Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling controlled by a nuclear receptor coactivator, amplified in breast cancer 1.
ABSTRACT: The steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) as well as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are frequently overexpressed in epithelial tumors, and their expression is associated with poor prognosis. However, a direct role of AIB1 in EGF signaling has not been determined. To address this, we reduced endogenous AIB1 levels using RNA interference in lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that a knockdown of AIB1 levels resulted in a loss of the growth response of these cell lines to EGF. Further analysis revealed that the depletion of AIB1 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR at multiple residues both at autophosphorylation and Src kinase phosphorylation sites. AIB1 knockdown did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinases, platelet-derived growth factor receptor and HER3, or overall tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. However, EGF-dependent phosphorylation of HER2 was decreased. EGFR levels and membrane trafficking were not changed by AIB1 depletion, but there was less recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins to the EGFR. This led to a substantial reduction in EGF-induced phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase but no significant change in the activation of AKT. Vanadate treatment of cells revealed that the reduction in EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation is dependent in part on changes in cellular phosphatase activity. We propose that a portion of the oncogenic effect of AIB1 could be through control of EGFR and HER2 activity and subsequent modulation of cellular signaling pathways.
Project description:Overexpression and activation of the steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) have been shown to have a critical role in oncogenesis and are required for both steroid and growth factor signaling in epithelial tumors. Here, we report a new mechanism for activation of SRC coactivators. We demonstrate regulated tyrosine phosphorylation of AIB1/SRC-3 at a C-terminal tyrosine residue (Y1357) that is phosphorylated after insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, or estrogen treatment of breast cancer cells. Phosphorylated Y1357 is increased in HER2/neu (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) mammary tumor epithelia and is required to modulate AIB1/SRC-3 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor B, NF-kappaB, and AP-1-dependent promoters. c-Abl (v-Abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) tyrosine kinase directly phosphorylates AIB1/SRC-3 at Y1357 and modulates the association of AIB1 with c-Abl, ERalpha, the transcriptional cofactor p300, and the methyltransferase coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CARM1. AIB1/SRC-3-dependent transcription and phenotypic changes, such as cell growth and focus formation, can be reversed by an Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib. Thus, the phosphorylation state of Y1357 can function as a molecular on/off switch and facilitates the cross talk between hormone, growth factor, and intracellular kinase signaling pathways in cancer.
Project description:Overexpression of the oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) induces mammary tumorigenesis in mice. In breast cancer, high levels of AIB1/SRC-3 and the growth factor receptor HER2/neu predict resistance to endocrine therapy and poor outcome. However, a mechanistic relationship between AIB1/SRC-3 and HER2/neu in the development of breast cancer has not been shown. Here, we show that deletion of one allele of SRC-3 significantly delays Neu-induced mammary tumor development in mice. Homozygous deletion of SRC-3 in mice completely prevents Neu-induced tumor formation. By ages 3 to 4 months, Neu/SRC-3(+/-) mice exhibit a noticeable reduction in lateral side-bud formation, accompanied by reduced cellular levels of phosphorylated Neu compared with Neu/SRC-3(wt) mice. In Neu-induced tumors, high levels of SRC-3, phosphorylated Neu, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression are observed, accompanied by activation of the AKT and c-Jun NH(2) kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. In comparison, phosphorylated Neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E are significantly decreased in Neu/SRC-3(+/-) tumors, proliferation is reduced, and AKT and JNK activation is barely detectable. Our data indicate that AIB1/SRC-3 is required for HER2/neu oncogenic activity and for the phosphorylation and activation of the HER2/neu receptor. We predict that reducing AIB1/SRC-3 levels or activity in the mammary epithelium could potentiate therapies aimed at inhibiting HER2/neu signaling in breast cancer.
Project description:EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) inhibits proliferation and promotes cell migration. In TGF-beta-treated MCF10A mammary epithelial cells overexpressing HER2 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified novel Smad targets including protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type kappa (PTPRK). TGF-beta up-regulated PTPRK mRNA and RPTPkappa (receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa, the protein product encoded by the PTPRK gene) protein in tumor and nontumor mammary cells; HER2 overexpression down-regulated its expression. RNA interference (RNAi) of PTPRK accelerated cell cycle progression, enhanced response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), and abrogated TGF-beta-mediated antimitogenesis. Endogenous RPTPkappa associated with EGF receptor and HER2, resulting in suppression of basal and ErbB ligand-induced proliferation and receptor phosphorylation. In MCF10A/HER2 cells, TGF-beta enhanced cell motility, FAK phosphorylation, F-actin assembly, and focal adhesion formation and inhibited RhoA activity. These responses were abolished when RPTPkappa was eliminated by RNA interference (RNAi). In cells expressing RPTPkappa RNAi, phosphorylation of Src at Tyr527 was increased and (activating) phosphorylation of Src at Tyr416 was reduced. These data suggest that (i) RPTPkappa positively regulates Src; (ii) HER2 signaling and TGF-beta-induced RPTPkappa converge at Src, providing an adequate input for activation of FAK and increased cell motility and adhesion; and (iii) RPTPkappa is required for both the antiproliferative and the promigratory effects of TGF-beta.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts with integrins during cell spreading and motility, but little is known about the role of EGFR in these mechanosensing processes. Here we show, using two different cell lines, that in serum- and EGF-free conditions, EGFR or HER2 activity increase spreading and rigidity-sensing contractions on rigid, but not soft, substrates. Contractions peak after 15-20?min, but diminish by tenfold after 4?h. Addition of EGF at that point increases spreading and contractions, but this can be blocked by myosin-II inhibition. We further show that EGFR and HER2 are activated through phosphorylation by Src family kinases (SFK). On soft surfaces, neither EGFR inhibition nor EGF stimulation have any effect on cell motility. Thus, EGFR or HER2 can catalyse rigidity sensing after associating with nascent adhesions under rigidity-dependent tension downstream of SFK activity. This has broad implications for the roles of EGFR and HER2 in the absence of EGF both for normal and cancerous growth.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src) are critical components of the signaling pathways that are associated with breast cancer. However, the regulatory mechanism of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in these pathways remains unclear. Using the Net Phos 3.1 program for the analysis of kinase consensus motifs, we found two c-Src-mediated putative phosphorylation sites, tyrosine (Tyr, Y)-328 and Y331 on HDAC3, and generated a phospho-specific HDAC3 antibody against these sites. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation was observed in the cells expressing wild-type HDAC3 (HDAC3WT), but not in cells overexpressing phosphorylation-defective HDAC3 (HDAC3Y328/331A). Phosphorylated HDAC3 showed relatively higher deacetylase activity, and PP2, which is a c-Src inhibitor, blocked HDAC3 phosphorylation and reduced its enzymatic activity. EGF treatment resulted in HDAC3 phosphorylation in both MDA-MB-231 and EGFR-overexpressing MCF7 (MCF7-EGFR) cells, but not in MCF7 cells. Total internal reflection fluorescence analysis showed that HDAC3 was recruited to the plasma membrane following EGF stimulation. HDAC3 inhibition with either c-Src knockdown or PP2 treatment significantly ameliorated the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Altogether, our findings reveal an EGF signaling cascade involving EGFR, c-Src, and HDAC3 in breast cancer cells.
Project description:The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src and receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) have been established as collaborators in cellular signaling and their combined dysregulation plays key roles in human cancers, including breast cancer. In part due to the complexity of the biochemical network associated with the regulation of these proteins as well as their cellular functions, the role of Src in EGFR regulation remains unclear. Herein we present a new comprehensive, multi-scale dynamical model of ErbB receptor signal transduction in human mammary epithelial cells. This model, constructed manually from published biochemical literature, consists of 245 nodes representing proteins and their post-translational modifications sites, and over 1,000 biochemical interactions. Using computer simulations of the model, we find it is able to reproduce a number of cellular phenomena. Furthermore, the model predicts that overexpression of Src results in increased endocytosis of EGFR in the absence/low amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our subsequent laboratory experiments also suggest increased internalization of EGFR upon Src overexpression under EGF-deprived conditions, further supporting this model-generated hypothesis.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase receptors and integrins play essential roles in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Previously, we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of pancreatic carcinoma cells led to invasion and metastasis that was blocked by antagonists of integrin alpha(v)beta(5). Here, we show that EGF stimulates metastasis of carcinoma cells via a Src-dependent phosphorylation of p130 CAS leading to activation of Rap1, a small GTPase involved in integrin activation. Specifically, EGF receptor (EGFR)-induced Src activity leads to phosphorylation of a region within the CAS substrate domain, which is essential for Rap1 and alpha(v)beta(5) activation. This pathway induces alpha(v)beta(5)-mediated invasion and metastasis in vivo yet does not influence primary tumor growth or activation of other integrins on these cells. These findings show cross-talk between a tyrosine kinase receptor and an integrin involved in carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis and may explain in part how inhibitors of EGFR affect malignant disease.
Project description:The c-Met receptor is a potential therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Signaling interactions between c-Met and the mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been studied extensively, but signaling intermediates and biological consequences of lateral signaling to c-Met in EGFR wild-type tumors are minimally understood. Our observations indicate that delayed c-Met activation in NSCLC cell lines is initiated by wild-type EGFR, the receptor most often found in NSCLC tumors. EGFR ligands induce accumulation of activated c-Met, which begins at 8?h and continues for 48?h. This effect is accompanied by an increase in c-Met expression and phosphorylation of critical c-Met tyrosine residues without activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Gene transcription is required for delayed c-Met activation; however, phosphorylation of c-Met by EGFR occurs without production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or another secreted factor, supporting a ligand-independent mechanism. Lateral signaling is blocked by two selective c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), PF2341066 and SU11274, or with gefitinib, an EGFR TKI, suggesting kinase activity of both receptors is required for this effect. Prolonged c-Src phosphorylation is observed, and c-Src pathway is essential for EGFR to c-Met communication. Pretreatment with pan-Src family kinase inhibitors, PP2 and dasatinib, abolishes delayed c-Met phosphorylation. A c-Src dominant-negative construct reduces EGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation compared with control, further confirming a c-Src requirement. Inhibition of c-Met with PF2341066 and siRNA decreases EGF-induced phenotypes of invasion by ~86% and motility by ~81%, suggesting that a novel form of c-Met activation is utilized by EGFR to maximize these biological effects. Combined targeting of c-Met and EGFR leads to increased xenograft antitumor activity, demonstrating that inhibition of downstream and lateral signaling from the EGFR-c-Src-c-Met axis might be effective in treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway which can bypass EGFR.