Beyond the binding site: in vivo identification of tbx2, smarca5 and wnt5b as molecular targets of CNBP during embryonic development.
ABSTRACT: CNBP is a nucleic acid chaperone implicated in vertebrate craniofacial development, as well as in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) human muscle diseases. CNBP is highly conserved among vertebrates and has been implicated in transcriptional regulation; however, its DNA binding sites and molecular targets remain elusive. The main goal of this work was to identify CNBP DNA binding sites that might reveal target genes involved in vertebrate embryonic development. To accomplish this, we used a recently described yeast one-hybrid assay to identify DNA sequences bound in vivo by CNBP. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these sequences are G-enriched and show high frequency of putative G-quadruplex DNA secondary structure. Moreover, an in silico approach enabled us to establish the CNBP DNA-binding site and to predict CNBP putative targets based on gene ontology terms and synexpression with CNBP. The direct interaction between CNBP and candidate genes was proved by EMSA and ChIP assays. Besides, the role of CNBP upon the identified genes was validated in loss-of-function experiments in developing zebrafish. We successfully confirmed that CNBP up-regulates tbx2b and smarca5, and down-regulates wnt5b gene expression. The highly stringent strategy used in this work allowed us to identify new CNBP target genes functionally important in different contexts of vertebrate embryonic development. Furthermore, it represents a novel approach toward understanding the biological function and regulatory networks involving CNBP in the biology of vertebrates.
Project description:Guanine-rich DNA strands can fold into non-canonical four-stranded secondary structures named G-quadruplexes (G4). Experimental evidences suggest that G4-DNA surrounding transcription start sites act as cis-regulatory elements by either stimulating or inhibiting gene transcription. Therefore, proteins able to target and regulate specific G4 formation/unfolding are crucial for G4-mediated transcriptional control. Here we present data revealing that CNBP acts in vitro as a G4-unfolding protein over a tetramolecular G4 formed by the TG4T oligonucleotide, as well as over the G4 folded in the promoters of several oncogenes. CNBP depletion in cellulo led to a reduction in the transcription of endogenous KRAS, suggesting a regulatory role of CNBP in relieving the transcriptional abrogation due to G4 formation. CNBP activity was also assayed over the evolutionary conserved G4 enhancing the transcription of NOGGIN (NOG) developmental gene. CNBP unfolded in vitro NOG G4 and experiments performed in cellulo and in vivo in developing zebrafish showed a repressive role of CNBP on the transcription of this gene by G4 unwinding. Our results shed light on the mechanisms underlying CNBP way of action, as well as reinforce the notion about the existence and function of G4s in whole living organisms.
Project description:An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is a hallmark of antimicrobial defenses. Recently, cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) was identified as a regulator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B)-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Here, we generated mice lacking CNBP and found that CNBP regulates a very restricted gene signature that includes IL-12?. CNBP resides in the cytosol of macrophages and translocates to the nucleus in response to diverse microbial pathogens and pathogen-derived products. <i>Cnbp</i>-deficient macrophages induced canonical NF-?B/Rel signaling normally but were impaired in their ability to control the activation of c-Rel, a key driver of IL-12? gene transcription. The nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of c-Rel required CNBP. Lastly, <i>Cnbp</i>-deficient mice were more susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis associated with reduced production of IL-12?, as well as a reduced T helper type 1 (Th1) cell IFN-? response essential to controlling parasite replication. Collectively, these findings identify CNBP as important regulator of c-Rel-dependent IL-12? gene transcription and Th1 immunity.
Project description:The transcription of inflammatory genes is an essential step in host defense activation. Here, we show that cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) acts as a transcription regulator that is required for activating the innate immune response. We identified specific CNBP-binding motifs present in the promoter region of sustained inflammatory cytokines, thus, directly inducing the expression of target genes. In particular, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cnbp expression through an NF-?B-dependent manner and a positive autoregulatory mechanism, which enables prolonged il-6 gene expression. This event depends strictly on LPS-induced CNBP nuclear translocation through phosphorylation-mediated dimerization. Consequently, cnbp-depleted zebrafish are highly susceptible to Shigella flexneri infection in vivo. Collectively, these observations identify CNBP as a key transcriptional regulator required for activating and maintaining the immune response.
Project description:Although a CCTG expansion in the gene encoding the zinc knuckle protein CNBP causes a common form of muscular dystrophy, the function of both human CNBP and its putative budding yeast ortholog Gis2 remain poorly understood. Here we report the protein interactions of Gis2 and the subcellular locations of both Gis2 and CNBP. We found that Gis2 exhibits RNA-dependent interactions with two proteins involved in mRNA recognition, the poly(A) binding protein and the translation initiation factor eIF4G. We show that Gis2 is a component of two large RNA-protein granules, processing bodies and stress granules, which contain translationally repressed mRNAs. Consistent with a functional ortholog, CNBP also associates with the poly(A) binding protein and accumulates in stress granules during arsenite treatment of human cells. These results implicate both Gis2 and CNBP in mRNA handling during stress.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a significant fraction of the transcriptome, playing important roles in development and disease. However, our understanding of structure-function relationships for this emerging class of RNAs has been limited to secondary structures. Here, we report the 3-D atomistic structural study of epigenetic lncRNA, Braveheart (Bvht), and its complex with CNBP (Cellular Nucleic acid Binding Protein). Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we elucidate the ensemble of Bvht RNA conformations in solution, revealing that Bvht lncRNA has a well-defined, albeit flexible 3-D structure that is remodeled upon CNBP binding. Our study suggests that CNBP binding requires multiple domains of Bvht and the RHT/AGIL RNA motif. We show that RHT/AGIL, previously shown to interact with CNBP, contains a highly flexible loop surrounded by more ordered helices. As one of the largest RNA-only 3-D studies, the work lays the foundation for future structural studies of lncRNA-protein complexes.
Project description:Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital disease (1:50?000 live births) characterized by craniofacial defects, including hypoplasia of facial bones, cleft palate and palpebral fissures. Over 90% of the cases are due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which codifies the nucleolar protein Treacle. Here we report a novel TCS-like zebrafish model displaying features that fully recapitulate the spectrum of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients. As it was reported for a Tcof1+/- mouse model, Treacle depletion in zebrafish caused reduced rRNA transcription, stabilization of Tp53 and increased cell death in the cephalic region. An increase of ROS along with the overexpression of redox-responsive genes was detected; furthermore, treatment with antioxidants ameliorated the phenotypic defects of craniofacial anomalies in TCS-like larvae. On the other hand, Treacle depletion led to a lowering in the abundance of Cnbp, a protein required for proper craniofacial development. Tcof1 knockdown in transgenic zebrafish overexpressing cnbp resulted in barely affected craniofacial cartilage development, reinforcing the notion that Cnbp has a role in the pathogenesis of TCS. The cnbp overexpression rescued the TCS phenotype in a dose-dependent manner by a ROS-cytoprotective action that prevented the redox-responsive genes' upregulation but did not normalize the synthesis of rRNAs. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of CNBP and TCOF1 in mesenchymal cells from both control and TCS subjects was found. Based on this, we suggest CNBP as an additional target for new alternative therapeutic treatments to reduce craniofacial defects not only in TCS but also in other neurocristopathies.
Project description:Cyclin D1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and works at the G1 to S-phase transition. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the novel c-Myc-regulated lncRNA LAST (LncRNA-Assisted Stabilization of Transcripts), which acts as a CCND1 mRNA stabilizer. Mechanistically, LAST was shown to cooperate with CNBP to bind to the 5'UTR of CCND1 mRNA to protect against possible nuclease targeting. In addition, data from CNBP RIP-seq and LAST RNA-seq showed that CCND1 mRNA might not be the only target of LAST and CNBP; three additional mRNAs were shown to be post-transcriptional targets of LAST and CNBP. In a xenograft model, depletion of LAST diminished and ectopic expression of LAST induced tumor formation, which are suggestive of its oncogenic function. We thus report a previously unknown lncRNA involved in the fine-tuned regulation of CCND1 mRNA stability, without which CCND1 exhibits, at most, partial expression.
Project description:Gene family encoding cellular nucleic acid binding proteins (CNBP) is well conserved among vertebrates; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, a CNBP homolog from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii was characterised. The full-length cDNA of PcCNBP was of 1257 bp with a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63 bp and a 3'-UTR of 331 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open-reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp encoding a polypeptide of 287 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of about 33 kDa. The predicted protein possesses 7 tandem repeats of 14 amino acids containing the CCHC zinc finger consensus sequence, two RGG-rich single-stranded RNA-binding domain and a nuclear localization signal, strongly suggesting that PcCNBP was a homolog of vertebrate CNBP. The PcCNBP transcript was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of unchallenged crayfish, including hepatopancreas, gill, eyestalk, haemocytes, intestine, stomach and cuticle with highest expression in haemocytes, intestine, gills and hepatopancreas. The mRNA expression of PcCNBP in haemocytes was modulated at transcriptional level by different immune challenges, suggesting its involvement in the immune response of P. clarkii during both bacteria and viruses infection.
Project description:High-throughput RNA-IP sequencing was employed to identify the CNBP binding mRNAs and their binding sites in HCT116 cells. Overall design: In order to identify the CNBP binding mRNAs and their binding sites, we performed CNBP RIP and High-throughput sequencing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a subclass of non-coding RNAs, play essential roles in tumorigenesis and aggressiveness. Our previous study has identified that circAGO2 drives gastric cancer progression through activating human antigen R (HuR), a protein stabilizing AU-rich element-containing mRNAs. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs derived from HuR in gastric cancer progression remain elusive. METHODS:CircRNAs derived from HuR were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and validated by Sanger sequencing. Biotin-labeled RNA pull-down, mass spectrometry, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA electrophoretic mobility shift, and in vitro binding assays were applied to identify proteins interacting with circRNA. Gene expression regulation was observed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase assay, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot assays. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to observe the impacts of circRNA and its protein partner on the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:Circ-HuR (hsa_circ_0049027) was predominantly detected in the nucleus, and was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of circ-HuR suppressed the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circ-HuR interacted with CCHC-type zinc finger nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP), and subsequently restrained its binding to HuR promoter, resulting in down-regulation of HuR and repression of tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS:Circ-HuR serves as a tumor suppressor to inhibit CNBP-facilitated HuR expression and gastric cancer progression, indicating a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.