Complete Genome Sequence of Glaciecola psychrophila Strain 170T.
ABSTRACT: Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Glaciecola psychrophila strain 170(T), a novel species of the genus Glaciecola, isolated from sea ice at high-latitude Arctic locations. The genome consists of a single chromosome (5,413,691 bp) and 5,363 genes. The genomics information will facilitate the study of the physiology, cold adaptation, and evolution of this genus.
Project description:Pseudomonas psychrophila MTCC 12324 is a facultatively psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the Arctic fjord Ny-alesund in the Svalbard Archipelago. Here, we present a 5.2-Mb draft genome sequence of P. psychrophila MTCC 12324, reported for the first time, from the Arctic. This enables a study of the cold adaptation mechanisms to survive under the extreme cold conditions.
Project description:Early spring phytoplankton blooms can occur at very low water temperatures but they are often decoupled from bacterial growth, which is assumed to be often temperature controlled. In a previous mesocosm study with Baltic Sea plankton communities, an early diatom bloom was associated with a high relative abundance of Glaciecola sequences (Gammaproteobacteria), at both low (2°C) and elevated (8°C) temperatures, suggesting an important role for this genus in phytoplankton-bacteria coupling. In this study, the temperature-dependent dynamics of free-living Glaciecola spp. during the bloom were analyzed by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization using a newly developed probe. The analysis revealed the appearance of Glaciecola spp. in this and in previous spring mesocosm experiments as the dominating bacterial clade during diatom blooms, with a close coupling between the population dynamics of Glaciecola and phytoplankton development. Although elevated temperature resulted in a higher abundance and a higher net growth rate of Glaciecola spp. (Q10 ? 2.2), their growth was, in contrast to that of the bulk bacterial assemblages, not suppressed at 2°C and showed a similar pattern at 8°C. Independent of temperature, the highest abundance of Glaciecola spp. (24.0 ± 10.0% of total cell number) occurred during the peak of the phytoplankton bloom. Together with the slightly larger cell size of Glaciecola, this resulted in a ?30% contribution of Glaciecola to total bacterial biomass. Overall, the results of this and previous studies suggest that Glaciecola has an ecological niche during early diatom blooms at low temperatures, when it becomes a dominant consumer of phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter.
Project description:Glaciecola nitratireducens strain FR1064(T) was isolated from seawater and described as a new species by Baik et al. in 2006. The genome size is about 1.01 to 1.26 Mb smaller than two reported Glaciecola genomes, indicating the gain or loss of large genome segments in the evolution of Glaciecola strains.
Project description:A comprehensive assessment of bacterial diversity and community composition in arctic and antarctic pack ice was conducted through cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques. We sequenced 16S rRNA genes from 115 and 87 pure cultures of bacteria isolated from arctic and antarctic pack ice, respectively. Most of the 33 arctic phylotypes were >97% identical to previously described antarctic species or to our own antarctic isolates. At both poles, the alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group were the dominant taxonomic bacterial groups identified by cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from multiple arctic and antarctic pack ice samples revealed a high incidence of closely overlapping 16S rRNA gene clone and isolate sequences. Simultaneous analysis of environmental samples with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that approximately 95% of 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells hybridized with the general bacterial probe EUB338. More than 90% of those were further assignable. Approximately 50 and 36% were identified as gamma-proteobacteria in arctic and antarctic samples,respectively. Approximately 25% were identified as alpha-proteobacteria, and 25% were identified as belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group. For the quantification of specific members of the sea ice community, new oligonucleotide probes were developed which target the genera Octadecabacter, Glaciecola, Psychrobacter, Marinobacter, Shewanella, and Polaribacter: High FISH detection rates of these groups as well as high viable counts corroborated the overlap of clone and isolate sequences. A terrestrial influence on the arctic pack ice community was suggested by the presence of limnic phylotypes.
Project description:Small copepods are the most diverse and numerous group in high-latitude zooplankton, yet our knowledge of important species remains poor because of the difficulties involved in correct species identification. In this study, we use a molecular method of identification, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction, to provide the first description of the seasonal dynamics and life histories of the important genus <i>Pseudocalanus</i> in two Svalbard fjords with contrasting environments. We conducted monthly investigations in the relatively warm and ice-free Adventfjorden, supplemented with seasonal samples from the colder, seasonally ice-covered Billefjorden. We found three species of <i>Pseudocalanus</i> (the <i>Arctic P. acuspes</i> and <i>P. minutus,</i> and the <i>boreal P. moultoni)</i>. <i>Pseudocalanus acuspes</i> had a distinct annual life cycle and dominated during summer, when it actively reproduced. Surprisingly, the boreal <i>P. moultoni</i> was present year-round in both fjords and was the dominant species during winter; the presence of all life stages of this species throughout the year suggests a more continuous reproduction. The Arctic <i>P. minutus</i> was the rarest of the three species and was likely able to complete its life cycle in Billefjorden but not in Adventfjorden. Our study demonstrates that closely related species may have different life strategies and environmental preferences, which presumably make high-latitude zooplankton communities more resilient to climate change impacts on genus but not necessarily on species level.
Project description:Amplified Arctic warming and its relevance to mid-latitude cooling in winter have been intensively studied. Observational evidence has shown strong connections between decreasing sea ice and cooling over the Siberian/East Asian regions. However, the robustness of such connections remains a matter of discussion because modeling studies have shown divergent and controversial results. Here, we report a set of general circulation model experiments specifically designed to extract memory effects of land processes that can amplify sea ice-climate impacts. The results show that sea ice-induced cooling anomalies over the Eurasian continent are memorized in the snow amount and soil temperature fields, and they reemerge in the following winters to enhance negative Arctic Oscillation-like anomalies. The contribution from this memory effect is similar in magnitude to the direct effect of sea ice loss. The results emphasize the essential role of land processes in understanding and evaluating the Arctic-mid-latitude climate linkage.
Project description:Mid-Holocene climate was characterized by strong summer solar heating that decreased Arctic sea ice cover. Motivated by recent studies identifying Arctic sea ice loss as a key driver of future climate change, we separate the influences of Arctic sea ice loss on mid-Holocene climate. By performing idealized climate model perturbation experiments, we show that Arctic sea ice loss causes zonally asymmetric surface temperature responses especially in winter: sea ice loss warms North America and the North Pacific, which would otherwise be much colder due to weaker winter insolation. In contrast, over East Asia, sea ice loss slightly decreases the temperature in early winter. These temperature responses are associated with the weakening of mid-high latitude westerlies and polar stratospheric warming. Sea ice loss also weakens the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, although this weakening signal diminishes after 150-200 years of model integration. These results suggest that mid-Holocene climate changes should be interpreted in terms of both Arctic sea ice cover and insolation forcing.