Fetal skeletal muscle progenitors have regenerative capacity after intramuscular engraftment in dystrophin deficient mice.
ABSTRACT: Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells that reside in skeletal muscles and contribute to regeneration upon muscle injury. SCs arise from skeletal muscle progenitors expressing transcription factors Pax3 and/or Pax7 during embryogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether these fetal progenitors possess regenerative ability when transplanted in adult muscle. Here we address this question by investigating whether fetal skeletal muscle progenitors (FMPs) isolated from Pax3(GFP/+) embryos have the capacity to regenerate muscle after engraftment into Dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The capacity of FMPs to engraft and enter the myogenic program in regenerating muscle was compared with that of SCs derived from adult Pax3(GFP/+) mice. Transplanted FMPs contributed to the reconstitution of damaged myofibers in Dystrophin-deficient mice. However, despite FMPs and SCs having similar myogenic ability in culture, the regenerative ability of FMPs was less than that of SCs in vivo. FMPs that had activated MyoD engrafted more efficiently to regenerate myofibers than MyoD-negative FMPs. Transcriptome and surface marker analyses of these cells suggest the importance of myogenic priming for the efficient myogenic engraftment. Our findings suggest the regenerative capability of FMPs in the context of muscle repair and cell therapy for degenerative muscle disease.
Project description:We assessed viable Pax7(-/-) mice in 129Sv/J background and observed reduced growth and marked muscle wasting together with a complete absence of functional satellite cells. Acute injury resulted in an extreme deficit in muscle regeneration. However, a small number of regenerated myofibers were detected, suggesting the presence of residual myogenic cells in Pax7-deficient muscle. Rare Pax3(+)/MyoD+ myoblasts were recovered from Pax7(-/-) muscle homogenates and cultures of myofiber bundles but not from single myofibers free of interstitial tissues. Finally, we identified Pax3+ cells in the muscle interstitial environment and demonstrated that they coexpressed MyoD during regeneration. Sublaminar satellite cells in hind limb muscle did not express detectable levels of Pax3 protein or messenger RNA. Therefore, we conclude that interstitial Pax3+ cells represent a novel myogenic population that is distinct from the sublaminar satellite cell lineage and that Pax7 is essential for the formation of functional myogenic progenitors from sublaminar satellite cells.
Project description:The use of adult skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) for cell therapy has been attempted for decades, but still encounters considerable difficulties. MuSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we report that four transcription factors, HEYL, KLF4, MYOD, and PAX3, selected by comprehensive screening of different MuSC populations, enhance the derivation of PAX3-positive myogenic progenitors from fibroblasts and hiPSCs, using medium that promotes the formation of presomitic mesoderm. These induced PAX3-positive cells contribute efficiently to the repair of DMD-damaged myofibers and also reconstitute the MuSC population. These studies demonstrate how a combination of core transcription factors can fine-tune the derivation of MuSCs capable of contributing to the repair of adult skeletal muscle.
Project description:An effective long-term cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration requires donor contribution to both muscle fibers and the muscle stem cell pool. Although satellite cells have these abilities, their therapeutic potential so far has been limited due to their scarcity in adult muscle. Myogenic progenitors obtained from Pax3-engineered mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to generate myofibers and to improve the contractility of transplanted muscles in vivo, however, whether these cells contribute to the muscle stem cell pool and are able to self-renew in vivo are still unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating the ability of Pax3, which plays a critical role in embryonic muscle formation, and Pax7, which is important for maintenance of the muscle satellite cell pool, to promote the derivation of self-renewing functional myogenic progenitors from ES cells. We show that Pax7, like Pax3, can drive the expansion of an ES-derived myogenic progenitor with significant muscle regenerative potential. We further demonstrate that a fraction of transplanted cells remains mononuclear, and displays key features of skeletal muscle stem cells, including satellite cell localization, response to reinjury, and contribution to muscle regeneration in secondary transplantation assays. The ability to engraft, self-renew, and respond to injury provide foundation for the future therapeutic application of ES-derived myogenic progenitors in muscle disorders.
Project description:Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting.
Project description:Pax3 is an essential myogenic regulator of fetal and embryonic development, but its role in postnatal myogenesis remains a topic of debate. We show that constitutive expression of Pax3 in postnatal, juvenile mouse skeletal muscle stem cells, a subset of the heterogeneous satellite cell pool highly enriched for myogenic activity, potently induces differentiation. This differentiation-promoting activity stands in contrast to the differentiation-inhibiting effects of Pax3 in the commonly used mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. Pax3 mRNA levels in distinct muscles correlate with the rate of myogenic differentiation of their muscle stem cells. Although Pax3 controls embryonic myogenesis through regulation of the canonical myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf-5, MyoD, myogenin and Mrf4, we find that in postnatal muscle stem cells, ectopic Pax3 expression fails to induce expression of any of these factors. Unexpectedly, overexpression of neither Myf-5 nor myogenin is sufficient to induce differentiation of juvenile stem cells; and knockdown of Myf-5, rather than inhibiting differentiation, promotes it. Taken together, our results suggest that there are distinct myogenic regulatory pathways that control the embryonic development, juvenile myogenesis and adult regeneration of skeletal myofibers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle function is essential for health, and it depends on the proper activity of myofibers and their innervating motor neurons. Each adult muscle is composed of different types of myofibers with distinct contractile and metabolic characteristics. The proper balance of myofiber types is disrupted in most muscle degenerative disorders, representing another factor compromising muscle function. One promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of these diseases is cell replacement based on the targeted differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) towards the myogenic lineage. We have previously shown that transient induction of Pax3 or Pax7 in PSCs allows for the generation of skeletal myogenic progenitors endowed with myogenic regenerative potential, but whether they contribute to different fiber types remains unknown. RESULTS:Here, we investigate the fiber type composition of mouse PSC-derived myofibers upon their transplantation into dystrophic and non-dystrophic mice. Our data reveal that PSC-derived myofibers express slow and oxidative myosin heavy-chain isoforms, along with developmental myosins, regardless of the recipient background. Furthermore, transplantation of the mononuclear cell fraction re-isolated from primary grafts into secondary recipients results in myofibers that maintain preferential expression of slow and oxidative myosin heavy-chain isoforms but no longer express developmental myosins, thus indicating postnatal composition. CONCLUSIONS:Considering oxidative fibers are commonly spared in the context of dystrophic pathogenesis, this feature of PSC-derived myofibers could be advantageous for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration rely on myogenic progenitor and satellite cells, the stem cells of postnatal muscle. Elimination of Notch signals during mouse development results in premature differentiation of myogenic progenitors and formation of very small muscle groups. Here we show that this drastic effect is rescued by mutation of the muscle differentiation factor MyoD. However, rescued myogenic progenitors do not assume a satellite cell position and contribute poorly to myofiber growth. The disrupted homing is due to a deficit in basal lamina assembly around emerging satellite cells and to their impaired adhesion to myofibers. On a molecular level, emerging satellite deregulate the expression of basal lamina components and adhesion molecules like integrin a7, collagen XVIIIa1, Megf10 and Mcam. We conclude that Notch signals control homing of satellite cells, stimulating them to contribute to their own microenvironment and to adhere to myofibers. Gene expression analysis using total RNA from FACS-isolated Vcam-1+/CD31-/CD45-/Sca1- embryonic muscle progenitor cells from E17.5 back muscle tissue of MyoD-/-, Pax3cre/+;Rbpjflox/flox;MyoD-/- and Pax3cre/+;DnMamlflox/flox;MyoD-/- mice.
Project description:Skeletal muscle harbors quiescent stem cells termed satellite cells and proliferative progenitors termed myoblasts, which play pivotal roles during muscle regeneration. However, current technology does not allow permanent capture of these cell populations in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD, combined with exposure to small molecules, reprograms mouse fibroblasts into expandable induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). iMPCs express key skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell markers including Pax7 and Myf5 and give rise to dystrophin-expressing myofibers upon transplantation in vivo. Notably, a subset of transplanted iMPCs maintain Pax7 expression and sustain serial regenerative responses. Similar to satellite cells, iMPCs originate from Pax7<sup>+</sup> cells and require Pax7 itself for maintenance. Finally, we show that myogenic progenitor cell lines can be established from muscle tissue following small-molecule exposure alone. This study thus reports on a robust approach to derive expandable myogenic stem/progenitor-like cells from multiple cell types.
Project description:Serine/threonine kinase 11, commonly known as liver kinase b1 (Lkb1), is a tumor suppressor that regulates cellular energy metabolism and stem cell function. Satellite cells are skeletal muscle resident stem cells that maintain postnatal muscle growth and repair. Here, we used MyoD(Cre)/Lkb1(flox/flox) mice (called MyoD-Lkb1) to delete Lkb1 in embryonic myogenic progenitors and their descendant satellite cells and myofibers. The MyoD-Lkb1 mice exhibit a severe myopathy characterized by central nucleated myofibers, reduced mobility, growth retardation, and premature death. Although tamoxifen-induced postnatal deletion of Lkb1 in satellite cells using Pax7(CreER) mice bypasses the developmental defects and early death, Lkb1 null satellite cells lose their regenerative capacity cell-autonomously. Strikingly, Lkb1 null satellite cells fail to maintain quiescence in noninjured resting muscles and exhibit accelerated proliferation but reduced differentiation kinetics. At the molecular level, Lkb1 limits satellite cell proliferation through the canonical AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, but facilitates differentiation through phosphorylation of GSK-3?, a key component of the WNT signaling pathway. Together, these results establish a central role of Lkb1 in muscle stem cell homeostasis, muscle development, and regeneration.
Project description:Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle. Here, we show that adult zebrafish skeletal muscle contains cells similar to mammalian satellite cells. Adult zebrafish satellite-like cells have dense heterochromatin, express Pax7 and Pax3, proliferate in response to injury, and show peak myogenic responses 4-5 days post-injury (dpi). Furthermore, using a pax7a-driven GFP reporter, we present evidence implicating satellite-like cells as a possible source of new muscle. In lieu of central nucleation, which distinguishes regenerating myofibers in mammals, we describe several characteristics that robustly identify newly-forming myofibers from surrounding fibers in injured adult zebrafish muscle. These characteristics include partially overlapping expression in satellite-like cells and regenerating myofibers of two RNA-binding proteins Rbfox2 and Rbfoxl1, known to regulate embryonic muscle development and function. Finally, by analyzing pax7a; pax7b double mutant zebrafish, we show that Pax7 is required for adult skeletal muscle repair, as it is in the mouse.