IL-4R? on CD4+ T cells plays a pathogenic role in respiratory syncytial virus reinfection in mice infected initially as neonates.
ABSTRACT: RSV is the major cause of severe bronchiolitis in infants, and severe bronchiolitis as a result of RSV is associated with subsequent asthma development. A biased Th2 immune response is thought to be responsible for neonatal RSV pathogenesis; however, molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that IL-4R? is up-regulated in vitro on human CD4(+) T cells from cord blood following RSV stimulation and in vivo on mouse pulmonary CD4(+) T cells upon reinfection of mice, initially infected as neonates. Th cell-specific deletion of Il4ra attenuated Th2 responses and abolished the immunopathophysiology upon reinfection, including airway hyper-reactivity, eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction in mice infected initially as neonates. These findings support a pathogenic role for IL-4R? on Th cells following RSV reinfection of mice initially infected as neonates; more importantly, our data from human cells suggest that the same mechanism occurs in humans.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants worldwide. Severe RSV infections in infants cause bronchiolitis, wheeze, and/or cough and significantly increase the risk for developing asthma. RSV pathogenesis is thought to be due to a Th2-type immune response initiated in response to RSV infection, specifically in the infant. Using a neonatal mouse system as an appropriate model for human infants, we sought to determine whether local inhibition of IL-4R? expression during primary RSV infection in the neonate would prevent Th2-skewed responses to secondary RSV infection and improve long-term pulmonary function. To reduce IL-4R? expression, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) specific for IL-4R? were administered intranasally to neonatal mice at the time of primary infection. Mice were initially infected with RSV at 1 wk of age and were reinfected at 6 wk of age. Administration of IL-4R? ASOs during primary RSV infection in neonatal mice abolished the pulmonary dysfunction normally observed following reinfection in the adult. This ablation of pulmonary dysfunction correlated with a persistent rebalancing of the Th cell compartment with decreased Th2 responses (i.e., reduced goblet cell hyperplasia, Th2 cells, and cytokine secretion) and increased Th1 responses (i.e., elevated Th1 cell numbers and type I Abs and cytokines). Our data support our hypothesis that a reduction in the Th2 immune response during primary infection in neonates prevents Th2-mediated pulmonary pathology initially and upon reinfection and further suggest that vaccine strategies incorporating IL-4R? ASOs may be of significant benefit to infants.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants may be followed by the development of asthma-like symptoms. Age at first infection dictates consequences upon reinfection. Reinfection of mice initially exposed as neonates to RSV enhanced development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic inflammation, and mucus hyperproduction. RSV lower respiratory tract disease is associated with activation of the leukotriene pathway.<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the effects of montelukast (MK), a cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) receptor antagonist, in primary and secondary RSV-infected newborn and adult mice.<h4>Methods</h4>BALB/c mice were infected with RSV at 1 week (neonate) or 6 to 8 weeks (adult) of age and reinfected 5 weeks later. MK was administered 1 day before the initial infection and through Day 6 after infection. Seven days after primary or secondary infection, airway function was assessed by lung resistance to increasing doses of inhaled methacholine; lung inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were monitored.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>RSV infection induced cysLT release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. MK decreased RSV-induced AHR, airway inflammation, and increased IFN-gamma production in primary infected adult and neonatal mice. MK, administered during initial infection of neonates but not during secondary infection, prevented subsequent enhancement of AHR, airway eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction upon reinfection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MK attenuated the initial responses to primary RSV infection in both age groups and altered the consequences of RSV reinfection in mice initially infected as neonates. These data support an important role for cysLT in RSV-induced AHR and inflammation.
Project description:Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis has been associated with a mixed "Th1" and "Th2" cytokine storm. We hypothesized that differentiation of "alternatively activated" macrophages (AA-M phi) would mediate the resolution of RSV-induced lung injury. RSV induced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 by murine lung and peritoneal macrophages, IL-4R alpha/STAT6-dependent AA-M phi differentiation, and significantly enhanced inflammation in the lungs of IL-4R alpha(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wildtype macrophages to IL-4R alpha(-/-) mice restored RSV-inducible AA-M phi phenotype and diminished lung pathology. RSV-infected Toll-like receptor (TLR)4(-/-) and interferon (IFN)-beta(-/-) macrophages and mice also failed to express AA-M phi markers, but exhibited sustained proinflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IL-12) in vitro and in vivo and epithelial damage in vivo. TLR4 signaling is required for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression, a DNA-binding protein that induces AA-M phi genes, whereas IFN-beta regulates IL-4, IL-13, IL-4R alpha, and IL-10 expression in response to RSV. RSV-infected cotton rats treated with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor increased expression of lung AA-M phi. These data suggest new treatment strategies for RSV that promote AA-M phi differentiation.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of infant hospitalizations and severe RSV infections are a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for RSV induced immunopathophysiology remain elusive. Using an age-appropriate mouse model of RSV, we show that IL-33 plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of severe RSV, which is associated with higher group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) specifically in neonates. Infection with RSV induced rapid IL-33 expression and an increase in ILC2 numbers in the lungs of neonatal mice; this was not observed in adult mice. Blocking IL-33 with antibodies or using an IL-33 receptor knockout mouse during infection was sufficient to inhibit RSV immunopathogenesis (i.e., airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 inflammation, eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction); whereas administration of IL-33 to adult mice during RSV infection was sufficient to induce RSV disease. Additionally, elevated IL-33 and IL-13 were observed in nasal aspirates from infants hospitalized with RSV; these cytokines declined during convalescence. In summary, IL-33 is necessary, either directly or indirectly, to induce ILC2s and the Th2 biased immunopathophysiology observed following neonatal RSV infection. This study provides a mechanism involving IL-33 and ILC2s in RSV mediated human asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent studies revealed a critical role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from epithelial cells and OX40 ligand (OX40L) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) in T(H)2 priming and polarization.<h4>Objectives</h4>We sought to determine the importance of the TSLP-OX40L axis in neonatal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were initially infected with RSV as neonates or adults and reinfected 5 weeks later. Anti-OX40L or anti-TSLP were administered during primary or secondary infection. Outcomes included assessment of airway function and inflammation and expression of OX40L, TSLP, and IL-12.<h4>Results</h4>OX40L was expressed mainly on CD11c(+)MHC class II (MHCII)(+)CD11b(+) DCs but not CD103(+) DCs. Treatment of neonates with OX40L antibody during primary RSV infection prevented the subsequent enhancement of airway hyperresponsiveness and the development of airway eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction on reinfection. Administration of anti-TSLP before neonatal RSV infection reduced the accumulation of lung DCs, decreased OX40L expression on lung DCs, and attenuated the enhancement of airway responses after reinfection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In mice initially infected as neonates, TSLP expression induced by RSV infection is an important upstream event that controls OX40L expression, lung DC migration, and T(H)2 polarization, accounting for the enhanced response on reinfection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe bronchiolitis in infants worldwide. The most severe RSV diseases occur between 2 and 6 months-of-age, so pediatric vaccination will have to be started within the first weeks after birth, when the immune system is prone to Th2 responses that may turn deleterious upon exposure to the virus. So far, the high risk to prime for immunopathological responses in infants has hampered the development of vaccine. In the present study we investigated the safety and efficacy of ring-nanostructures formed by the recombinant nucleoprotein N of hRSV (N(SRS)) as a mucosal vaccine candidate against RSV in BALB/c neonates, which are highly sensitive to immunopathological Th2 imprinting. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single intranasal administration of N(SRS) with detoxified E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G) to 5-7 day old neonates provided a significant reduction of the viral load after an RSV challenge at five weeks of age. However, neonatal vaccination also generated an enhanced lung infiltration by neutrophils and eosinophils following the RSV challenge. Analysis of antibody subclasses and cytokines produced after an RSV challenge or a boost administration of the vaccine suggested that neonatal vaccination induced a Th2 biased local immune memory. This Th2 bias and the eosinophilic reaction could be prevented by adding CpG to the vaccine formulation, which, however did not prevent pulmonary inflammation and neutrophil infiltration upon viral challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, protective vaccination against RSV can be achieved in neonates but requires an appropriate combination of adjuvants to prevent harmful Th2 imprinting.
Project description:While 30%-70% of RSV-infected infants develop bronchiolitis, 2% require hospitalization. It is not clear why disease severity differs among healthy, full-term infants; however, virus titers, inflammation, and Th2 bias are proposed explanations. While TLR4 is associated with these disease phenotypes, the role of this receptor in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis is controversial. Here, we evaluated the interaction between TLR4 and environmental factors in RSV disease and defined the immune mediators associated with severe illness. Two independent populations of infants with RSV bronchiolitis revealed that the severity of RSV infection is determined by the TLR4 genotype of the individual and by environmental exposure to LPS. RSV-infected infants with severe disease exhibited a high GATA3/T-bet ratio, which manifested as a high IL-4/IFN-? ratio in respiratory secretions. The IL-4/IFN-? ratio present in infants with severe RSV is indicative of Th2 polarization. Murine models of RSV infection confirmed that LPS exposure, Tlr4 genotype, and Th2 polarization influence disease phenotypes. Together, the results of this study identify environmental and genetic factors that influence RSV pathogenesis and reveal that a high IL-4/IFN-? ratio is associated with severe disease. Moreover, these molecules should be explored as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis has been associated with deficient IFN-gamma production in humans, but the role of this cytokine in determining the outcome of reinfection is unknown.To define the role of IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lung histopathology in mice.Wild-type (WT) and IFN-gamma knockout mice were infected with RSV in the newborn or weaning stages and reinfected 5 weeks later. Airway responses were assessed on Day 6 after the primary or secondary infection.Both WT and IFN-gamma knockout mice developed similar levels of AHR and airway inflammation after primary infection. After reinfection, IFN-gamma knockout mice, but not WT mice, developed AHR, airway eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction. Intranasal administration of IFN-gamma during primary infection but not during reinfection prevented the development of these altered airway responses on reinfection in IFN-gamma knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of WT T cells into IFN-gamma knockout mice before primary infection restored IFN-gamma production in the lungs and prevented the development of altered airway responses on reinfection. Treatment of mice with IFN-gamma during primary neonatal infection prevented the enhancement of AHR and the development of airway eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction on reinfection.IFN-gamma production during primary RSV infection is critical to the development of protection against AHR and lung histopathology on reinfection. Provision of IFN-gamma during primary infection in infancy may be a potential therapeutic approach to alter the course of RSV-mediated long-term sequelae.
Project description:Vaccine-induced immunity has been shown to alter the course of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection both in murine models and in humans. To elucidate which mechanisms underlie the effect of vaccine-induced immunity on the course of RSV infection, transcription profiles in the lungs of RSV-infected mice were examined by microarray analysis. Three models were used: RSV reinfection as a model for natural immunity, RSV challenge after formalin-inactivated RSV vaccination as a model for vaccine-enhanced disease, and RSV challenge following vaccination with recombinant RSV virus lacking the G gene (DeltaG-RSV) as a model for vaccine-induced immunity. Gene transcription profiles, histopathology, and viral loads were analyzed at 1, 2, and 5 days after RSV challenge. On the first 2 days after challenge, all mice displayed an expression pattern in the lung similar of that found in primary infection, showing a strong innate immune response. On day 5 after RSV reinfection or after challenge following DeltaG-RSV vaccination, the innate immune response was waning. In contrast, in mice with vaccine-enhanced disease, the innate immune response 5 days after RSV challenge was still present even though viral replication was diminished. In addition, only in this group was Th2 gene expression induced. These findings support a hypothesis that vaccine-enhanced disease is mediated by prolonged innate immune responses and Th2 polarization in the absence of viral replication.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production. In the respiratory tract of neonates with severe RSV-induced acute bronchiolitis, RSV-infected nBreg cell frequencies correlated with increased viral load and decreased blood memory Th1 cell frequencies. Thus, the frequency of nBreg cells is predictive of the severity of acute bronchiolitis disease and nBreg cell activity may constitute an early-life host response that favors microbial pathogenesis.