Mutations to essential orphan response regulator HP1043 of Helicobacter pylori result in growth-stage regulatory defects.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori establishes lifelong infections of the gastric mucosa, a niche considered hostile to most microbes. While responses to gastric acidity and local inflammation are understood, little is known as to how they are integrated into homeostatic control of cell division and growth-stage gene expression. Here we investigate the essential orphan response regulator HP1043, a member of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily of transcriptional regulators that is unique to the Epsilonproteobacteria and that lacks phosphorylation domains. To test the hypothesis that conformational changes in the homodimer might lead to defects in gene expression, we sought mutations that might alter DNA-binding efficiency. Two introduced mutations (C215S, C221S) C terminal to the DNA-binding domain of HP1043 (HP1043CC11) resulted in a 2-fold higher affinity for its own promoter by footprinting. Modeling studies with the crystal structure of HP1043 suggested that C215S might affect the helix-turn-helix domain. Genomic replacement of the hp1043 allele with the hp1043CC11 mutant allele resulted in a 2-fold decrease in protein levels, despite a dramatic increase in mRNA. The mutations did not affect in vitro growth rates or colonization efficiency in a mouse model. Proteomic profiling (CC11 mutant strain versus wild type) identified many expression differences, and quantitative PCR further revealed that 11 out of 12 examined genes had lost growth-stage regulation and that 6 of the genes contained HP1043 binding consensus sequences within the promoter regions (fur, cagA, cag23, flhA, flip, and napA). Our studies show that mutations that affect DNA-binding affinity can be used to identify new members of the HP1043 regulon.
Project description:The response regulator VicR from the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis forms part of the two-component signal transduction system of the YycFG subfamily. The structure of the DNA-binding domain of VicR, VicR(c), has been solved and belongs to the winged helix-turn-helix family. It is very similar to the DNA-binding domains of Escherichia coli PhoB and OmpR, despite low sequence similarity, but differs in two important loops. The alpha-loop, which links the two helices of the helix-turn-helix motif, is similar to that of PhoB, where it has been implicated in contacting the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase, but differs from that of OmpR. Conversely, the loop following the helix-turn-helix motif is similar to that of OmpR and differs from that of PhoB. YycF/VicR, PhoB and Bacillus subtilis PhoP regulators all recognize almost identical DNA sequences and although there is currently no experimental evidence linking this loop with the DNA, the structure is consistent with possible involvement in selective DNA recognition or binding.
Project description:The structure of MtrA, an essential gene product for the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 A. MtrA is a member of the OmpR/PhoB family of response regulators and represents the fourth family member for which a structure of the protein in its inactive state has been determined. As is true for all OmpR/PhoB family members, MtrA possesses an N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain, with phosphorylation of the regulatory domain modulating the activity of the protein. In the inactive form of MtrA, these two domains form an extensive interface that is composed of the alpha4-beta5-alpha5 face of the regulatory domain and the C-terminal end of the positioning helix, the trans-activation loop, and the recognition helix of the DNA-binding domain. This domain orientation suggests a mechanism of mutual inhibition by the two domains. Activation of MtrA would require a disruption of this interface to allow the alpha4-beta5-alpha5 face of the regulatory domain to form the intermolecule interactions that are associated with the active state and to allow the recognition helix to interact with DNA. Furthermore, the interface appears to stabilize the inactive conformation of MtrA, potentially reducing the rate of phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain. This combination of effects may form a switch, regulating the activity of MtrA. The domain orientation exhibited by MtrA also provides a rationale for the variation in linker length that is observed within the OmpR/PhoB family of response regulators.
Project description:The PhoR/PhoB two-component system is a key regulatory protein network enabling Escherichia coli to respond to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions by turning on Pho regulon genes for more efficient Pi uptake and use of alternative phosphorus sources. Under environmental Pi depletion, the response regulator (RR) component, PhoB, is phosphorylated at the receiver domain (RD), a process that requires Mg(2+) bound at the active site. Phosphorylation of the RD relieves the inhibition of the PhoB effector domain (ED), a DNA-binding region that binds to Pho regulon promoters to activate transcription. The molecular details of the activation are proposed to involve dimerization of the RD and a conformational change in the RD detected by the ED. The structure of the PhoB RD shows a symmetrical interaction involving alpha1, loop beta5alpha5 and N terminus of alpha5 elements, also seen in the complex of PhoB RD with Mg(2+), in which helix alpha4 highly increases its flexibility. PhoB RD in complex with Mg(2+) and BeF(3) (an emulator of the phosphate moiety) undergoes a dramatic conformational change on helix alpha4 and shows another interaction involving alpha4, beta5 and alpha5 segments. We have selected a series of constitutively active PhoB mutants (PhoB(CA)) that are able to turn on the Pho regulon promoters in the absence phosphorylation and, as they cannot be inactivated, should therefore mimic the active RD state of PhoB and its functional oligomerisation. We have analysed the PhoB(CA) RD crystal structures of two such mutants, Asp53Ala/Tyr102Cys and Asp10Ala/Asp53Glu. Interestingly, both mutants reproduce the homodimeric arrangement through the symmetric interface encountered in the unbound and magnesium-bound wild-type PhoB RD structures. Besides, the mutant RD structures show a modified active site organization as well as changes at helix alpha4 that correlate with repositioning of surrounding residues, like the active-site events indicator Trp54, putatively redifining the interaction with the ED in the full-length protein.
Project description:Response regulators undergo regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at conserved aspartic acid residues in bacterial signal transduction systems. OmpR is a winged helix-turnhelix DNA-binding protein that functions as a global regulator in bacteria and is also important in pathogenesis. A detailed mechanistic picture of how OmpR binds to DNA and activates transcription is lacking. We used NMR spectroscopy to solve the solution structure of the C-terminal domain of OmpR (OmpR(C)) and to analyze the chemical shift changes that occur upon DNA binding. There is little overlap in the interaction surface with residues of PhoB that were reportedly involved in protein/protein interactions in its head-to-tail dimer. Multiple factors account for the lack of overlap. One is that the spacing between the OmpR half-sites is shorter than observed with PhoB, requiring the arrangement of the two OmpR molecules to be different from that of the PhoB dimer on DNA. A second is the demonstration herein that OmpR can bind to its high affinity site as a monomer. As a result, OmpR(C) appears to be capable of adopting alternative orientations depending on the precise base composition of the binding site, which also contributes to the lack of overlap. In the presence of DNA, chemical shift changes occur in OmpR in the recognition alpha-helix 3, the loop between beta-strand 4 and alpha-helix 1, and the loop between beta-strands 5 and 6. DNA contact residues are Val(203) (T), Arg(207) (G), and Arg(209) (phosphate backbone). Our results suggest that OmpR binds to DNA as a monomer and then forms a symmetric or asymmetric dimer, depending on the binding site. We propose that during activation OmpR binds to DNA and undergoes a conformational change that promotes phosphorylation of the N-terminal receiver domain, the receiver domains dimerize, and then the second monomer binds to DNA. The flexible linker of OmpR enables the second monomer to bind in multiple orientations (head-to-tail and head-to-head), depending on the specific DNA contacts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) represents a key factor in the etiology of autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG), duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to characterize the differential protein expression of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsies of patients affected by either AAG, DU or GC. METHODS:The H. pylori strains were isolated from endoscopic biopsies from the stomach of patients with gastric disease. Protein profiles of H. pylori were compared by two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of significantly different spots (Student t-test, p?<?0.05). RESULTS:A total of 47 differentially expressed spots were found between H. pylori isolated from patients with either DU or AAG diseases and those isolated from patients with GC (Anova?<?0.05, log fold change >1.5). These spots corresponded to 35 unique proteins. The identity of 7 protein spots was validated after one-dimensional electrophoresis and MS/MS analyses of excised gel portions. In H. pylori isolated from DU-patients a significant increase in proteins with antioxidant activity emerged (AroQ, AspA, FldA, Icd, OorA and ScoB), together with a higher content of proteins counteracting the high acid environment (KatA and NapA). In H. pylori isolated from AAG-patients proteins neutralizing hydrogen concentrations through organic substance metabolic processes decreased (GroL, TrxB and Tuf). In addition, a reduction of bacterial motility (FlhA) was found to be associated with AAG-H. pylori isolates. In GC-H. pylori strains it was found an increase in nucleic acid-binding proteins (e.g. DnaG, Tuf, RpoA, RplU) which may be involved in a higher demand of DNA- and protein-related processes. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest the presence of specific protein signatures discriminating among H. pylori isolated from either AAG, DU or GC. Changes in protein expression profiles evaluated by DIGE succeeded in deciphering part of the molecular scenarios associated with the different H. pylori-related gastric diseases.
Project description:Two-component signal transduction systems in bacteria are a primary mechanism for responding to environmental stimuli and adjusting gene expression accordingly. Generally in these systems a sensor kinase phosphorylates a response regulator that regulates transcription. Response regulators contain two domains: a receiver domain and an effector domain. The receiver domain is typically phosphorylated and as a result facilitates the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of the effector domain. The OmpR/PhoB subfamily is the largest of the response-regulator subfamilies and is primarily defined by the winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif within the effector domain. The overall structure of effector domains is highly conserved and contains three defined elements that are critical for transcriptional regulation: a DNA major-groove binding helix, a DNA minor-groove binding wing and a transcriptional activation loop. These functional elements are often diverse in sequence and conformation and reflect the functional differences observed between individual subfamily members. ChxR from Chlamydia trachomatis is an atypical OmpR/PhoB response regulator homolog that has transcriptional activity in the absence of phosphorylation. To facilitate the precise identification of the functional elements of the ChxR effector domain, this protein was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained from two separate mother liquors, producing two morphologically distinct crystals. The space group of both crystals was P4(3)2(1)2 (or its enantiomorph P4(1)2(1)2) with isomorphous unit-cell parameters; the crystals diffracted to 2.2-2.5 A resolution.
Project description:PhoB is a two-component response regulator that activates transcription by interacting with the ?(70) subunit of the E. coli RNA polymerase in promoters in which the -35 ?(70)-recognition element is replaced by the pho box. The crystal structure of a transcription initiation subcomplex that includes the ?(4) domain of ?(70) fused with the RNA polymerase ? subunit flap tip helix, the PhoB effector domain and the pho box DNA reveals how ?(4) recognizes the upstream pho box repeat. As with the -35 element, ?(4) achieves this recognition through the N-terminal portion of its DNA recognition helix, but contact with the DNA major groove is less extensive. Unexpectedly, the same recognition helix contacts the transactivation loop and helices ?2 and ?3 of PhoB. This result shows a simple and elegant mechanism for polymerase recruitment to pho box promoters in which the lost -35 element contacts are compensated by new ones with the activator. In addition, ?(4) is reoriented, thereby suggesting a remodelling mechanism for transcription initiation.
Project description:The flagellum is a complex bacterial nanomachine that requires the proper assembly of several different proteins for its function. Dedicated chaperones are central in preventing aggregation or undesired interactions of flagellar proteins, including their targeting to the export gate. FliT is a key flagellar chaperone that binds to several flagellar proteins in the cytoplasm, including its cognate filament-capping protein FliD. We have determined the solution structure of the FliT chaperone in the free state and in complex with FliD and the flagellar ATPase FliI. FliT adopts a four-helix bundle and uses a hydrophobic surface formed by the first three helices to recognize its substrate proteins. We show that the fourth helix constitutes the binding site for FlhA, a membrane protein at the export gate. In the absence of a substrate protein FliT adopts an autoinhibited structure wherein both the binding sites for substrates and FlhA are occluded. Substrate binding to FliT activates the complex for FlhA binding and thus targeting of the chaperone-substrate complex to the export gate. The activation and targeting mechanisms reported for FliT appear to be shared among the other flagellar chaperones.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is strongly associated with gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected individuals ever develop gastric cancer. This risk stratification may be in part due to differences among strains. The relationship between neutrophil-activating protein (NapA) and gastric cancer is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of NapA as a biomarker in gastric cancer. We used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the status of H. pylori infection. Indirect ELISA method was used for detection of NapA antibody titer in the serum of H. pylori infected individuals. Unconditional logistic regressions were adopted to analyze the variables and determine the association of NapA and gastric cancer. The results of study indicated serum H. pylori NapA antibody level were associated with a reduced risk for development of gastric cancer. It may be used in conjugation with other indicators for gastric cancer detection.
Project description:Structural analysis of the Escherichia coli response regulator transcription factor PhoB indicates that the protein dimerizes in two different orientations that are both mediated by the receiver domain. The two dimers exhibit 2-fold rotational symmetry: one involves the alpha 4-beta 5-alpha 5 surface and the other involves the alpha1/alpha 5 surface. The alpha 4-beta 5-alpha 5 dimer is observed when the protein is crystallized in the presence of the phosphoryl analog BeF(3)(-), while the alpha1/alpha 5 dimer is observed in its absence. From these studies, a model of the inactive and active states of PhoB has been proposed that involves the formation of two distinct dimers. In order to gain further insight into the roles of these dimers, we have engineered a series of mutations in PhoB intended to perturb each of them selectively. Our results indicate that perturbation of the alpha 4-beta 5-alpha 5 surface disrupts phosphorylation-dependent dimerization and DNA binding as well as PhoB-mediated transcriptional activation of phoA, while perturbations to the alpha1/alpha 5 surface do not. Furthermore, experiments with a GCN4 leucine zipper/PhoB chimera protein indicate that PhoB is activated through an intermolecular mechanism. Together, these results support a model of activation of PhoB in which phosphorylation promotes dimerization via the alpha 4-beta 5-alpha 5 face, which enhances DNA binding and thus the ability of PhoB to regulate transcription.