Vesicular nucleotide transporter regulates the nucleotide content in airway epithelial mucin granules.
ABSTRACT: Nucleotides within the airway surface liquid promote fluid secretion via activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. ATP is stored within and released from mucin granules as co-cargo with mucins, but the mechanism by which ATP, and potentially other nucleotides, enter the lumen of mucin granules is not known. We assessed the contribution of the recently identified SLC17A9 vesicle nucleotide transporter (VNUT) to the nucleotide availability within isolated mucin granules and further examined the involvement of VNUT in mucin granule secretion-associated nucleotide release. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that VNUT is abundantly expressed in airway epithelial goblet-like Calu-3 cells, migrating as a duplex with apparent mobility of 55 and 60 kDa. Subcellular fractionation studies indicated that VNUT55 was associated with high-density mucin granules, whereas VNUT60 was associated with low-density organelles. Immunofluorescence studies showed that recombinant VNUT localized to mucin granules and other organelles. Mucin granules isolated from VNUT short hairpin RNA-expressing cells exhibited a marked reduction of ATP, ADP, AMP, and UTP levels within granules. Ca(2+)-regulated vesicular ATP release was markedly reduced in these cells, but mucin secretion was not affected. These results suggest that VNUT is the relevant nucleotide transporter responsible for the uptake of cytosolic nucleotides into mucin granules. By controlling the entry of nucleotides into mucin granules, VNUT contributes to the release of purinergic signaling molecules necessary for the proper hydration of co-released mucins.
Project description:Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut(-/-)) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut(-/-) mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic ?-cells in Vnut(-/-) mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut(-/-) mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Neutrophils migrate to sites infected by pathogenic microorganisms. This migration is regulated by neutrophil-secreted ATP, which stimulates neutrophils in an autocrine manner through purinergic receptors on the plasma membrane. Although previous studies have shown that ATP is released through channels at the plasma membrane of the neutrophil, it remains unknown whether it is also released through alternate secretory systems involving vesicular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a key molecule for vesicular storage and nucleotide release, in ATP secretion from neutrophils. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis indicated that VNUT is expressed in mouse neutrophils. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that VNUT mainly colocalized with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a marker of tertiary granules, which are secretory organelles. In mouse neutrophils, ATP release was inhibited by clodronate, which is a potent VNUT inhibitor. Furthermore, neutrophils from VNUT-/- mice did not release ATP and exhibited significantly reduced migration in vitro and in vivo These findings suggest that tertiary granule-localized VNUT is responsible for vesicular ATP release and subsequent neutrophil migration. Thus, these findings suggest an additional mechanism through which ATP is released by neutrophils.
Project description:Before being released, nucleotides are stored in secretory vesicles through the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). Once released, extracellular ATP participates in neuronal differentiation processes. Thus, the expression of a functional VNUT could be an additional component of the purinergic system which regulates neuronal differentiation and axonal elongation. In vitro expression of VNUT decreases neuritogenesis in N2a cells differentiated by retinoic acid treatment, whereas silencing of VNUT expression increases the number and length of neurites in these cells. These results highlight the role of VNUT in the neuritogenic process because this transporter regulates the ATP content in neurosecretory vesicles.
Project description:Nucleotides are stored in the dense granules of platelets. The release of nucleotides triggers one of the first steps in a series of cascades responsible for blood coagulation. However, the mechanism of how the nucleotides are accumulated in the granules is still far less understood. The transporter protein responsible for storage of nucleotides in the neuroendocrine cells has been identified and characterized. We hypothesized that the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is also involved in the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets. In this article, we present three lines of evidence that VNUT is responsible for the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets and that vesicular ATP transport is crucial for platelet function, detection and characterization of VNUT activity in platelets isolated from healthy humans and MEG-01 cells, RNA interference experiments on MEG-01 cells, and studies on nucleotide transport and release with a selective inhibitor.
Project description:Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is required for active accumulation of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) into vesicles for purinergic neurotransmission, however, the cell types that express VNUT in the central nervous system remain unknown. This study characterized VNUT expression within the mammalian retina and brain and assessed a possible functional role in purinergic signaling. Two native isoforms of VNUT were detected in mouse retina and brain based on RNA transcript and protein analysis. Using immunohistochemistry, VNUT was found to co-localize with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, however, VNUT expression in extranigral non-DA neurons was also observed. In the retina, VNUT labeling was found to co-localize solely with TH-positive DA-cells. In the outer retina, VNUT-positive interplexiform cell processes were in close contact with horizontal cells and cone photoreceptor terminals, which are known to express P2 purinergic-receptors. In order to assess function, dissociated retinal neurons were loaded with fluorescent ATP markers (Quinacrine or Mant-ATP) and the DA marker FFN102, co-labeled with a VNUT antibody and imaged in real time. Fluorescent ATP markers and FFN102 puncta were found to co-localize in VNUT positive neurons and upon stimulation with high potassium, ATP marker fluorescence at the cell membrane was reduced. This response was blocked in the presence of cadmium. These data suggest DA neurons co-release ATP via calcium dependent exocytosis and in the retina this may modulate the visual response by activating purine receptors on closely associated neurons.
Project description:Excess mucus in the airways leads to obstruction in diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Mucins, the highly glycosolated protein components of mucus, are stored in membrane-bound granules housed in the cytoplasm of airway epithelial "goblet" cells until they are secreted into the airway lumen via an exocytotic process. Precise mechanism(s) of mucin secretion, including the specific proteins involved in the process, have yet to be elucidated. Previously, we have shown that the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) protein regulates mucin secretion by orchestrating translocation of mucin granules from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where the granules dock, fuse and release their contents into the airway lumen. Associated with MARCKS in this process are chaperone (Heat Shock Protein 70 [HSP70], Cysteine string protein [CSP]) and cytoskeletal (actin, myosin) proteins. However, additional granule-associated proteins that may be involved in secretion have not yet been elucidated.Here, we isolated mucin granules and granule membranes from primary cultures of well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells utilizing a novel technique of immuno-isolation, based on the presence of the calcium activated chloride channel hCLCA1 (the human ortholog of murine Gob-5) on the granule membranes, and verified via Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation that MARCKS, HSP70, CSP and hCLCA1 were present on the granule membranes and associated with each other. We then subjected the isolated granules/membranes to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify other granule associated proteins.A number of additional cytoskeletal (e.g. Myosin Vc) and regulatory proteins (e.g. Protein phosphatase 4) associated with the granules and could play a role in secretion were discovered. This is the first description of the airway goblet cell "granulome."
Project description:Exocytosis of secreted mucins is the final step in their intracellular processing, resulting in their release into the airway lumen to interact with water and ions to form mucus. Mucins are secreted at a low baseline rate and a high stimulated rate, and both rates are regulated by second messengers acting on components of the exocytic machinery. The principal physiologic function of the low baseline rate is to support steady-state mucociliary clearance of inhaled particles and pathogens that enter the airways during normal breathing. Even in the setting of mucin hyperproduction, baseline secretion generally does not induce mucus occlusion. The principal physiologic function of the high stimulated rate of secretion from both submucosal glands and surface goblet cells in proximal airways appears to be to sweep away larger particles, whereas in distal airways it appears to act in concert with mucin hyperproduction to induce mucus occlusion to trap migrating helminths. Pathophysiologically, stimulated mucin secretion in the setting of mucin hyperproduction from allergic or other types of airway inflammation in the absence of helminth infection causes airflow obstruction and infection. Molecular components of the mucin exocytic machinery are increasingly being identified, and surprisingly, many components are not shared between baseline and stimulated machines. The physiologic significance of the presence of two distinct molecular machines is not yet known, such as whether these interact selectively with secretory granules of different sizes or contents. A full understanding of the mechanism and regulation of airway mucin secretion will provide further insight into pathophysiologic processes and may identify therapeutic strategies to alleviate obstructive airway diseases.
Project description:Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain.
Project description:We investigated how cystic fibrosis (CF) alters the relationship between Cl(-) and mucin secretion in cultures of non-CF and CF human tracheobronchial gland mucous (HTGM and CFTGM, respectively) cells. Biochemical studies showed that HTMG cells secreted typical airway mucins, and immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells expressed MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC8, MUC13, MUC16, and MUC20. Effects of cumulative doses of methacholine (MCh), phenylephrine (Phe), isoproterenol (Iso), and ATP on mucin and Cl(-) secretion were studied on HTGM and CFTGM cultures. Baseline mucin secretion was not significantly altered in CFTGM cells, and the increases in mucin secretion induced by mediators were unaltered (Iso, Phe) or slightly decreased (MCh, ATP). Across mediators, there was no correlation between the maximal increases in Cl(-) secretion and mucin secretion. In HTGM cells, the Cl(-) channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid, greatly inhibited Cl(-) secretion but did not alter mucin release. In HTGM cells, mediators (10(-5) M) increased mucin secretion in the rank order ATP > Phe = Iso > MCh. They increased Cl(-) secretion in the sequence ATP > MCh ≈ Iso > Phe. The responses in Cl(-) secretion to MCh, ATP, and Phe were unaltered by CF, but the response to Iso was greatly reduced. We conclude that mucin secretion by cultures of human tracheobronchial gland cells is independent of Cl(-) secretion, at baseline, and is unaltered in CF; that the ratio of Cl(-) secretion to mucus secretion varies markedly depending on mediator; and that secretions induced by stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors will be abnormally concentrated in CF.
Project description:ATP is a major chemical transmitter in purinergic signal transmission. Before secretion, ATP is stored in secretory vesicles found in purinergic cells. Although the presence of active transport mechanisms for ATP has been postulated for a long time, the proteins responsible for its vesicular accumulation remains unknown. The transporter encoded by the human and mouse SLC17A9 gene, a novel member of an anion transporter family, was predominantly expressed in the brain and adrenal gland. The mouse and bovine counterparts were associated with adrenal chromaffin granules. Proteoliposomes containing purified transporter actively took up ATP, ADP, and GTP by using membrane potential as the driving force. The uptake properties of the reconstituted transporter were similar to that of the ATP uptake by synaptic vesicles and chromaffin granules. Suppression of endogenous SLC17A9 expression in PC12 cells decreased exocytosis of ATP. These findings strongly suggest that SLC17A9 protein is a vesicular nucleotide transporter and should lead to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of ATP secretion in purinergic signal transmission.