Determining immunisation status of children from history: a diagnostic accuracy study.
ABSTRACT: Children presenting unplanned to healthcare services are routinely asked about previous immunisations as part of their assessment. We aimed to assess the accuracy of screening children for immunisation status by history.Diagnostic accuracy study. We compared information from patient history by a retrospective review of notes and used a central database of child immunisation records as the reference standard.Paediatric emergency department in a tertiary hospital in Oxford, UK.Consecutive children aged 6 months to 6 years presenting over a 2-month period.Proportion of children with documented immunisation history; sensitivity and specificity of detecting overdue immunisations by history compared to central records.1166 notes were surveyed. 76.3% children were asked about immunisations. The proportion of children who were fully immunised on central records was 93.1%. History had a sensitivity of 41.3% (95% CI 27% to 56.8%) and a specificity of 98.7% (95% CI 97.5% to 99.4%) for detecting those who were overdue. Negative predictive value was 95.8% (95% CI 93.9% to 97.2%). Only around a third of children with overdue immunisations are detected by the current screening methods, and approximately 1 in 20 children stated as being up to date are in fact overdue.History had poor sensitivity for identifying overdue immunisation. Strategies to improve detection of children overdue with immunisation should focus on alternative strategies for alerting clinicians, such as linkage of community and hospital electronic records.
Project description:PROBLEM:Child abuse is easily overlooked in a busy emergency department. DESIGN:Two stage audit of 1000 children before and after introduction of reminder flowchart. BACKGROUND AND SETTING:An emergency department in a suburban teaching hospital seeing about 4000 injured preschool children a year. KEY MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT:Number of records in which intentional injury was adequately documented and considered and the number of children referred for further assessment before and after introduction of reminder flowchart into emergency department notes. STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE:Nurses were asked to insert a reminder flowchart for assessing intentional injury into the notes of all children aged 0-5 years attending the department with any injury and to record the results of checking the child protection register. EFFECT OF CHANGE: Documentation of all eight indicators that intentional injury had been considered had increased in the second audit. Records of compatibility of history with injury and consistency of history increased from less than 2% to more than 70% (P<0.0001). More children were referred for further assessment in the second audit than the first, although the difference was not significant (6 (0.6%) v 14 (1.4%), P=0.072). The general level of awareness and vigilance increased in the second audit, even for children whose records did not contain the flowchart. LESSONS LEARNT:Inclusion of a simple reminder flowchart in the notes of injured preschool children attending the emergency department increases awareness, consideration, and documentation of intentional injury. Rates of referral for further assessment also increase.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Children may be placed in the care of the child welfare system when they require additional supports or intervention to ensure their safety and security. Transitions in living arrangements (eg, home to foster care and return to home) and other difficult circumstances for these children may result in interruptions in routine preventive healthcare, such as childhood immunisations. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to determine whether immunisation coverage is a problem among children in the child welfare system and identify any known supports and/or barriers to vaccine uptake in this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This systematic review will encompass published and unpublished primary research studies that assess (A) immunisation coverage of children in the child welfare system, (B) how this coverage compares to the general population and/or children not in the child welfare system, and (C) supports and barriers affecting immunisation status of these children. Vaccines in the recommended childhood immunisation schedule for each study setting will be considered. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SocINDEX and ERIC will be comprehensively searched. We will also search ProQuest dissertations and theses, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index for Science and Social Science & Humanities, and a sample of relevant provincial, national and international websites. References of included studies will be manually searched for relevant studies. English language primary studies from 2000 to current focused on immunisations of children (age 0-17 years) in the child welfare system, in a high-income country, will be included. A narrative analysis of key findings from included studies will be performed and presented. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol does not require ethics approval. Planned dissemination includes peer-reviewed publication, conference presentations and briefs for policy makers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:This protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, registration number CRD42016047319.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Since 1988, Brazil's Unified Health System has sought to provide universal and equal access to immunisations. Inequalities in immunisation may be examined by contrasting vaccination coverage among children in the highest versus the lowest socioeconomic strata. The authors examined coverage with routine infant immunisations from a survey of Brazilian children according to socioeconomic stratum of residence census tract. METHODS: The authors conducted a household cluster survey in census tracts systematically selected from five socioeconomic strata, according to average household income and head of household education, in 26 Brazilian capitals and the federal district. The authors calculated coverage with recommended vaccinations among children until 18 months of age, according to socioeconomic quintile of residence census tract, and examined factors associated with incomplete vaccination. RESULTS: Among 17,295 children with immunisation cards, 14,538 (82.6%) had received all recommended vaccinations by 18 months of age. Among children residing in census tracts in the highest socioeconomic stratum, 77.2% were completely immunised by 18 months of age versus 81.2%-86.2% of children residing in the four census tract quintiles with lower socioeconomic indicators (p<0.01). Census tracts in the highest socioeconomic quintile had significantly lower coverage for bacille Calmette-Guérin, oral polio and hepatitis B vaccines than those with lower socioeconomic indicators. In multivariable analysis, higher birth order and residing in the highest socioeconomic quintile were associated with incomplete vaccination. After adjusting for interaction between socioeconomic strata of residence census tract and household wealth index, only birth order remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from Brazilian capitals shows success in achieving high immunisation coverage among poorer children. Strategies are needed to reach children in wealthier areas.
Project description:Background and aims:We aimed to understand the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination, which may help to identify and prioritise opportunities to intervene. Methods:Consenting parents of children <6 years old attending an outpatient clinic completed a questionnaire, which captured demographic information and their level of agreement with belief statements about vaccination using a 7-point Likert scale. Vaccination status was determined from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and deemed either "complete" (no doses overdue) or "incomplete" (1 or more doses overdue) at the time of questionnaire completion. Results:Of 589 children of respondents, 116 (20%) had an incomplete vaccination status. Of these, nearly two-thirds (63%) of parents believed that their child was, in fact, fully-vaccinated. Compared to those with a complete vaccine status, children with an incomplete vaccine status were more likely to be born overseas (p < 0.001), have a larger family size (p = 0.02) and to have parents with lower educational attainment (p = 0.001). Parents of children with an incomplete status reported more doubt about the importance of vaccination and greater concern about vaccine safety, compared to parents of children with a complete status. Conclusion:Most parents are supportive of vaccination. Sociodemographic factors may contribute more to the risk of incomplete vaccination than attitudes or beliefs. Some parents are unaware of their child's vaccination status, suggesting that simple and modern reminders may assist parents to keep up to date.
Project description:The majority of routinely given vaccines require two or three immunisations for full protective efficacy. Single dose vaccination has long been considered a key solution to improving the global immunisation coverage. Recent infectious disease outbreaks have further highlighted the need for vaccines that can achieve full efficacy after a single administration. Viral vectors are a potent immunisation platform, benefiting from intrinsic immuno-stimulatory features while retaining excellent safety profile through the use of non-replicating viruses. We investigated the scope for enhancing the protective efficacy of a single dose adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine in a mouse model of malaria by co-administering it with vaccine adjuvants. Out of 11 adjuvants, only two, Abisco®-100 and CoVaccineHTTM, enhanced vaccine efficacy and sterile protection following malaria challenge. The CoVaccineHTTM adjuvanted vaccine induced significantly higher proportion of antigen specific central memory CD8+ cells, and both adjuvants resulted in increased proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing the CD107a degranulation marker in the absence of IFN?, TNF? and IL2 production. Our results show that the efficacy of vaccines designed to induce protective T cell responses can be positively modulated with chemical adjuvants and open the possibility of achieving full protection with a single dose immunisation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes have the potential to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The preferred age for HPV vaccination is 12-13 years for optimal benefit. The legal framework in England allows adolescents to be vaccinated without parental consent if they are assessed as competent. A 'South West Template Pathway on Self Consent for School Aged Immunisations' was developed to improve uptake of immunisations in south-west England. STUDY AIM:To examine how acceptable the new procedures are to the young women, parents and carers, school staff and immunisation nurses involved. METHODS:The research was undertaken in two local authorities in south-west England during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 programme years. Semi-structured digitally recorded interviews were undertaken with 53 participants: one health service manager, three immunisation nurses, five staff at alternative education providers, three staff at mainstream schools, 19 young women and 22 parents. All recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken, assisted by NVivo software. RESULTS:Most participants were not fully aware of the legal framework that enables a young person to self-consent to vaccination. There was a strong presumption that parents should make decisions affecting the health of their children. The preferred age at which the HPV vaccination is administered (12-13 years) contributed to reluctance in endorsing self-consent which was thought to have the potential to break down trust between parents and school staff, and within families. In practice, formal self-consent was rare. CONCLUSION:Unresolved issues in relation to adolescent self-consent include public and professional perceptions of young people's rights and abilities to take responsibility for decisions affecting their health, and concerns about the impact of self-consent on relationships both within families and between professionals and the families they serve.
Project description:AIM:We aimed to assess the receipt of recommended care for young children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in a central SCD clinic in Kampala Uganda, focusing on standard vaccination and antibacterial and antimalarial prophylaxis. METHODS:A cross-sectional assessment of immunisation status and timeliness and prescribed antibacterial and antimalarial prophylaxis was performed in a sample with SCD aged ?71 months in Mulago Hospital SCD Clinic. Government-issued immunisation cards and clinic-issued visit records for prescribed prophylaxis were reviewed. RESULTS:Vaccinations were documented by immunisation cards in 104 patients, mean age 31.7 months (range 3-70 months). Only 48 (46.2%) received all doses of each of the four recommended vaccine types, including pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)-10), which became available in 2014. Vaccination completion was associated with younger age and, for polio, maternal employment. PCV-10 series was completed in 54.8% of the sample and in 18.2% of those aged 48-71 months. Of children completing all vaccination types, an average 68.8% were immunised on time, defined as <60 days beyond the recommended age. Only 17 (13.5%) children were both fully and timely vaccinated. In an overlapping sample of 147 children, with a mean age of 38.4 months (4-70 months), 81.6% had ?1 documented prescription for penicillin and/or antimalarial prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:Standardised vaccination and antibacterial and antimalarial protective measures for young children at this central SCD clinic were incomplete, especially PCV-10 for age ?24 months, and often late. Child age, but not general maternal demographics, were associated with vaccination and chemoprophylaxis. Clinic-based oversight may improve timely uptake of these preventative measures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Emerging evidence suggests community health workers (CHWs) delivering preventive maternal and child health (MCH) interventions through home visiting improve several important health outcomes, including initiation of prenatal care, healthy birth weight and uptake of childhood immunisations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Arizona Health Start Program is a behavioral-based home visiting intervention, which uses CHWs to improve MCH outcomes through health education, referral support, and advocacy services for at-risk pregnant and postpartum women with children up to 2 years of age. We aim to test our central hypothesis that mothers and children exposed to this intervention will experience positive health outcomes in the areas of (1) newborn health; (2) maternal health and healthcare utilisation; and (3) child health and development. This paper outlines our protocol to retrospectively evaluate Health Start Program administrative data from 2006 to 2015, equaling 15?576 enrollees. We will use propensity score matching to generate a statistically similar control group. Our analytic sample size is sufficient to detect meaningful programme effects from low-frequency events, including preterm births, low and very low birth weights, maternal morbidity, and differences in immunisation and hospitalisation rates. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This work is supported through an inter-agency contract from the Arizona Department of Health Services and is approved by the University of Arizona Research Institutional Review Board (Protocol 1701128802, approved 25 January 2017). Evaluation of the three proposed outcome areas will be completed by June 2020.
Project description:Pakistan faces huge challenges in eradicating polio due to widespread poliovirus transmission and security challenges. Innovative interventions are urgently needed to strengthen community buy-in, to increase the coverage of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other routine immunisations, and to enhance immunity through the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in combination with OPV. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effect on immunisation coverage of an integrated strategy for community engagement and maternal and child health immunisation campaigns in insecure and conflict-affected polio-endemic districts of Pakistan.We did a community-based three-arm cluster randomised trial in healthy children aged 1 month to 5 years that resided within the study sites in three districts of Pakistan at high risk of polio. Clusters were randomly assigned by a computer algorithm using restricted randomisation in blocks of 20 by an external statistician (1:1:1) to receive routine polio programme activities (control, arm A), additional interventions with community outreach and mobilisation using an enhanced communication package and provision of short-term preventive maternal and child health services and routine immunisation (health camps), including OPV (arm B), or all interventions of arm B with additional provision of IPV delivered at the maternal and child health camps (arm C). An independent team conducted surveys at baseline, endline, and after each round of supplementary immunisation activity for acceptability and effect. The primary outcome measures for the study were coverage of OPV, IPV, and routine extended programme on immunisation vaccines and changes in the proportion of unvaccinated and fully vaccinated children. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01908114.Between June 4, 2013, and May 31, 2014, 387 clusters were randomised (131 to arm A, 127 to arm B, and 129 to arm C). At baseline, 28?760 children younger than 5 years were recorded in arm A, 30?098 in arm B, and 29?126 in arm C. 359 clusters remained in the trial until the end (116 in arm A, 120 in arm B, and 123 in arm C; with 23?334 children younger than 5 years in arm A, 26?110 in arm B, and 25?745 in arm C). The estimated OPV coverage was 75% in arm A compared with 82% in arm B (difference vs arm A 6·6%; 95% CI 4·8-8·3) and 84% in arm C (8·5%, 6·8-10·1; overall p<0·0001). The mean proportion of routine vaccine doses received by children younger than 24 months of age was 43% in arm A, 52% in arm B (9%, 7-11) and 54% in arm C (11%, 9-13; overall p<0·0001). No serious adverse events requiring hospitalisation were reported after immunisation.Despite the challenges associated with the polio end-game in high-risk, conflict-affected areas of Pakistan, a strategy of community mobilisation and targeted community-based health and immunisation camps during polio immunisation campaigns was successful in increasing vaccine coverage, including polio vaccine coverage.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Project description:The vaccination of pregnant women has enormous potential to protect not only mothers from vaccine-preventable diseases but also their infants through the passive acquisition of protective antibodies before they are able to themselves acquire protection through active childhood immunisations. Maternal tetanus programmes have been in place since 1989, and as of March 2018, only 14 countries in the world were still to reach maternal neonatal tetanus elimination status. This has saved hundreds of thousands of lives. Building on this success, influenza- and pertussis-containing vaccines have been recommended for pregnant women and introduced into immunisation programmes, albeit predominantly in resource-rich settings. These have highlighted some important challenges when additional immunisations are introduced into the antenatal context. With new vaccine candidates, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and group B streptococcus (GBS), on the horizon, it is important that we learn from these experiences, identify the information gaps, and close these to ensure safe and successful implementation of maternal vaccines in the future, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of disease.