The Three-Species Consortium of Genetically Improved Strains Cupriavidus necator RW112, Burkholderia xenovorans RW118, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes RW120 Grows with Technical Polychlorobiphenyl, Aroclor 1242.
ABSTRACT: Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Cupriavidus necator H850, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 are bacterial strains able to mineralize biphenyl and to co-oxidize many of its halogenated derivatives (PCBs). Only strain LB400 also mineralizes a few mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, due to the presence of a functioning chlorocatechol pathway. Here, we used a Tn5-based minitransposon shuttle system to chromosomically introduce genes tcbRCDEF, encoding the chlorocatechol pathway into KF707, and genes cbdABC encoding a 2-chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase into KF707 and LB400, as well as transposon Tn4653 from the TOL plasmid, providing genes xylXYZL, encoding a broad-range toluate (methylbenzoate) dioxygenase and its dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, to extend the range for the mineralization of halogenated benzoates in LB400 and in KF707 through co-oxidation of halobenzoates into chlorocatechols. The engineered derivatives of LB400 and KF707 thus gained the ability for the mineralization of all isomeric monochloro- and bromobenzoates of the so-called lower pathway which, consequently, also allowed the mineralization of all monochlorobiphenyls and a number of di- and trichlorobiphenyls, thus preventing the accumulation of halobenzoates and of catabolites thereof. LB400 and KF707 also grow with the two commercial PCB formulations, Aroclor 1221 and Aroclor 1232, as the sole carbon and energy sources, but not with higher halogenated PCB mixtures, similar to the already published strain RW112. Repeated exposition of the modified LB400 to short pulses of UV light, over a prolonged period of time, allowed the isolation of a derivative of LB400, termed RW118, capable of growth with Aroclor 1016 still containing only traces of biphenyl, and in co-culture with modified KF707 termed RW120, and modified H850 (RW112) with Aroclor 1242, the commercial mixture already void of biphenyl and monochlorobiphenyls.
Project description:Biphenyl dioxygenase catalyzes the first step in the aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenases from two PCB-degrading strains (Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707) were compared. The sequences were found to be nearly identical, yet these enzymes exhibited dramatically different substrate specificities for PCBs. Site-directed mutagenesis of the LB400 bphA gene resulted in an enzyme combining the broad congener specificity of LB400 with increased activity against several congeners characteristic of KF707. These data strongly suggest that the BphA subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase plays an important role in determining substrate selectivity. Further alteration of this enzyme can be used to develop a greater understanding of the structural basis for congener specificity and to broaden the range of degradable PCB congeners.
Project description:The biphenyl dioxygenases (BP Dox) of strains Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Pseudomonas cepacia LB400 exhibit a distinct difference in substrate ranges of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) despite nearly identical amino acid sequences. The range of congeners oxidized by LB400 BP Dox is much wider than that oxidized by KF707 BP Dox. The PCB degradation abilities of these BP Dox were highly dependent on the recognition of the chlorinated rings and the sites of oxygen activation. The KF707 BP Dox recognized primarily the 4'-chlorinated ring (97%) of 2,5,4'-trichlorobiphenyl and introduced molecular oxygen at the 2',3' position. The LB400 BP Dox recognized primarily the 2,5-dichlorinated ring (95%) of the same compound and introduced O2 at the 3,4 position. It was confirmed that the BphA1 subunit (iron-sulfur protein of terminal dioxygenase encoded by bphA1) plays a crucial role in determining the substrate selectivity. We constructed a variety of chimeric bphA1 genes by exchanging four common restriction fragments between the KF707 bphA1 and the LB400 bphA1. Observation of Escherichia coli cells expressing various chimeric BP Dox revealed that a relatively small number of amino acids in the carboxy-terminal half (among 20 different amino acids in total) are involved in the recognition of the chlorinated ring and the sites of dioxygenation and thereby are responsible for the degradation of PCB. The site-directed mutagenesis of Thr-376 (KF707) to Asn-376 (LB400) in KF707 BP Dox resulted in the expansion of the range of biodegradable PCB congeners.
Project description:Psychrotolerant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria were isolated at 7 degreesC from PCB-contaminated Arctic soil by using biphenyl as the sole organic carbon source. These isolates were distinguished from each other by differences in substrates that supported growth and substrates that were oxidized. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences suggest that these isolates are most closely related to the genus Pseudomonas. Total removal of Aroclor 1242, and rates of removal of selected PCB congeners, by cell suspensions of Arctic soil isolates and the mesophile Burkholderia cepacia LB400 were determined at 7, 37, and 50 degreesC. Total removal values of Aroclor 1242 at 7 degreesC by LB400 and most Arctic soil isolates were similar (between 2 and 3.5 &mgr;g of PCBs per mg of cell protein). However the rates of removal of some individual PCB congeners by Arctic isolates were up to 10 times higher than corresponding rates of removal by LB400. Total removal of Aroclor 1242 and the rates of removal of individual congeners by the Arctic soil bacteria were higher at 37 degreesC than at 7 degreesC but as much as 90% lower at 50 degreesC than at 37 degreesC. In contrast, rates of PCB removal by LB400 were higher at 50 degreesC than at 37 degreesC. In all cases, temperature did not affect the congener specificity of the bacteria. These observations suggest that the PCB-degrading enzyme systems of the bacteria isolated from Arctic soil are cold adapted.
Project description:We investigated induction of biphenyl dioxygenase in the psychrotolerant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader Pseudomonas strain Cam-1 and in the mesophilic PCB degrader Burkholderia strain LB400. Using a counterselectable gene replacement vector, we inserted a lacZ-Gm(r) fusion cassette between chromosomal genes encoding the large subunit (bphA) and small subunit (bphE) of biphenyl dioxygenase in Cam-1 and LB400, generating Cam-10 and LB400-1, respectively. Potential inducers of bphA were added to cell suspensions of Cam-10 and LB400-1 incubated at 30 degrees C, and then beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately six times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. In contrast, the beta-galactosidase activities in LB400-1 incubated with biphenyl and in LB400-1 incubated with pyruvate were indistinguishable. At a concentration of 1 mM, most of the 40 potential inducers tested were inhibitory to induction by biphenyl of beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10. The exceptions were naphthalene, salicylate, 2-chlorobiphenyl, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, which induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10, although at levels that were no more than 30% of the levels induced by biphenyl. After incubation for 24 h at 7 degrees C, biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately four times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. The constitutive level of beta-galactosidase activity in LB400-1 grown at 15 degrees C was approximately five times less than the level in LB400-1 grown at 30 degrees C. Thus, there are substantial differences in the effects of physical and chemical environmental conditions on genetic regulation of PCB degradation in different bacteria.
Project description:Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400, which possesses the biphenyl pathway, was engineered to contain the oxygenolytic ortho dehalogenation (ohb) operon, allowing it to grow on 2-chlorobenzoate and to completely mineralize 2-chlorobiphenyl. A two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment process for Aroclor 1242-contaminated sediment was simulated, and the degradation activities and genetic stabilities of LB400(ohb) and the previously constructed strain RHA1(fcb), capable of growth on 4-chlorobenzoate, were monitored during the aerobic phase. The population dynamics of both strains were also followed by selective plating and real-time PCR, with comparable results; populations of both recombinants increased in the contaminated sediment. Inoculation at different cell densities (10(4) or 10(6) cells g(-1) sediment) did not affect the extent of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation. After 30 days, PCB removal rates for high and low inoculation densities were 57% and 54%, respectively, during the aerobic phase.
Project description:Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil.
Project description:Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.
Project description:Biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) catalyzes the aerobic transformation of biphenyl and various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In three different assays, BPDO(B356) from Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 was a more potent PCB-degrading enzyme than BPDO(LB400) from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (75% amino acid sequence identity), transforming nine congeners in the following order of preference: 2,3',4-trichloro approximately 2,3,4'-trichloro > 3,3'-dichloro > 2,4,4'-trichloro > 4,4'-dichloro approximately 2,2'-dichloro > 2,6-dichloro > 2,2',3,3'-tetrachloro approximately 2,2',5,5'-tetrachloro. Except for 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, BPDO(B356) transformed each congener at a higher rate than BPDO(LB400). The assays used either whole cells or purified enzymes and either individual congeners or mixtures of congeners. Product analyses established previously unrecognized BPDO(B356) activities, including the 3,4-dihydroxylation of 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl. BPDO(LB400) had a greater apparent specificity for biphenyl than BPDO(B356) (k(cat)/K(m) = 2.4 x 10(6) +/- 0.7 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) versus k(cat)/K(m) = 0.21 x 10(6) +/- 0.04 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). However, the latter transformed biphenyl at a higher maximal rate (k(cat) = 4.1 +/- 0.2 s(-1) versus k(cat) = 0.4 +/- 0.1 s(-1)). A variant of BPDO(LB400) containing four active site residues of BPDO(B356) transformed para-substituted congeners better than BPDO(LB400). Interestingly, a substitution remote from the active site, A267S, increased the enzyme's preference for meta-substituted congeners. Moreover, this substitution had a greater effect on the kinetics of biphenyl utilization than substitutions in the substrate-binding pocket. In all variants, the degree of coupling between congener depletion and O(2) consumption was approximately proportional to congener depletion. At 2.4-A resolution, the crystal structure of the BPDO(B356)-2,6-dichlorobiphenyl complex, the first crystal structure of a BPDO-PCB complex, provided additional insight into the reactivity of this isozyme with this congener, as well as into the differences in congener preferences of the BPDOs.
Project description:The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium, Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, was capable of transforming three hydroxylated derivatives of 2,5-dichlorobiphenyl (2,5-DCB) (2'-hydroxy- (2'-OH-), 3'-OH-, and 4'-OH-2,5-DCB) when biphenyl was used as the carbon source (i.e., biphenyl pathway-inducing condition), although only 2'-OH-2,5-DCB was transformed when the bacterium was growing on succinate (i.e., condition non-inductive of the biphenyl pathway). On the contrary, hydroyxlated derivatives of 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4,6-TCB) (2'-OH-, 3'-OH-, and 4'-OH-2,4,6-TCB) were not significantly transformed by B. xenovorans LB400, regardless of the carbon source used. Gene expression analyses showed a clear correlation between the transformation of OH-2,5-DCBs and expression of genes of the biphenyl pathway. The PCB metabolite, 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,5-DCBA), was produced following the transformation of OH-2,5-DCBs. 2,5-DCBA was not further transformed by B. xenovorans LB400. The present study is significant because it provides evidence that PCB-degrading bacteria are capable of transforming hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs, which are increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants.
Project description:Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 is a soil polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader, able to grow both planktonically and as a biofilm in the presence of various toxic metals and metalloids. Here we report the genome sequence (5,957,359 bp) of P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707, which provides insights into metabolic degradation pathways, flagellar motility, and chemotaxis.