Bronsted acid cocatalysts in photocatalytic radical addition of ?-amino C-H bonds across Michael acceptors.
ABSTRACT: In marked contrast to the variety of strategies available for oxidation and nucleophilic functionalization of methylene groups adjacent to amines, relatively few approaches for modification of this position with electrophilic reaction partners have been reported. In the course of an investigation of the reactions of photogenerated ?-amino radicals with electrophiles, we made the surprising observation that the efficiency of radical photoredox functionalization of N-aryl tetrahydroisoquinolines is dramatically increased in the presence of a Brønsted acid cocatalyst. Optimized conditions provide high yields and efficient conversion to radical addition products for a range of structurally modified tetrahydroisoquinolines and enones using convenient household light sources and commercially available Ru(bpy)3Cl2 as a photocatalyst. Our investigations into the origins of this unexpected additive effect have demonstrated that the carbon-carbon bond-forming step is accelerated by TFA and is a rare example of Brønsted acid catalysis in radical addition reactions. Moreover, a significant conclusion arising from these studies is the finding that product formation is dominated by radical chain processes and not by photocatalyst turnover. Together, these findings have important implications for the future design and mechanistic evaluation of photocatalytic radical processses.
Project description:For a high-performance cocatalyst-modified photocatalyst, an effective interfacial separation of photogenerated electron from its corresponding holes and its following reduction reaction at the active sites are highly required. However, it is difficult for a single-component cocatalyst to simultaneously realize the crucial functions. In this study, an effective interfacial transfer of photogenerated electrons and its following rapid oxygen-reduction can be easily realized in a dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst, where the rGO nanosheets function as an electron-transfer mediator for the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons from the TiO2 surface while the Fe(III) cocatalyst serves as an electron-reduction active site to promote the following interfacial oxygen reduction. In this case, the rGO nanosheets were firstly loaded on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface by a hydrothermal method and then the Fe(III) cocatalyst was further modified on the rGO nanosheets by an impregnation method to prepare the Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst. It was found that the dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst showed an obviously higher photocatalytic performance than the naked TiO2 and single-cocatalyst modified photocatalysts (such as Fe(III)/TiO2 and rGO-TiO2) owing to the synergistic effect of rGO and Fe(III) bi-cocatalysts. The present work can provide some new insights for the smart design of high-efficiency photocatalytic materials.
Project description:Visible-light mediated aerobic dehydrogenation of N-heterocyclic compounds is a reaction with enormous potential for application. Herein, we report the first complete aerobic dehydrogenation pathway to large-scale production of isoquinolines. The discovery of this visible light photoredox reaction was enabled through the combination of mathematical simulations and real-time quantitative mass spectrometry screening. The theoretical calculations showed that hyper-conjugation, the main underlying factor hindering the aerobic oxidation of tetrahydroisoquinolines, is relieved both by π- and σ-donating substituents. This mechanistic insight provided a novel photocatalytic route based on N-substituted auxiliaries that facilitated the conversion of tetrahydroisoquinolines into the corresponding isoquinolines in just three simple steps (yield 71.7% in bulk-solution phase), using unmodified Ru(bpy)3Cl2 photocatalyst, sun energy, atmospheric O2, and at ambient temperature.
Project description:Photocatalytic reactions of enones using metal polypyridyl complexes proceed by very different reaction manifolds in the presence of either Lewis or Brønsted acid additives. Previous work from our lab demonstrated that photocatalytic [2+2] cycloadditions of enones required the presence of a Lewis acidic co-catalyst, presumably to activate the enone and stabilize the key radical anion intermediate. On the other hand, Brønsted acid activators alter this reactivity and instead promote reductive cyclization reactions of a variety of aryl and aliphatic enones via a neutral radical intermediate. These two distinct reactive intermediates give rise to transformations differing in the connectivity, stereochemistry, and oxidation state of their products. In addition, this reductive coupling method introduces a novel approach to the tin-free generation of ?-ketoradicals that react with high diastereoselectivity and with the high functional group compatibility typical of radical cyclization reactions.
Project description:The cyclization of trans-?-hydroxy enones to cyclic mixed ketals routinely requires superstoichiometric strong acid. By operating under a photoisomerization regime, the cyclization of trans-?-hydroxy enones proceeds under catalytic Brønsted acid to provide cyclic ketals or unsaturated spiroketals in a highly diastereoselective fashion. A one-pot, two-step protocol was thus developed to provide cyclic methoxy ketals with a free ?-hydroxy group for future functionalization.
Project description:Photoredox catalysis provides many green opportunities for radical-mediated synthetic transformations. However, the determination of the underlying mechanisms has been challenging due to lack of quantitative methods that can be easily implemented in synthetic labs, where this research tends to be centered. We report here on the development, characterization and calibration of a novel actinometer based on the photocatalyst tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride (Ru(bpy)3Cl2). By using the same molecule as the photocatalyst and the actinometer, we eliminate problems associated with matching sample spectral distribution, lamp-sample spectral overlap and other problems intrinsic to doing quantitative photochemistry in a laboratory that has little expertise in this area. In order to validate our actinometer system in determining the quantum yield of a Ru(bpy)3Cl2 photosensitized reaction, we test the Ru(bpy)3Cl2 catalyzed oxidation of benzhydrol to benzophenone as a model chain reaction. We also revive the rotating sector method by updating the technique for modern LED technologies and demonstrate how intermittent illumination on the timescale of milliseconds to seconds can help probe a chain reaction, using the benzhydrol to benzophenone oxidation to validate the technique. We envision these methods to have great implications in the field of photoredox catalysis, providing researchers with valuable research tools.
Project description:The use of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of plasmonic metal nanocomposites to promote photocarrier generation is a strongly emerging field for improving the catalytic performance under visible-light irradiation. In this study, a novel plasmonic photocatalyst, AuPt/N⁻TiO₂, was prepared via a photo-deposition⁻calcination technique. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) were used herein to harvest visible-light energy via the SPR effect, and Pt NPs were employed as a cocatalyst for trapping the energetic electrons from the semiconductor, leading to a high solar-energy conversion efficiency. The Au₂Pt₂/N⁻TiO₂ catalyst, herein with the irradiation wavelength in the range 460⁻800 nm, exhibited a reaction rate ~24 times greater than that of TiO₂, and the apparent quantum yield at 500 nm reached 5.86%, indicative of the successful functionalization of N⁻TiO₂ by the integration of Au plasmonic NPs and the Pt cocatalyst. Also, we investigated the effects of two parameters, light source intensity and wavelength, in photocatalytic reactions. It is indicated that the as-prepared AuPt/N⁻TiO₂ photocatalyst can cause selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible-light irradiation with a markedly enhanced selectivity and yield.
Project description:Here we report a ternary catalyst system for the intramolecular hydroamidation of unactivated olefins using simple N-aryl amide derivatives. Amide activation in these reactions occurs via concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mediated by an excited state iridium complex and weak phosphate base to furnish a reactive amidyl radical that readily adds to pendant alkenes. A series of H-atom, electron, and proton transfer events with a thiophenol cocatalyst furnish the product and regenerate the active forms of the photocatalyst and base. Mechanistic studies indicate that the amide substrate can be selectively homolyzed via PCET in the presence of the thiophenol, despite a large difference in bond dissociation free energies between these functional groups.
Project description:Improvement of water splitting performance of AgTaO3 (BG 3.4 eV) of a valence-band-controlled photocatalyst was examined. Survey of cocatalysts revealed that a Rh0.5Cr1.5O3 cocatalyst was much more effective than Cr2O3, RuO2, NiO and Pt for water splitting into H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric amount. The optimum loading amount of the Rh0.5Cr1.5O3 cocatalyst was 0.2 wt%. The apparent quantum yield (AQY) at 340 nm of the optimized Rh0.5Cr1.5O3(0.2 wt%)/AgTaO3 photocatalyst reached to about 40%. Rh0.5Cr1.5O3(0.2 wt%)/AgTaO3 gave a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) of 0.13% for photocatalytic water splitting under simulated sunlight irradiation. Bubbles of gasses evolved by the solar water splitting were visually observed under atmospheric pressure at room temperature.
Project description:Functionalization of ?-C-H bonds of tertiary amines to build various ?-C-X bonds has become a mainstream in synthetic chemistry nowadays. However, due to lack of fundamental knowledge on ?-C-H bond strength as an energetic guideline, rational exploration of new synthetic methodologies remains a far-reaching anticipation. Herein, we report a unique hydricity-based approach to establish the first integrated energetic scale covering both the homolytic and heterolytic energies of ?-C-H bonds for 45 representative tertiary amines and their radical cations. As showcased from the studies on tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) by virtue of their thermodynamic criteria, the feasibility and mechanisms of THIQ oxidation were deduced, which, indeed, were found to correspond well with experimental observations. This integrated scale provides a good example to relate bond energetics with mechanisms and thermodynamic reactivity of amine ?-C-H functionalization and hence, may be referenced for analyzing similar structure-property problems for various substrates.
Project description:The Ir-catalyzed highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of benzoxazinones and derivatives was successfully developed with N-methylated ZhaoPhos L5 as the ligand, which may display a new activation mode with a single anion-binding interaction among the substrate, cocatalyst Brønsted acid and ligand. This synthetic approach afforded a series of chiral dihydrobenzoxazinones and derivatives with excellent results (>99% conversion, 88-96% yields, 91->99% ee, up to 40 500 TON). A key to success is the utilization of a strong Brønsted acid as the cocatalyst, such as hydrochloric acid, to form a possible single anion-binding interaction with the substrate and catalyst, which greatly contributed to the improvement of reactivity and enantioselectivity. Importantly, a creative and efficient synthetic route was developed to construct the important intermediate for the potential IgE/IgG receptor modulator through our catalytic methodology system.