand and structure-based pharmacophore generation concept. Ligand-oriented study was accomplished by employing the HypoGen module of Catalyst in which we have translated the experimental findings into 3-D pharmacophore models by identifying key features (four point pharmacophore) necessary for interaction of the inhibitors with the active site of HIV-1 protease enzyme using a training set of 33 compounds belonging to the cyclic cyanoguanidines and cyclic urea derivatives. The most predictive pharmacophore model (hypothesis 1), consisting of four features, namely, two hydrogen bond acceptors and two hydrophobic, showed a correlation (r) of 0.90 and a root mean square of 0.71 and cost difference of 56.59 bits between null cost and fixed cost. The model was validated using CatScramble technique, internal and external test set prediction. In the second phase of our study, a structure-based five feature pharmacophore hypothesis was generated which signifies the importance of hydrogen bond donor, hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrophobic interaction between the HIV-1 protease enzyme and its inhibitors. This work has taken a significant step towards the full integration of ligand and structure-based drug design methodologies as pharmacophoric features retrieved from structure-based strategy complemented the features from ligand-based study hence proving the accuracy of the developed models. The ligand-based pharmacophore model was used in virtual screening of Maybridge and NCI compound database resulting in the identification of four structurally diverse druggable compounds with nM activities.
Project description:Human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the main bile acid uptake transporter in the liver with the capability to translocate xenobiotics. While its inhibitor requirements have been recently characterized, its substrate requirements have not. The objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate NTCP substrate requirements using native bile acids and bile acid analogs, (b) to develop the first pharmacophore for NTCP substrates and compare it with the inhibitor pharmacophores, and (c) to identify additional NTCP novel substrates. Thus, 18 native bile acids and two bile acid conjugates were initially assessed for NTCP inhibition and/or uptake, which suggested a role of hydroxyl pattern and steric interaction in NTCP binding and translocation. A common feature pharmacophore for NTCP substrate uptake was developed, using 14 native bile acids and bile acid conjugates, yielding a model which featured three hydrophobes, one hydrogen bond donor, one negative ionizable feature and three excluded volumes. This model was used to search a database of FDA approved drugs and retrieved the majority of the known NTCP substrates. Among the retrieved drugs, irbesartan and losartan were identified as novel NTCP substrates, suggesting a potential role of NTCP in drug disposition.
Project description:Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were generated for Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) agonists using HypoGen algorithm, which is implemented in the Discovery Studio software. Several methods tools used in validation of pharmacophore model were presented. The first hypothesis Hypo1 was considered to be the best pharmacophore model, which consists of four features: one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and two hydrophobic features. In addition, homology modeling and molecular docking studies were employed to probe the intermolecular interactions between TLR7 and its agonists. The results further confirmed the reliability of the pharmacophore model. The obtained pharmacophore model (Hypo1) was then employed as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD) for other potential lead compounds. One hit was identified as a potent TLR7 agonist, which has antiviral activity against hepatitis virus in vitro. Therefore, our current work provides confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore model to design novel TLR7 agonists with desired biological activity.
Project description:Pharmacophore modeling is a widely used strategy for finding new hit molecules. Since not all protein targets have available 3D structures, ligand-based approaches are still useful. Currently, there are just a few free ligand-based pharmacophore modeling tools, and these have a lot of restrictions, e.g., using a template molecule for alignment. We developed a new approach to 3D pharmacophore representation and matching which does not require pharmacophore alignment. This representation can be used to quickly find identical pharmacophores in a given set. Based on this representation, a 3D pharmacophore ligand-based modeling approach to search for pharmacophores which preferably match active compounds and do not match inactive ones was developed. The approach searches for 3D pharmacophore models starting from 2D structures of available active and inactive compounds. The implemented approach was successfully applied for several retrospective studies. The results were compared to a 2D similarity search, demonstrating some of the advantages of the developed 3D pharmacophore models. Also, the generated 3D pharmacophore models were able to match the 3D poses of known ligands from their protein-ligand complexes, confirming the validity of the models. The developed approach is available as an open-source software tool: http://www.qsar4u.com/pages/pmapper.php and https://github.com/meddwl/psearch.