Rituximab maintenance therapy after autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with relapsed CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final analysis of the collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). The impact of maintenance rituximab after ASCT is not known.In total, 477 patients with CD20(+) DLBCL who were in their first relapse or refractory to initial therapy were randomly assigned to one of two salvage regimens. After three cycles of salvage chemotherapy, the responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT. Then, 242 patients were randomly assigned to either rituximab every 2 months for 1 year or observation.After ASCT, 122 patients received rituximab, and 120 patients were observed only. The median follow-up time was 44 months. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rates after ASCT were 52% and 53% for the rituximab and observation groups, respectively (P = .7). Treatment with rituximab was associated with a 15% attributable risk of serious adverse events after day 100, with more deaths (six deaths v three deaths in the observation arm). Several factors affected EFS after ASCT (P < .05), including relapsed disease within 12 months (EFS: 46% v 56% for relapsed disease after 12 months), secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (saaIPI) more than 1 (EFS: 37% v 61% for saaIPI < 1), and prior treatment with rituximab (EFS: 47% v 59% for no prior rituximab). A significant difference in EFS between women (63%) and men (46%) was also observed in the rituximab group. In the Cox model for maintenance, the saaIPI was a significant prognostic factor (P < .001), as was male sex (P = .01).In relapsed DLBCL, we observed no difference between the control group and the rituximab maintenance group and do not recommend rituximab after ASCT.
Project description:Salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Salvage regimens have never been compared; their efficacy in the rituximab era is unknown.Patients with CD20(+) DLBCL in first relapse or who were refractory after first-line therapy were randomly assigned to either rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and carboplatin (R-ICE) or rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP). Responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT.The median age of the 396 patients enrolled (R-ICE, n = 202; R-DHAP, n = 194) was 55 years. Similar response rates were observed after three cycles of R-ICE (63.5%; 95% CI, 56% to 70%) and R-DHAP (62.8%; 95 CI, 55% to 69%). Factors affecting response rates (P < .001) were refractory disease/relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (46% v 88%, respectively), International Prognostic Index (IPI) of more than 1 versus 0 to 1 (52% v 71%, respectively), and prior rituximab treatment versus no prior rituximab (51% v 83%, respectively). There was no significant difference between R-ICE and R-DHAP for 3-year event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival. Three-year EFS was affected by prior rituximab treatment versus no rituximab (21% v 47%, respectively), relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (20% v 45%, respectively), and IPI of 2 to 3 versus 0 to 1 (18% v 40%, respectively). In the Cox model, these parameters were significant (P < .001).In patients who experience relapse more than 12 months after diagnosis, prior rituximab treatment does not affect EFS. Patients with early relapses after rituximab-containing first-line therapy have a poor prognosis, with no difference between the effects of R-ICE and R-DHAP.
Project description:Positron emission tomography using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) has emerged as the standard response assessment tool in frontline therapy for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The ability of FDG-PET to predict outcomes in patients with relapsed cHL treated with modern standard salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains uncertain. Forty-six patients with relapsed/refractory cHL treated from 2001 to 2007 with standard salvage/ASCT therapy had FDG-PET available for blinded review. The results of pre-ASCT FDG-PET interpreted by the international harmonization project (IHP) criteria were compared with published prognostic models for prediction of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Overall, 3-year EFS was 62% and OS was 78%, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Pre-ASCT FDG-PET response significantly predicted 3-year EFS in FDG-PET-negative (82%) versus FDG-PET-positive (41%) patients (P = .02). A trend was observed for 3-year OS comparing FDG-PET-negative (91%) versus -positive (64%) patients (P = .08). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the independent prognostic significance of pre-ASCT FDG-PET for EFS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.2 (confidence interval [CI] 1.1-9.0, P = .03). Pre-ASCT FDG-PET scans predict EFS in patients with relapsed cHL patients treated with modern salvage/ASCT therapy and warrant prospective evaluation.
Project description:Rituximab-containing salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in chemosensitive patients remains the standard of care for patients with relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, its role in those patients achieving less than a complete response to first-line therapy (primary refractory disease) in the rituximab era is not well defined. We reviewed the outcomes of 82 transplant-eligible patients with primary refractory DLBCL who underwent salvage therapy with the intent of administering high-dose therapy and ASCT to patients achieving chemosensitive remission. The estimated 3-year overall and progression-free survival for all patients was 38% and 29%, respectively, and 65% and 60% respectively for patients proceeding to stem cell transplant. Long-term remission was achieved in 45% of patients achieving a partial response (PR) to initial induction therapy and <20% of patients with stable or progression of disease following initial therapy. These results suggest that salvage chemotherapy with the intent of subsequent high-dose therapy and ASCT remains a feasible strategy in certain patients with primary refractory DLBCL, particularly for those achieving a PR to frontline therapy. The primary barrier to curative therapy in patients with primary refractory disease is resistance to salvage therapy, and future studies should be aimed towards increasing the response rate in this population.
Project description:The conditional survival of patients after frontline therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) approaches that of the general population once patients have survived disease free for 2 years. We sought to determine the conditional survival of patients among patients with relapsed de novo DLBCL successfully undergoing an autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT) after first relapse. A total of 478 patients with de novo DLBCL, relapsed after 1 treatment from the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma (CORAL) and LY.12, were included. Patients were followed prospectively after ASCT for a median of 5.3 and 8.2 years, respectively. Individual patient data were analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated using French and Canadian life tables. The EFS estimates declined with each year of follow-up after ASCT and were 50.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.7% to 56.3%) and 43.4% (95% CI: 36.7% to 49.9%) at 5 years in CORAL and LY.12, respectively. The rate of death stabilized once patients achieved at least 4 years of EFS. Compared with the age- and sex-matched population, the SMR was significantly higher until 5 years after ASCT, when values were no longer statistically significant. Patients undergoing ASCT for relapsed DLBCL continue to have a higher rate of death at least until they have survived event free for 5 years. These observations can help to determine endpoints for future clinical trials in this population and for patient counseling. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00078949.
Project description:We report the long-term results of integrated accelerated involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) followed by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as part of the high-dose salvage regimen followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation or autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).From November 1985 to July 2008, 186 previously unirradiated patients with relapsed or refractory HL underwent salvage therapy on 4 consecutive institutional review board-approved protocols. All patients had biopsy-proven primary refractory or relapsed HL. After standard-dose salvage chemotherapy (SC), accelerated IFRT (18-20 Gy) was given to relapsed or refractory sites, followed by TLI (15-18 Gy) and high-dose chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed by Cox analysis and disease-specific survival (DSS) by competing-risk regression.With a median follow-up period of 57 months among survivors, 5- and 10-year OS rates were 68% and 56%, respectively; 5- and 10-year EFS rates were 62% and 56%, respectively; and 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of HL-related deaths were 21% and 29%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, complete response to SC was independently associated with improved OS and EFS. Primary refractory disease and extranodal disease were independently associated with poor DSS. Eight patients had grade 3 or higher cardiac toxicity, with 3 deaths. Second malignancies developed in 10 patients, 5 of whom died.Accelerated IFRT followed by TLI and high-dose chemotherapy is an effective, feasible, and safe salvage strategy for patients with relapsed or refractory HL with excellent long-term OS, EFS, and DSS. Complete response to SC is the most important prognostic factor.
Project description:Identification of prognostic factors for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is essential for optimizing therapy with risk-adapted approaches. In our phase 2 study of positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted salvage therapy with brentuximab vedotin (BV) and augmented ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (augICE), we assessed clinical factors, quantitative PET assessments, and cytokine and chemokine values. Transplant-eligible patients with relapsed/refractory HL received 2 (cohort 1) or 3 (cohort 2) cycles of weekly BV; PET-negative patients (Deauville score ?2) proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) whereas PET-positive patients received augICE before ASCT. Serum cytokine and chemokine levels were measured at baseline and after BV. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis were measured at baseline, after BV, and after augICE. Sixty-five patients enrolled (45, cohort 1; 20, cohort 2); 49 (75%) achieved complete response and 64 proceeded to ASCT. Three-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) were 95% and 82%, respectively. Factors predictive for EFS by multivariable analysis were baseline MTV (bMTV) (P < .001) and refractory disease (P = .003). Low bMTV (<109.5 cm3) and relapsed disease identified a favorable group (3-year EFS, 100%). For patients who received a transplant, bMTV and pre-ASCT PET were independently prognostic; 3-year EFS for pre-ASCT PET-positive patients with low bMTV was 86%. In this phase 2 study of PET-adapted therapy with BV and augICE for relapsed/refractory HL, bMTV and refractory disease were independent prognostic factors for EFS. Furthermore, bMTV improved the predictive power of pre-ASCT PET. Future studies should optimize efficacy and tolerability of salvage therapy by stratifying patients according to risk factors such as bMTV.
Project description:Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are treated with salvage regimens and may be considered for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation if disease is chemosensitive. Bendamustine is active in indolent B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia but has not been extensively studied in aggressive lymphomas. This trial examines the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with relapsed and refractory DLBCL. Patients received bendamustine at 90 mg/m² (n?=?2) or 120 mg/m² (n?=?57) on days 1 and 2 and rituximab at 375 mg/m² on day 1 every 28 days for up to 6 cycles. The study evaluated objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and treatment safety. Fifty-nine patients were treated, and 48 were evaluable for response. Median age was 74; 89 % had stage III or IV disease, and 63 % had high revised International Prognostic Index scores; the median number of prior therapies was 1. Based on analysis using the intent-to-treat population, the ORR was 45.8 % (complete response, 15.3 %; partial response, 30.5 %). The median DOR was 17.3 months, and the median PFS was 3.6 months. Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities included neutropenia (36 %), leukopenia (29 %), thrombocytopenia (22 %), and anemia (12 %). The combination of bendamustine and rituximab showed modest activity in patients with relapsed and refractory DLBCL and has an acceptable toxicity profile.
Project description:Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is standard of care for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have relapsed/refractory disease after frontline chemotherapy. Achievement of complete remission (CR) with pre-ASCT salvage chemotherapy predicts favorable outcomes post-ASCT. This phase 1/2 study evaluated the combination of brentuximab vedotin (BV) plus bendamustine as a first salvage regimen in relapsed/refractory HL. A total of 55 patients (28 primary refractory and 27 relapsed) were enrolled. Patients received BV (1.8 mg/kg) on day 1 and bendamustine (90 mg/m2) on days 1 and 2 of a 21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles. Patients could undergo ASCT any time after cycle 2. Following ASCT or completion of combination therapy if not proceeding to ASCT, patients could receive BV monotherapy for up to 16 cycles of total therapy. After a median of 2 cycles of combination therapy (range, 1-6), the objective response rate among 53 efficacy-evaluable patients was 92.5%, with 39 patients (73.6%) achieving CR. Forty patients underwent ASCT. Thirty-one patients (25 of whom underwent ASCT) received BV monotherapy (median, 10 cycles; range, 1-14). After a median of 20.9 months of follow-up, the estimated 2-year progression-free survival was 69.8% and 62.6% for patients who received ASCT and all patients, respectively. Thirty-one patients (56.4%) experienced infusion-related reactions (IRRs), with a majority occurring during cycle 2 of combination therapy. A protocol amendment requiring premedication reduced IRR severity. BV plus bendamustine as first salvage therapy in relapsed/refractory HL is highly active with a manageable toxicity profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01874054.
Project description:Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell malignancy representing approximately one in ten lymphomas diagnosed in the United States annually. The majority of patients with HL can be cured with chemotherapy; however, 5-10% will have refractory disease to front-line therapy and 10-30% will relapse. For those with relapsed or refractory (r/r) HL, salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is standard of care, but half of patients will subsequently have disease progression. Relapse following ASCT has been associated with exceedingly poor prognosis with a median survival of only 26 months. However, in recent years, novel agents including brentuximab vedotin (BV) and programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab) have been shown to extend overall survival in r/r HL. With the success of novel agents in relapsed disease after ASCT, these therapies are beginning to show clinically meaningful response rates prior to ASCT. Finally, a new investigation in r/r HL continues to produce promising treatment options even after ASCT including CD30 directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances of BV and anti-PD-1 therapy prior to ASCT, novel approaches in r/r HL after ASCT, and review active clinical trials.
Project description:Despite the relatively high long-term disease-free survival (DFS) rate for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with modern combination chemotherapy or combined modality regimens, ?20% of patients die from progressive or relapsed disease. The standard treatment for relapsed and primary refractory HL is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), which has shown a 5-year progression-free survival rate of ?50%-60%. Recent developments in a number of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have begun to improve these results. Functional imaging, refinement of clinical prognostic factors, and development of novel biomarkers have improved the predictive algorithms, allowing better patient selection and timing for ASCT. In addition, these algorithms have begun to identify a group of patients who are candidates for more aggressive treatment beyond standard ASCT. Novel salvage regimens may potentially improve the rate of complete remission prior to ASCT, and the use of maintenance therapy after ASCT has become a subject of current investigation. We present a summary of developments in each of these areas.