Genetic variations in micro-RNA biogenesis genes and clinical outcomes in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
ABSTRACT: Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Dysregulated expression of miRNA genes have been implicated in the development of many different cancers. We hypothesize that genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis genes may be associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer. We genotyped 76 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight miRNA biogenesis genes in 421 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We analyzed the associations of SNPs with recurrence and progression in all patients as well as stratified by treatment: transurethral resection (TUR) alone or TUR plus intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation. Two SNPs were significantly associated with tumor recurrence in TUR only subgroup after adjustment for multiple comparisons (Q < 0.1). The most significant SNP was rs197412 in DDX20: the variant allele conferred a decreased risk of recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.40-0.82]. This SNP was validated in a separate group of 586 NMIBC patients and the pooled HR was 0.62 (95% CI = 0.48-0.81, P < 0.001). Two linked SNPs (rs2073778 and rs720012) in DGCR8 showed significant association with tumor progression (HR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.53-10.46, P = 0.005). A strong gene-dosage effect was observed with higher risk for tumor recurrence and progression with increasing number of unfavorable genotypes. Haplotype and survival tree analyses further characterized the association of miRNA-related SNPs with tumor recurrence and progression. Taken together, our results indicate that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway may influence bladder cancer clinical outcome in NMIBC patients.
Project description:Glutathione (GSH) is an important molecule involved in cell detoxification and antioxidation and may affect cancer development or outcome. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the GSH pathway might influence the clinical outcome of patients who have non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).A total of 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 GSH pathway genes were genotyped in 414 NMIBC patients treated with transurethral resection alone (TUR) and both TUR and intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation (BCG) therapy. The effect of each SNP on time to recurrence was estimated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Cumulative effect and survival tree analyses were performed to determine the joint effects of unfavorable genotypes and gene-gene interactions on bladder cancer prognosis.Seven SNPs showed significant associations with cancer recurrence in the TUR group and 15 SNPs showed significant associations with recurrence in the BCG group. The most significant SNP in the TUR group was rs3746162 in GPX4, whose variant genotype conferred a 5.4-fold increased risk of recurrence compared with wild-type (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.43, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 2.19-13.46), whereas the most significant SNP in the BCG group was rs7265992 in GSS (HR 3.43, 95 % CI 1.56-7.56). The risk of recurrence increased with the number of unfavorable genotypes in both groups. Within treatment group, stratified analyses by tumor grade also indicated predictive variants.Genetic variants in GSH pathway may influence cancer recurrence in NMIBC patients receiving curative treatment.
Project description:Inflammation plays a critical role in the etiology of several cancers and may affect their clinical outcome. Our objective was to assess the association of genetic variants within the inflammation pathway with recurrence and progression among non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients with or without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment. We genotyped 372 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 27 selected genes within the inflammation pathway in 349 patients diagnosed with NMIBC, followed by internal validation in 322 additional patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to identify SNPs as predictors for recurrence and progression. In the discovery phase, we identified 20 variants that were significantly associated with recurrence outcomes and 15 SNPs significantly associated with progression in patients treated with BCG but not in the transurethral resection (TUR)-only group. In BCG treated patients, rs7089861 was the only SNP significantly associated with risk of progression in both the discovery phase (Hazard Ratio [HR]=3.15, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.38-7.22, P<0.01) and validation phase (HR=3.84, 95% CI: 1.64-9.0, P=0.002; meta-analysis HR=3.47, 95% CI: 1.92-6.28, P<0.001). Two variants, rs1800686 and rs2071081, had probable association with HRs of the same trend in the discovery and validation groups (meta-analysis P=0.002). These findings supported the notion that genetic variation of inflammation pathway may impact clinical outcome of NMIBC patients treated with BCG immunotherapy. Further validation of these results in order to improve risk stratification to identify patients most likely to benefit from BCG treatment versus upfront radical cystectomy and future development of potential targeted therapies are warranted.In a two-stage study, we identified several genetic variants in the inflammation pathway associated with recurrence and progression in early-stage bladder cancer. In particular, variant rs7089861 was validated for progression among patients who underwent BCG immunotherapy. Several other variants showed marginal association with recurrence or progression. These findings suggest that inflammatory pathway genetic variants may influence clinical outcome of bladder cancer patients and help to select patients most appropriate for BCG treatment.
Project description:Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway genetic variations may affect bladder cancer risk and clinical outcomes. Therefore, we genotyped 177 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 Shh pathway genes in a study including 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 controls. We assessed SNP associations with cancer risk and clinical outcomes in 419 cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 318 cases of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (MiMBC). Only three SNPs (GLI3 rs3823720, rs3735361, and rs10951671) reached nominal significance in association with risk (P ? 0.05), which became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Nine SNPs reached a nominally significant individual association with recurrence of NMIBC in patients who received transurethral resection (TUR) only (P ? 0.05), of which two (SHH rs1233560 and GLI2 rs11685068) were replicated independently in 356 TUR-only NMIBC patients, with P values of 1.0 × 10(-3) (SHH rs1233560) and 1.3 × 10(-3) (GLI2 rs11685068). Nine SNPs also reached a nominally significant individual association with clinical outcome of NMIBC patients who received Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG; P ? 0.05), of which two, the independent GLI3 variants rs6463089 and rs3801192, remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (P = 2 × 10(-4) and 9 × 10(-4), respectively). The wild-type genotype of either of these SNPs was associated with a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence-free survival (versus the variants). Although three SNPs (GLI2 rs735557, GLI2 rs4848632, and SHH rs208684) showed nominal significance in association with overall survival in MiMBC patients (P ? 0.05), none remained significant after multiple-comparison adjustments. Germ-line genetic variations in the Shh pathway predicted clinical outcomes of TUR and BCG for NMIBC patients.
Project description:To identify the prognostic factors related to tumor recurrence and progression in Korean patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).Data were collected and analyzed for 2412 NMIBC patients from 15 centers who were initially diagnosed after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) from January 2006 to December 2010. Using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the prognostic value of each variable was evaluated for the time to first recurrence and progression.With a median follow-up duration of 37 months, 866 patients (35.9%) experienced recurrence, and 137 (5.7%) experienced progression. Patients with recurrence had a median time to the first recurrence of 10 months. Multivariable analysis conducted in all patients revealed that preoperative positive urine cytology (PUC) was independently associated with worse recurrence-free survival [RFS; hazard ratio (HR) 1.56; p<0.001], and progression-free survival (PFS; HR 1.56; p=0.037). In particular, on multivariable analysis conducted for the high-risk group (T1 tumor/high-grade Ta tumor/carcinoma in situ), preoperative PUC was an independent predictor of worse RFS (HR 1.73; p<0.001) and PFS (HR 1.96; p=0.006). On multivariable analysis in patients with T1 high-grade (T1HG) cancer (n=684), better RFS (HR 0.75; p=0.033) and PFS (HR 0.33; p<0.001) were observed in association with the administration of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induction therapy.A preoperative PUC result may adversely affect RFS and PFS, particularly in high-risk NMIBC patients. Of particular note, intravesical BCG induction therapy should be administered as an adjunct to TURBT in order to improve RFS and PFS in patients with T1HG cancer.
Project description:Patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) undergo lifelong monitoring based on repeated cystoscopy and urinary cytology due to the high recurrence rate of this tumor. Nevertheless, these techniques have some drawbacks, namely, low accuracy in detection of low-grade tumors, omission of pre-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas in situ (CIS), invasiveness, and high costs. This work aims to identify a urinary metabolomic signature of recurrence by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy for the follow-up of NMIBC patients. To do this, changes in the urinary metabolome before and after transurethral resection (TUR) of tumors are analyzed and a Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed. The usefulness of this discriminant model for the detection of tumor recurrences is assessed using a cohort of patients undergoing monitoring. The trajectories of the metabolomic profile in the follow-up period provide a negative predictive value of 92.7% in the sample classification. Pathway analyses show taurine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and phenylalanine perturbed metabolism associated with NMIBC. These results highlight the potential of 1H NMR metabolomics to detect bladder cancer (BC) recurrences through a non-invasive approach.
Project description:Alterations in the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) pathway have been implicated in several cancers; therefore, the authors investigated the role of such alterations in overall bladder cancer risk, recurrence, progression, and survival.In this case-control series, 803 patients with bladder cancer were frequency-matched with a control cohort of 803 healthy individuals. Ninety-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 RGS genes were investigated for an association with overall bladder cancer risk, recurrence, and progression in patients who had nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and for an association with death in patients who had muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Cumulative effects and classification and regression tree analyses were performed for SNPs that were associated with overall bladder cancer risk. Kaplan-Meier plots were created to evaluate differences in the survival of patients with MIBC.Reference SNP 10759 (rs10759) on the RGS4 gene demonstrated the greatest association with overall bladder cancer risk, conferring a 0.77-fold reduced risk with an increasing number of variant alleles (P < .001). A cumulative effects analysis that included all 5 significant SNPs demonstrated an increasing risk with the number of unfavorable genotypes (odds ratio, 4.13; 95% confidence interval, 2.14-7.98). In patients with NMIBC, 11 SNPs were identified that had an association with disease recurrence, and 13 SNPs were associated with disease progression. Of the 10 SNPs that were associated with death in patients with MIBC, rs2344673 in an additive model was the most significant and was associated with a decreased median survival of 13.3 months compared with 81.9 months in individuals without a variant allele.Genetic variations in the RGS pathway were associated with the overall risk of bladder cancer, recurrence, and progression in patients with NMIBC and with the risk of death in patients with MIBC.
Project description:In urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), risk stratification remains an important unmet need. Limitless self-renewal, governed by TERT expression and telomerase activation, is crucial for cancer progression. Thus, telomerase activation through the interplay of mutations (TERTpMut ) and epigenetic alterations in the TERT promoter may provide further insight into UBC behavior. Here, we investigated the combined effect of TERTpMut and the TERT Hypermethylated Oncological Region (THOR) status on telomerase activation and patient outcome in a UBC international cohort (n = 237). We verified that TERTpMut were frequent (76.8%) and present in all stages and grades of UBC. Hypermethylation of THOR was associated with higher TERT expression and higher-risk disease in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC). TERTpMut alone predicted disease recurrence (HR: 3.18, 95%CI 1.84 to 5.51, p < 0.0001) but not progression in NMIBC. Combined THORhigh /TERTpMut increased the risk of disease recurrence (HR 5.12, p < 0.0001) and progression (HR 3.92, p = 0.025). Increased THOR hypermethylation doubled the risk of stage progression of both TERTpwt and TERTpMut NMIBC. These results highlight that both mechanisms are common and coexist in bladder cancer and while TERTpMut is an early event in bladder carcinogenesis THOR hypermethylation is a dynamic process that contributes to disease progression. While the absence of alterations comprises an extremely indolent phenotype, the combined genetic and epigenetic alterations of TERT bring additional prognostic value in NMIBC and provide a novel insight into telomere biology in cancer.
Project description:In the last few years, susceptibility loci have been identified for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) through candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies. Prognostic relevance of most of these loci is yet unknown. In this study, we used data of the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study (NBCS) to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic relevance of all confirmed UBC susceptibility loci. Detailed clinical data concerning diagnosis, stage, treatment, and disease course of a population-based series of 1,602 UBC patients were collected retrospectively based on a medical file survey. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed, and log-rank tests calculated, to evaluate the association between 12 confirmed UBC susceptibility variants and recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. Among muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, association of these variants with overall survival was tested. Subgroup analyses by tumor aggressiveness and smoking status were performed in NMIBC patients. In the overall NMIBC group (n = 1,269), a statistically significant association between rs9642880 at 8q24 and risk of progression was observed (GT vs. TT: HR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76-1.54), GG vs. TT: HR = 1.81 (95% CI: 1.23-2.66), P for trend = 2.6 × 10(-3)). In subgroup analyses, several other variants showed suggestive, though non-significant, prognostic relevance for recurrence and progression in NMIBC and survival in MIBC. This study provides suggestive evidence that genetic loci involved in UBC etiology may influence disease prognosis. Elucidation of the causal variant(s) could further our understanding of the mechanism of disease, could point to new therapeutic targets, and might aid in improvement of prognostic tools.
Project description:Background:High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods:A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1?year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG) were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results:Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1?year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions:This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.