Parallel solution-phase synthesis of an adenosine antibiotic analog library.
ABSTRACT: A library of eighty one adenosine antibiotic analogs was prepared under the Pilot Scale Library Program of the NIH Roadmap initiative from 5'-amino-5'-deoxy-2',3'-O-isopropylidene-adenosine 3. Diverse aldehyde, sulfonyl chloride and carboxylic acid reactant sets were condensed to 3, in solution-phase fashion, leading after acid-mediated hydrolysis to the targeted compounds in good yields and high purity. No marked antituberculosis or anticancer activity was noted on preliminary cellular testing, but these nucleoside analogs should be useful candidates for other types of biological activity.
Project description:A small library of ninety four uridine antibiotic analogs was synthesized, under the Pilot Scale Library (PSL) Program of the NIH Roadmap initiative, from amine 2 and carboxylic acids 33 and 77 in solution-phase fashion. Diverse aldehyde, sulfonyl chloride, and carboxylic acid reactant sets were condensed to 2, leading after acid-mediated hydrolysis, to the targeted compounds 3-32 in good yields and high purity. Similarly, treatment of 33 with diverse amines and sulfonamides gave 34-75. The coupling of the amino terminus of d-phenylalanine methyl ester to the free 5'-carboxylic acid moiety of 33 followed by sodium hydroxide treatment led to carboxylic acid analog 77. Hydrolysis of this material gave analog 78. The intermediate 77 served as the precursor for the preparation of novel dipeptidyl uridine analogs 79-99 through peptide coupling reactions to diverse amine reactants. None of the described compounds show significant anticancer or antimalarial acivity. A number of samples exhibited a variety of promising inhibitory, agonist, antagonist, or activator properties with enzymes and receptors in primary screens supplied and reported through the NIH MLPCN program.
Project description:Disruptor of Telomeric Silencing 1-Like (DOT1L), the sole histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, is required for leukemogenic transformation in a subset of leukemias bearing chromosomal translocations of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, as well as other cancers. Thus, DOT1L is an attractive therapeutic target and discovery of small molecule inhibitors remain of high interest. Herein, we are presenting screening results for a unique focused library of 1200 nucleoside analogs originally produced under the aegis of the NIH Pilot Scale Library Program. The complete nucleoside set was screened virtually against DOT1L, resulting in 210 putative hits. In vitro screening of the virtual hits resulted in validation of 11 compounds as DOT1L inhibitors clustered into two distinct chemical classes, adenosine-based inhibitors and a new chemotype that lacks adenosine. Based on the developed DOT1L ligand binding model, a structure-based design strategy was applied and a second-generation of non-nucleoside DOT1L inhibitors was developed. Newly synthesized compound 25 was the most potent DOT1L inhibitor in the new series with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 1.0 ?M, showing 40-fold improvement in comparison with hit 9 and exhibiting reasonable on target effects in a DOT1L dependent murine cell line. These compounds represent novel chemical probes with a unique non-nucleoside scaffold that bind and compete with the SAM binding site of DOT1L, thus providing foundation for further medicinal chemistry efforts to develop more potent compounds.
Project description:A fluorous-linker-assisted solution-phase protocol has been developed and applied to parallel synthesis of a piperazinedione-fused tricyclic compound library. The one-pot [3 + 2] cycloaddition of fluorous amino esters, aldehydes, and maleimides afforded bicyclic proline derivatives. The intermediates were subjected to N-acylation with chloroacetyl chloride, followed by displacement reactions with amines. Linker cleavage with concomitant lactamization yielded the final products. Microwave heating was employed to facilitate several reaction steps and fluorous solid phase extraction (F-SPE) was employed to purify the intermediates. During the method development, a small library containing sixteen analogs was prepared. The optimized conditions were applied to the synthesis of a production library containing ninety analogs.
Project description:Here we describe a rapid and divergent synthetic route toward structurally novel ?HTs functionalized with either one or two thioether or sulfonyl appendages. Evaluation of this library against hepatitis B and herpes simplex virus, as well as the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, and a human hepatoblastoma (HepDES19) revealed complementary biological profiles and new lead compounds with sub-micromolar activity against each pathogen.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR1 and ADAR2) are human RNA-editing adenosine deaminases responsible for the conversion of adenosine to inosine at specific locations in cellular RNAs. Since inosine is recognized during translation as guanosine, this often results in the expression of protein sequences different from those encoded in the genome. While our knowledge of the ADAR2 structure and catalytic mechanism has grown over the years, our knowledge of ADAR1 has lagged. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of well defined, small RNA substrates useful for mechanistic studies of ADAR1. Here, we describe an ADAR1 substrate RNA that can be prepared by a combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic ligation. Incorporation of adenosine analogs into this RNA and analysis of the rate of ADAR1 catalyzed deamination revealed similarities and differences in the way the ADARs recognize the edited nucleotide. Importantly, ADAR1 is more dependent than ADAR2 on the presence of N7 in the edited base. This difference between ADAR1 and ADAR2 appears to be dependent on the identity of a single amino acid residue near the active site. Thus, this work provides an important starting point in defining mechanistic differences between two functionally distinct human RNA editing ADARs.
Project description:A novel one-pot synthesis of N-substituted heterocycles via successive cyclization/annelation starting from primary sulfonamides is described. This process leads directly to N-sulfonyl pyrroles, indoles and carbazoles. The selection of appropriate reactant/triflic acid ratio successfully controls the formation of the desired product.
Project description:The imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid scaffold is readily derivatized with amino acid esters and alkanamines to afford compounds with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded conformations that mimic substituted purines and therefore are hypothesized to be potential inhibitors of kinases through competitive binding to the ATP site. In this work, a total of 126 dissymmetrically disubstituted imidazole-4,5-dicarboxamides with amino acid ester and alkanamide substituents were prepared by parallel synthesis. The library members were purified by column chromatography on silica gel and the purified compounds characterized by LC-MS with LC detection at 214 nm. A selection of the final compounds was also analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The analytically pure final products have been submitted to the Molecular Library Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) for screening in the Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) as part of the NIH Roadmap.
Project description:The imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid scaffold is readily derivatized with amino acid esters to afford symmetrically- and dissymmetrically-disubstituted imidazole-4,5-dicarboxamides with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded conformations that predispose the presentation of amino acid pharmacophores. In this work, a total of 45 imidazole-4,5-dicarboxamides bearing amino acid esters were prepared by parallel synthesis. The library members were purified by column chromatography on silica gel and the purified compounds characterized by LC-MS with LC detection at 214 nm. A selection of the final compounds was also analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The analytically pure final products have been submitted to the Molecular Library Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) for screening in the Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) as part of the NIH Roadmap.
Project description:The design and synthesis of small molecules that target RNA is immensely important in antibacterial therapy. We had previously reported on the RNA binding of a series of 4,5-disubstituted 2-oxazolidinones that bind to a highly conserved bulge region of bacterial RNA. This biological target T box antitermination system, which is found mainly in Gram-positive bacteria, regulates the expression of several amino acid related genes. In an effort to amplify our library, we have prepared a library of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole analogs that entails an isosteric replacement of the oxazolidinone nucleus. The synthesis of the new analogs was enhanced via copper(I) catalysis of an azide and alkyne cycloaddition reaction. A total of 108 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole compounds have been prepared. All compounds were evaluated as RNA binding agents.
Project description:A library of oligomeric compounds was synthesized based on the imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid scaffold along with amino acid esters and chiral diamines derived from amino acids. The final compounds incorporate nonpolar amino acids (Leu, Phe, Trp), polar amino acids (Ser, Asp, Arg), and neutral amino acids (Gly, Ala), and were designed to be useful in screening for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Many of the protected and deprotected oligomers show evidence of conformational isomers persistent at room temperature in aqueous solution. A total of 317 final oligomers, out of 441 targeted compounds, were obtained in high analytical purity and of sufficient quantity to submit them for high-throughput screening as part of the NIH Roadmap.