Rotational isomers of N-methyl-N-arylacetamides and their derived enolates: implications for asymmetric Hartwig oxindole cyclizations.
ABSTRACT: The rotational preferences of N-(2-bromo-4,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl 2-phenylpropanamide were studied as a model of precursors for Hartwig asymmetric oxindole cyclizations. The atropisomers of this compound were separated by flash chromatography, and then the enantiomers were resolved and the interconversions of the stereocenter and the N-Ar axis were studied. Under thermal conditions, the axis is very stable. Under the basic conditions of the Hartwig cyclization, both the stereocenter and the chiral axis equilibrate via enolate formation. The N-Ar rotation barrier of a 2-phenylacetamide analogue was reduced from 31 kcal mol(-1) in the precursor to 17 kcal mol(-1) in the enolate. Reasons for this dramatic barrier reduction and implications of both N-Ar and amide C-N rotations for Hartwig cyclizations are discussed.
Project description:Radical cyclizations (Bu(3)SnH, Et(3)B/air, rt) of racemic alpha-halo-ortho-alkenyl anilides provide 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2-ones in high yield. Cyclizations of enantioenriched precursors occur in similarly high yields and with transfer of axial chirality to the new stereocenter of the products with exceptionally high fidelity (often >95%). Single and tandem cyclizations of alpha-halo-ortho-alkenyl anilides bearing an additional substituent on the alpha-carbon occur with high chirality transfer and high diastereoselectivity. Straightforward models are proposed to interpret both the chirality transfer and diastereoselectivity aspects. These first examples of an approach for axial chiral transfer from a reactive species in the amide to an acceptor suggest broad potential for extension both within and beyond radical reactions.
Project description:A practical approach is introduced for the rapid determination of 13C kinetic isotope effects that utilizes a “designed” reactant with two identical reaction sites. The mechanism of the Buchwald–Hartwig amination of tert-butylbromobenzene with primary and secondary amines is investigated under synthetically relevant catalytic conditions using traditional intermolecular 13C NMR methodology at natural abundance. Switching to 1,4-dibromobenzene, a symmetric bromoarene as the designed reactant, the same experimental 13C KIEs are determined using an intramolecular KIE approach. This rapid methodology for KIE determination requires substantially less material and time compared to traditional approaches. Details of the Buchwald–Hartwig amination mechanism are investigated under varying synthetic conditions, namely a variety of halides and bases. The enantioselectivity-determining step of the l-proline catalyzed aldol reaction is also evaluated using this approach. We expect this mechanistic methodology to gain traction among synthetic chemists as a practical technique to rapidly obtain high-resolution information regarding the transition structure of synthetically relevant reactions under catalytic conditions. Graphical Abstract
Project description:Esters are valuable electrophiles for cross-coupling due to their ubiquity and ease of synthesis. However, harsh conditions are traditionally required for the effective cross-coupling of ester substrates. Utilizing a recently discovered precatalyst, Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig reactions involving cleavage of the C(acyl)-O bond of aryl esters that proceed under mild conditions are reported. The Pd(II) precatalyst is highly active because it is reduced to the Pd(0) active species more rapidly than previous precatalysts.
Project description:Using <i>N</i>-sulfonyl triazoles as substrates, compounds as diverse as 2-imino tetrahydrofurans, 13- and 15-membered ring aza-macrocycles can be prepared selectively <i>via</i> formal [1 + 4], [5 + 4 + 4] and [3 + 4 + 4 + 4] condensations of ?-imino carbenes and oxetanes under Rh(ii)-catalysis or thermal activation. Spirocyclic N-heterocycles are also accessible by means of Buchwald-Hartwig and Pictet-Spengler cyclizations. By reaction control, substrate selection or further derivatization, a large variety of chemical structures is thus achievable. Finally, using triazoles reacting under thermal activation, interesting mechanistic insight was obtained.
Project description:The differences in catalytic activity between two catalyst ligands of Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction, BrettPhos versus RuPhos, were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The reaction process consists of three consecutive steps: (1) oxidative addition, (2) deprotonation, and (3) reductive elimination. Among them, the rate-limiting step of Pd-BrettPhos catalytic system is oxidative addition but that of Pd-RuPhos catalytic system is reductive elimination due to their differences in steric hindrance and electronic structure. It was also revealed that amines with large-size substituents or halides with electron-withdrawing groups would reduce the activation energy barriers of the reactions. The insights gained from the calculations of the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction would be helpful for the rational designing of new catalysts and reactions.
Project description:The enantioselective total synthesis of the rearranged spongian diterpene aplyviolene has been completed in 14 steps from the known hydroazulenone 8. The key junction of the hydrocarbon and oxygenated fragments to form the critical C8 quaternary carbon stereocenter and set the stage for elaborating the delicate bicyclic lactone functionality was accomplished in high yield and exquisite stereoselectivity by Michael addition of an enantioenriched hydroazulenone enolate to an enantiopure ?-bromocyclopentenone.
Project description:Despite the widespread and increasing usage of Pd-catalyzed C-N cross couplings, finding good conditions for these reactions can be challenging. Practitioners mostly rely on few methodology studies or anecdotal experience. This is surprising, since the advent of data-driven experimentation and the large amount of knowledge in databases allow for data-driven insight. In this work, we address this by analyzing more than 62 000 Buchwald-Hartwig couplings gathered from CAS, Reaxys and the USPTO. Our meta-analysis of the reaction performance generates data-driven cheatsheets for reaction condition recommendation. It also provides an interactive tool to find rarer ligands with optimal performance regarding user-selected substrate properties. With this we give practitioners promising starting points. Furthermore, we study bias and diversity in the literature and summarize the current state of the reaction data, including its pitfalls. Hence, this work will also be useful for future data-driven developments such as the optimization of reaction conditions <i>via</i> machine learning.
Project description:Site- and regiocontrolled Au-catalyzed allene carbocyclizations furnish highly substituted cyclopentenes in >1:1 dr. Significant substitution on the substrate is tolerated, with potential to install five contiguous stereocenters after alkene functionalization. Major challenges include identifying a Au/Cu catalyst that controls both the relative rates of allene epimerization/cyclization and the facial selectivity in addition of a metal enolate to the allene. Experiments to achieve stereodivergent cyclizations and transform key cyclopentenes into useful synthetic building blocks are described.
Project description:The combination of biocatalysis and chemo-catalysis increasingly offers chemists access to more diverse chemical architectures. Here, we describe the combination of a toolbox of chiral-amine-producing biocatalysts with a Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling reaction, affording a variety of ?-chiral aniline derivatives. The use of a surfactant allowed reactions to be performed sequentially in the same flask, preventing the palladium catalyst from being inhibited by the high concentrations of ammonia, salts, or buffers present in the aqueous media in most cases. The methodology was further extended by combining with a dual-enzyme biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing cascade in one pot to allow for the conversion of a racemic alcohol to a chiral aniline.