Efficient delivery of cell impermeable phosphopeptides by a cyclic peptide amphiphile containing tryptophan and arginine.
ABSTRACT: Phosphopeptides are valuable reagent probes for studying protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The cellular delivery of phosphopeptides is challenging because of the presence of the negatively charged phosphate group. The cellular uptake of a number of fluorescent-labeled phosphopeptides, including F'-GpYLPQTV, F'-NEpYTARQ, F'-AEEEIYGEFEAKKKK, F'-PEpYLGLD, F'-pYVNVQN-NH2, and F'-GpYEEI (F' = fluorescein), was evaluated in the presence or absence of a [WR]4, a cyclic peptide containing alternative arginine (R) and tryptophan (W) residues, in human leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) after 2 h incubation using flow cytometry. [WR]4 improved significantly the cellular uptake of all phosphopeptides. PEpYLGLD is a sequence that mimics the pTyr1246 of ErbB2 that is responsible for binding to the Chk SH2 domain. The cellular uptake of F'-PEpYLGLD was enhanced dramatically by 27-fold in the presence of [WR]4 and was found to be time-dependent. Confocal microscopy of a mixture of F'-PEpYLGLD and [WR]4 in live cells exhibited intracellular localization and significantly higher cellular uptake compared to that of F'-PEpYLGLD alone. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and isothermal calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interaction of PEpYLGLD and [WR]4. TEM results showed that the mixture of PEpYLGLD and [WR]4 formed noncircular nanosized structures with width and height of 125 and 60 nm, respectively. ITC binding studies confirmed the interaction between [WR]4 and PEpYLGLD. The binding isotherm curves, derived from sequential binding models, showed an exothermic interaction driven by entropy. These studies suggest that amphiphilic peptide [WR]4 can be used as a cellular delivery tool of cell-impermeable negatively charged phosphopeptides.
Project description:Tripodal peptide analogues were designed on the basis of the phosphotyrosine binding pocket of the Src SH2 domain and assayed for their ability to bind to fluorescein-labeled phosphopeptides. Fluorescence polarization assays showed that a number of amphipathic linear peptide analogues (LPAs), such as LPA4, bind to fluorescein-labeled GpYEEI (F-GpYEEI). LPA4 was evaluated for potential application in cellular delivery of phosphopeptides. Fluorescence microimaging cellular uptake studies with fluorescein-attached LPA4 (F-LPA4) alone or with the mixture of LPA4 and F-GpYEEI in BT-20 cells showed dramatic increase of the fluorescence intensity in cytosol of cells, indicating that LPA4 can function as a delivery tool of F-GpYEEI across the cell membrane. Fluorescent flow cytometry studies showed the cellular uptake of F-LPA4 in an energy-independent pathway and confirmed the cellular uptake of F-GpYEEI in the presence of LPA4. These studies suggest that amphipathic tripodal peptide analogues, such as LPA4, can be used for cellular delivery of phosphopeptides.
Project description:Cyclic peptides containing tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, [WR]<sub>5</sub>, [WR]<sub>6</sub>, [WR]<sub>7</sub>, [WR]<sub>8</sub>, and [WR]<sub>9</sub>, were synthesized through Fmoc solid-phase chemistry to compare their molecular transporter efficiency. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the peptides was evaluated using human leukemia carcinoma cell line (CCRF-CEM) and normal kidney cell line (LLC-PK1). [WR]<sub>6</sub>, [WR]<sub>7</sub>, [WR]<sub>8</sub>, and [WR]<sub>9</sub> were not significantly cytotoxic to LLC-PK1cells at a concentration of 10 ?M after 3 h incubation. Among all the peptides, [WR]<sub>9</sub> was found to be a more efficient transporter than [WR]<sub>5</sub>, [WR]<sub>6</sub>, [WR]<sub>7</sub>, and [WR]<sub>8</sub> in CCRF-CEM cells for delivery of a cell-impermeable fluorescence-labeled negatively charged phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI). [WR]<sub>9</sub> (10 ?M) improved the cellular uptake of F'-GpYEEI (2 ?M) by 20-fold. The cellular uptake of a fluorescent conjugate of [WR]<sub>9</sub>, F'-[W<sub>9</sub>R<sub>8</sub>K], was increased in a concentration- and time-dependent pattern in CCRF-CEM cells. The uptake of F'-[W<sub>9</sub>R<sub>8</sub>K] was slightly reduced in CCRF-CEM cells in the presence of different endocytic inhibitors, such as nystatin, 5-(<i>N</i>-ethyl-<i>N</i>-isopropyl)amiloride, chlorpromazine, chloroquine, and methyl ?-cyclodextrin. Furthermore, the uptake of F'-[W<sub>9</sub>R<sub>8</sub>K] was shown to be temperature-dependent and slightly adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent. The intracellular/cellular localization (in the nucleus and cytoplasm) of F'-[W<sub>9</sub>R<sub>8</sub>K] was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy in CCRF-CEM cells. These studies suggest that large cyclic peptides containing arginine and tryptophan can be used as a molecular transporter of specific compounds.
Project description:We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4-5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric adenocarcinoma (CRL-1739), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), and normal kidney (LLCPK) cells after 24 and 72 h incubation. Both cyclic [C(WR)5C] and linear (C(WR)5C) demonstrated comparable molecular transporter properties versus [WR]5 in the delivery of a phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI) in CCRF-CEM cells. The uptake of F'-GpYEEI in the presence of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) as the reducing agent was significantly improved in case of l(C(WR)5C), while it was not changed by [C(WR)5C]. Fluorescence microscopy also demonstrated a significant uptake of F'-GpYEEI in the presence of l(C(WR)5C). Cyclic [C(WR)5C] improved the uptake of the fluorescent-labeled anti-HIV drugs F'-d4T, F'-3TC, and F'-FTC by 3.0-4.9-fold. These data indicate that both [C(WR)5C] and linear (C(WR)5C) peptides can act as molecular transporters.
Project description:A cyclic peptide containing one cysteine and five alternating tryptophan and arginine amino acids [(WR)5C] was synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase methodology. The ability of the synthesized cyclic peptide to produce gadolinium nanoparticles through an in situ one-pot mixing of an aqueous solution of GdCl3 with [(WR)5C] peptide solution was evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formed peptide-Gd nanoparticles in star-shape morphology with a size of ~250 nm. Flow cytometry investigation showed that the cellular uptake of a cell-impermeable fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI, where F' = fluorescein) was approximately six times higher in the presence of [(WR)5C]-Gd nanoparticles than those of F'-GpYEEI alone in human leukemia adenocarcinoma (CCRF-CEM) cells after 2 h incubation. The antiproliferative activities of cisplatin and carboplatin (5 µM) were increased in the presence of [(WR)5C]-GdNPs (50 ?M) by 41% and 18%, respectively, after 72-h incubation in CCRF-CEM cells. The intracellular release of epirubicin, an anticancer drug, from the complex showed that 15% and 60% of the drug was released intracellularly within 12 and 48 h, respectively. This report provides insight about using a non-toxic MRI agent, gadolinium nanoparticles, for the delivery of various types of molecular cargos.
Project description:We have previously evaluated and reported numerous classes of linear and cyclic peptides containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments for intracellular delivery of multiple molecular cargos. Herein, a combination of histidine and tryptophan amino acids were designed and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable phosphopeptides and the anti-HIV drug, emtricitabine. Two new decapeptides, with linear and cyclic natures, both containing alternate tryptophan and histidine residues, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry. The peptides were characterized and purified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. These peptides did not show significant toxicity up to 100 µM in ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3) and leukemia cancer (CCRF-CEM) cells. Furthermore, the cellular uptake of a fluorescence (F’)-labeled cell-impermeable phosphopeptide (F’-GpYEEI) was enhanced in the presence of linear (WH)? and cyclic [WH]? by 2- and 8-fold, respectively, compared to the uptake of the phosphopeptide alone. The cellular uptake was not significantly changed in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. Furthermore, the intracellular uptake of the fluorescently-labeled anti-HIV drug, emtricitabine (F’-FTC), by linear (WH)? and cyclic [WH]? in SK-OV-3 cancer cell lines was found to be enhanced by 3.5- and 9-fold, respectively, compared to that of the drug alone. Fluorescent uptake experiments confirmed the localization of F’-GpYEEI-loaded cyclic [WH]? intracellularly in the SK-OV-3 cancer cell line after 3 h of incubation. Thus, these data demonstrated that [WH]? containing tryptophan and histidine enhanced the cellular uptake of F’-GpYEEI and emtricitabine.
Project description:Many of the reported arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for the enhanced delivery of drugs are linear peptides composed of more than seven arginine residues to retain the cell penetration properties. Herein, we synthesized a class of nine polyarginine peptides containing 5 and 6 arginines, namely, R5 and R6. We further explored the effect of acylation with long chain fatty acids (i.e., octanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid) and cyclization on the cell penetrating properties of the peptides. The fluorescence-labeled acylated cyclic peptide dodecanoyl-[R5] and linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) showed approximately 13.7- and 10.2-fold higher cellular uptake than that of control 5,6-carboxyfluorescein, respectively. The mechanism of the peptide internalization into cells was found to be energy-dependent endocytosis. Dodecanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R6] enhanced the intracellular uptake of a fluorescence-labeled cell-impermeable negatively charged phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI) in human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3) by 3.4-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively, as shown by flow cytometry. The cellular uptake of F'-GpYEEI in the presence of hexadecanoyl-[R5] was 9.3- and 6.0-fold higher than that in the presence of octanoyl-[R5] and dodecanoyl-[R5], respectively. Dodecanoyl-[R5] enhanced the cellular uptake of the phosphopeptide by 1.4-2.5-fold higher than the corresponding linear peptide dodecanoyl-(R5) and those of representative CPPs, such as hepta-arginine (CR7) and TAT peptide. These results showed that a combination of acylation by long chain fatty acids and cyclization on short arginine-containing peptides can improve their cell-penetrating property, possibly through efficient interaction of rigid positively charged R and hydrophobic dodecanoyl moiety with the corresponding residues in the cell membrane phospholipids.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ in a green and rapid method from the reaction of reducing linear and cyclic peptides containing tryptophan and lysine residues, (KW)5 and cyclic [KW]5, with an aqueous solution of HAuCl4 and were evaluated as cellular nanodrug delivery systems. The cyclic or linear nature of the peptide was found to determine the morphology and size of the formed peptide-AuNPs and their in vitro molecular transporting efficiency. While cyclic [KW]5-AuNPs formed sponge-like agglomerates, linear (KW)5-AuNPs demonstrated ball-shaped structures. A comparative flow cytometry study showed that the cellular uptake of fluorescence-labeled anti-HIV drugs (emtricitabine (FTC) and lamivudine (3TC)) in human leukemia (CCRF-CEM) cells, and a negatively charged cell-impermeable phosphopeptide (GpYEEI) in human ovarian adecarcinoma (SK-OV-3) cells was significantly higher in the presence of cyclic [KW]5-AuNPs than that of linear (KW)5-AuNPs, parent cyclic [KW]5, and linear (KW)5 peptides. For example, the cellular uptake of F'-GpYEEI was enhanced 12.8-fold by c[KW]5-AuNPs. Confocal microscopy revealed the localization of fluorescence-labeled-3TC in the presence of c[KW]5-AuNPs mostly in nucleus in SK-OV-3 cells after 1 h. On the other hand, l(KW)5-AuNPs delivered fluorescence-labeled-3TC in cytoplasm. These data suggest that noncell penetrating peptides can be converted to efficient molecular transporters through peptide-capped AuNPs formation.
Project description:The cellular delivery of cell-impermeable and water-insoluble molecules remains an ongoing challenge to overcome. Previously, we reported amphipathic cyclic peptides c[WR]4 and c[WR]5 consisting of alternate arginine and tryptophan residues as nuclear-targeting molecular transporters. These peptides contain an optimal balance of positive charge and hydrophobicity, which is required for interactions with the phospholipid bilayer to facilitate their application as a drug delivery system. To further optimize them, we synthesized and evaluated a multivalent tricyclic peptide as an efficient molecular transporter. The monomeric cyclic peptide building blocks were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry and cyclization in the solution and conjugated with each other through an amide bond to afford the tricyclic peptide, which demonstrated modest antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64-128 µg/mL. The tricyclic peptide was found to be nontoxic up to 30 µM in the breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231). The presence of tricyclic peptide enhanced cellular uptakes of fluorescently-labeled phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI, 18-fold), anti-HIV drugs (lamivudine (F'-3TC), emtricitabine (F'-FTC), and stavudine (F'-d4T), 1.7-12-fold), and siRNA (3.3-fold) in the MDA-MB-231 cell lines.
Project description:Folate-targeted cationic magnetoliposomes (FTMLs) have been prepared with coencapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) and anionic superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) with 5 nm ?-Fe(2)O(3) cores and 16 nm hydrodynamic diameters. NP encapsulation (89%) was confirmed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the presence of the oppositely charged NPs did not cause liposome aggregation. The FTMLs had an average diameter of 174 ± 53 nm and existed as unilamellar and cup-shaped liposomes, which was attributed to dissimilar lipid packing parameters and the presence of PEG-lipids. A 3-fold increase in DOX release was achieved over 2 hours when the encapsulated SPIO NPs were heated by an alternating current electromagnetic field operating at radio frequencies (RF). Results with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), which have been shown to exhibit high folate receptor (FR) expression, confirmed FTML surface binding and cellular uptake. In contrast, no uptake was observed for lower FR-expressing human breast carcinoma cells (ZR-75-1).This study discusses the design and cellular uptake of multifunctional folate-targeted cationic magnetoliposomes enabling doxorubicin delivery and SPIO labeling.
Project description:A number of cyclic peptides including [FR]4, [FK]4, [WR]4, [CR]4, [AK]4, and [WK]n (n = 3-5) containing L-amino acids were produced using solid-phase peptide synthesis. We hypothesized that an optimal balance of hydrophobicity and charge could generate self-assembled nanostructures in aqueous solution by intramolecular and/or intermolecular interactions. Among all the designed peptides, [WR]n (n = 3-5) generated self-assembled vesicle-like nanostructures at room temperature as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and/or dynamic light scattering (DLS). This class of peptides represents the first report of surfactant-like cyclic peptides that self-assemble into nanostructures. A plausible mechanistic insight into the self-assembly of [WR]5 was obtained by molecular modeling studies. Modified [WR]5 analogues, such as [WMeR]5, [WR(Me)2]5, [WMeR(Me)2]5, and [WdR]5, exhibited different morphologies to [WR]5 as shown by TEM observations. [WR]5 exhibited a significant stabilizing effect for generated silver nanoparticles and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. These studies established a new class of surfactant-like cyclic peptides that self-assembled into nanostructures and could have potential applications for the stabilization of silver nanoparticles and protein biomolecules.